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Multi-stakeholder Partnerships

       Menka Sanghvi | Reos Partners | Aug 16, 2012
       Campaigns and Advocacy Leadership Program, Oxfam GB




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Areas To Explore:


   1. Why take a multi-stakeholder approach?

   2. What are key challenges?

   3. When is a multi-stakeholder approach not suitable?




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1. Why Take a Multi-stakeholder Approach?




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Engaging Diverse Heads, Hearts and Hands


   Diversity - Why is that so valuable?

   Innovation and creativity
   Tackling challenges where the solution is unknown
   Creating systemic changes
   Making a lasting impact




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Innovation – Breaking up “Group Think”
   A group of diverse people with different ideas are more likely to be open to
   new ideas and more likely to find the right solution for the problem they are
   collectively trying to solve. It is a sharp antidote to “group think”.




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Complex Challenges – Technical vs. Adaptive




                                                                                                               Sending a rocket to the
                                                                                                                moon – example of a
                                                                                                                technical challenge.




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Systemic Ambitions


Working at a systemic level means tackling the root of the problems not just the
symptoms. This is extremely difficult. However bringing together diverse people
from across the system gives the group an ability to perceive the challenges
clearly - “systems sight”.



Systems sight -> Systems actions -> Systems change




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Lasting Impact

Diverse groups have more agency and resilience.

Why?

Implementing   solutions need a wide range of political and social capital.
Diverse groups are more likely to have diverse relationships in place into
diverse communities.
Solutions are therefore more likely to “stick”.
There is a reduced likelihood of the system reverting back to its original state
once the collaboration work is over.




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2. What Are The Key Challenges?




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Common Areas


     Challenges:

     Lack of clarity on common purpose or intention

     Not having the tough conversations needed

     Imbalance in power & lack of shared ownership

     Accountability gaps in the roles and responsibilities

     Having the right people on board throughout the journey



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Clarity of Common Purpose

        When two or more organisations collaboration, they often rush in without
         clarifying the common purpose precisely.
        Many organisations are not fully clear about their own purpose, which
         makes it difficult to collaborate effectively.

   Questions:
        If there are more than one goal, are they equally important to everyone?
         How will decisions be made about trade-offs?
        What is the shared theory of change connecting the different aspects of
         the work?

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Having Tough Conversations

 Often collaborations begin with a honeymoon phase, with strong mutual interest
 and high hopes. However this is the time to have really tough conversations
 about what exactly each partner is bringing to the table, where their skills lie,
 and what they are weak at. May need external facilitation.



                                           "Politeness is the poison of collaboration."
                                                                               -Edwin            Land




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Example of Korean Airlines


   From 1988 to 1998 Korean Airlines had a crash rate 17 times higher than
   others like American Airlines.

   .                                                                                                      Problem was not mechanical –
                                                                                                          it was cultural
                                                                                                          Cockpit crew were too polite to
                                                                                                          question authority figures directly
                                                                                                          when they noticed something
                                                                                                          wrong




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Being Aware of Power Dynamics


   All stakeholders need to take responsibility for developing awareness
   of power dynamics, and make changes where necessary, to create
   openness and transparency and create a sense of shared ownership.



   Funding has a important impact on the relationships.

   What behaviours does the funding incentivise…?




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Accountability Gaps


                                                                                “Few things in life are less efficient
                                                                                than a group of people trying to write a
                                                                                sentence. The advantage of this method
                                                                                is that you end up with something for
                                                                                which you will not be personally
                                                                                blamed.”
                                                                                - Scott Adams, Dilbert




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Having Buy-In from the Right People
  In theory:
  Multi-stakeholder partnerships are usually between organisations. To make
  the most of the comparative advantages, the multi-stakeholder group needs to
  leverage different skills, networks and resources from each organisation.


  In reality:
  •There is often a lack of buy-in from individuals outside the immediate
  partnership work. Inter-organisational silos and barriers exist.
  •Or there is as a change in leadership of the organisation and this impacts the
  level of participation of one member organisation in the group.
  •Conversely multi-stakeholder relationships might be forged at senior levels
  but commitment is not shared at middle management.

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3. When is Multi-Stakeholder Approach Not Suitable?




 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
If The Problem Can Be Solved In-House


             Honest assessment:
             If you can do the work effectively alone, then don’t collaborate.




 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
When The Right Inputs Are Missing
(or being underestimated)




 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Questions?




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Calp multistakeholder webinar 15th aug

  • 1. Multi-stakeholder Partnerships Menka Sanghvi | Reos Partners | Aug 16, 2012 Campaigns and Advocacy Leadership Program, Oxfam GB This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 2. Areas To Explore: 1. Why take a multi-stakeholder approach? 2. What are key challenges? 3. When is a multi-stakeholder approach not suitable? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 3. 1. Why Take a Multi-stakeholder Approach? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 4. Engaging Diverse Heads, Hearts and Hands Diversity - Why is that so valuable? Innovation and creativity Tackling challenges where the solution is unknown Creating systemic changes Making a lasting impact This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 5. Innovation – Breaking up “Group Think” A group of diverse people with different ideas are more likely to be open to new ideas and more likely to find the right solution for the problem they are collectively trying to solve. It is a sharp antidote to “group think”. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 6. Complex Challenges – Technical vs. Adaptive Sending a rocket to the moon – example of a technical challenge. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 7. Systemic Ambitions Working at a systemic level means tackling the root of the problems not just the symptoms. This is extremely difficult. However bringing together diverse people from across the system gives the group an ability to perceive the challenges clearly - “systems sight”. Systems sight -> Systems actions -> Systems change This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 8. Lasting Impact Diverse groups have more agency and resilience. Why? Implementing solutions need a wide range of political and social capital. Diverse groups are more likely to have diverse relationships in place into diverse communities. Solutions are therefore more likely to “stick”. There is a reduced likelihood of the system reverting back to its original state once the collaboration work is over. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 9. 2. What Are The Key Challenges? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 10. Common Areas Challenges: Lack of clarity on common purpose or intention Not having the tough conversations needed Imbalance in power & lack of shared ownership Accountability gaps in the roles and responsibilities Having the right people on board throughout the journey This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 11. Clarity of Common Purpose  When two or more organisations collaboration, they often rush in without clarifying the common purpose precisely.  Many organisations are not fully clear about their own purpose, which makes it difficult to collaborate effectively. Questions:  If there are more than one goal, are they equally important to everyone? How will decisions be made about trade-offs?  What is the shared theory of change connecting the different aspects of the work? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 12. Having Tough Conversations Often collaborations begin with a honeymoon phase, with strong mutual interest and high hopes. However this is the time to have really tough conversations about what exactly each partner is bringing to the table, where their skills lie, and what they are weak at. May need external facilitation. "Politeness is the poison of collaboration." -Edwin Land This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 13. Example of Korean Airlines From 1988 to 1998 Korean Airlines had a crash rate 17 times higher than others like American Airlines. . Problem was not mechanical – it was cultural Cockpit crew were too polite to question authority figures directly when they noticed something wrong This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 14. Being Aware of Power Dynamics All stakeholders need to take responsibility for developing awareness of power dynamics, and make changes where necessary, to create openness and transparency and create a sense of shared ownership. Funding has a important impact on the relationships. What behaviours does the funding incentivise…? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 15. Accountability Gaps “Few things in life are less efficient than a group of people trying to write a sentence. The advantage of this method is that you end up with something for which you will not be personally blamed.” - Scott Adams, Dilbert This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 16. Having Buy-In from the Right People In theory: Multi-stakeholder partnerships are usually between organisations. To make the most of the comparative advantages, the multi-stakeholder group needs to leverage different skills, networks and resources from each organisation. In reality: •There is often a lack of buy-in from individuals outside the immediate partnership work. Inter-organisational silos and barriers exist. •Or there is as a change in leadership of the organisation and this impacts the level of participation of one member organisation in the group. •Conversely multi-stakeholder relationships might be forged at senior levels but commitment is not shared at middle management. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 17. 3. When is Multi-Stakeholder Approach Not Suitable? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 18. If The Problem Can Be Solved In-House Honest assessment: If you can do the work effectively alone, then don’t collaborate. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 19. When The Right Inputs Are Missing (or being underestimated) This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  • 20. Questions? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Editor's Notes

  1. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  2. They take a lot of effort to set up – so why bother? Basic principles. What is group think? If you have ambition you have to collaboration. Or to say it the other way, if you don’t think you have to collaborate, then you may want to revisit your ambition! Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  3. Irving Janis was one of the first social psychologists to delve into groupthink, publishing a study on groupthink in the context of foreign policy decisions in 1972. He argued that groupthink was probably responsible for some of the more unwise decisions made by the United States government. What leads to group think – main factors are 1) pressure to make a decision and 2) high levels of homogenity and cohesiveness in the group. Diversity helps break that up. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  4. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  5. Need time too – long term partnerships Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  6. Some ideas stick, others die. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  7. Defining clearly the shared goal is the most critical part of a collaboration effort – cannot stress this enough! Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  8. Effective collaboration requires transparency and openness. Politeness is a great trait but not when it gets in the way of participating actively and expressing true opinions. While personal disposition contributes to it, politeness is also be caused by structural reasons. For example, organizational hierarchy can make one uncomfortable in disagreeing with a superior’s opinion. Flatten the hierarchy, and then walk the talk! Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  9. Take the example of Korean Airlines, which had a poor safety record a while back. Investigators determined that it was because of the hierarchical culture in the cockpit, coming from societal norms of respecting one’s superiors. Co-pilot always performed per captain’s instruction, instead of contributing to the decision-making and challenging decisions when appropriate. Furthermore, they found that the language itself was significantly more hierarchical that English. Now only English is allowed in the cockpit. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  10. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  11. Multi-stakeholder partnerships should have shared responsibility, risk-taking and ultimately accountability. This is difficult because of the low level of control stakeholders have on each other. They don’t “work for us”. So there has to be high levels of trust, transparency. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  12. Multi-stakeholder partnerships should have shared responsibility, risk-taking and ultimately accountability. This is difficult because of the low level of control stakeholders have on each other. They don’t “work for us”. So there has to be high levels of trust, transparency. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  13. Do not choose collaborative approaches a priori… it is not always the right approach! Sometimes we come across collaborations that are looking for a problem to solve, that is fine, as long as they realise that…. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
  14. Why not? It will be more expensive It will be harder work Make things more complicated (too many chefs) Dilute the focus (lowest common denominator) (You might still get some good PR out of it… but is that enough?) This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com
  15. Rule of thumb Resources refers to the resources required to take action, including different forms of capital such as political, social and financial; People refers to having the ‘right’ people, and the commitment, that will enable the necessary actions; while Strategies refers to plausible strategies that have been identified and can be executed; and finally intention refers to the shared intention that brings people to act together. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com
  16. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Adam Kahane, Reos Partners, www.reospartners.com, kahane@reospartners.com