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POWERANALYSIs,
Tocs and Political
Economy Analysis
CALP webinar
December 2015
Page 2
or
Page 3
Agenda
• Re-cap on HCH & Power from Module 1
• The Power Cube in Practice
• Power Analysis Examples
 Benefits and challenges
• Introducing Theories of Change
• Political Economy Analysis
Page 4
Re-cap HCH and Power
• Putting power at the centre of our thinking: political
power, economic, psychological, religious and cultural
and who & what drives change
• Transformative change – i.e. sustainable changes in
power relationships in the lives of poor people
• Achieving change involves using power and affecting
power relations and putting power at the centre of all our
influencing strategies
Page 5
When do you analyse your context?
• At the beginning to ensure your programme:
- takes account of the external context
- establishes why change is necessary and what that change
should be (your ToC)
• Once you have established your main change
objectives and who the specific targets of your
influencing work are – go deeper
• Be alert to changes in the external environment
throughout your influencing work
Page 6
When analysing the external context it is
important to:
• Grapple with complexity
• Deepen our understanding of power, power
relationships, institutions
• Understand the interaction between political and
economic processes and the trends in distribution of
power and wealth – (see political economy analysis)
• Work out your theory or theories of change in order to
decide HOW to go about your programmes and WHO to
work with
Page 7
The iterative advocacy planning process
External context & How Change Happens
Defined Problem
Proposed Solution/Overall Theory of Change
SMART Objectives/Outcomes
Power analysis
Strategies & Tactics
Theory of Change
Plan of actions with Timeline
Resources required
MEL Plan & Risk
Alliances
Who to collaborate with?
Targets
Who to influence?
Credible research
Policy analysis and
development
Lobbying
Policy Dialogue
Citizens voice
Media
Alliances
Popular mobilisation
Page 8
Stories of Change
Page 9
The four types of power
• Power over: the power of the strong over the weak,
including the power to exclude others
• Power to: the capability to decide actions and carry them
out
• Power with: collective power, through organisation,
solidarity and joint action
• Power within: personal self-confidence, often linked to
culture, religion or other aspects of identity, which
influences the thoughts and actions that appear legitimate
or acceptable.
Page 10
Adapted from Gender at
Work
Community
Household
National
Global
Individual Change
Formal
Systemic Change
Informal
Women’ s access
to resources
Formal institutions,
laws, practicesCultural norms,
values, practices
Women’ s and men’ s
consciousness
A framework for looking at
gender and power
The Power Cube
Page 12
Power Analysis for Change
Page 13
POWER and STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE
• http://www.powercube.net/strategize-and-act/strategies-and-
forms-of-power/
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Examples of power analysis
Power Mapping
Page 25
Power Mapping
What is a 'power analysis map’? Why do one?
• Understand the networks and relationships between
people and institutions – who has the direct power to
deliver the change you want, who can influence them?
i.e.
• Who makes decisions concerning your objective?
• How are these decisions made?
• Who can influence the decision making process and
those with the power to bring about the change you
want?
• Allies and opponents? What are their interests?
Page 26
Power Mapping cont.
• More than way to cut a cake!
• So a few different tools to establish:
- the stakeholders for your advocacy objective(s)
- their degree of power to deliver the change you want
- who has influence over who.
Page 27
Power Power mapping grid
High
Influence
Medium
Influence
Low
Influence
Blocker Floater Champion
Page 28
Page 29
Visual power maps
Page 30
Power mapping at global level
Progressive
G77, incl.
LDCs e.g.
Bangladesh
*Adapted from graphic developed by J. Morgan
(E3G) for CAN-International / GCCA
Annex: Map of key players: Power v. ambition*
More powerfulLess powerful
More Supportive 2o
C
Less supportive 2o
C
China
USA
Japan
Australia
Canada
S.
Korea
Mexi
co
India
Brazil
Prog. A1
e.g. Norway
Other
EU
Saudi/
OPEC
Russia
Indon
esia
AOSIS
Rest of Africa e.g. Uganda
Other G77
e.g. Egypt /
Pakistan
Progressive
EU
Climate champions
Swing states
Deal-blockers
Core/deal-makers
S.
Africa
Page 31
Your policy,
practice,
attitude or
behaviour
change
objectives
And at the level
at which
decision-
making is made
e.g. local,
district,
national, global
Who are Key
decision-
makers?
What is their
current position
on issue:
Champion
(potential driver
of change)
Swingers
(undecided and
persuadable)
Blocker
(opposed)
Who can
influence
them?
And their
current
position on
issue:
Champion,
Supporter or
Blocker
Level of
influence: High
or Low
What will
influence
decision-
makers?
Ideas;
evidence and
research; peer
pressure;
popular
pressure;
shocks; etc.
What are
their main
sources
(form) of
power?
Is it a visible?
Is it hidden?
Is it invisible?
Who are the
key allies or
partners on
this issue?
What is their
influence and
position?
What role can
they play?
Where are
particular
decisions
made? – the
spaces
- Closed
-Invited
-Claimed
Implications
What advocacy
strategies and
activities should
you be adopting
and what does
this mean or for
what you are
currently doing?
1.
2.
Power Analysis Map
Page 32
Top tips
• Make your stakeholders specific to your objective i.e.
‘targeted’ & ‘prioritised’
• Ideally your analysis of an institution needs to be
subdivided in to named individuals so
a) you can be specific and
b) there may be allies/champions, opponents/blockers,
floaters or targets within one institution
• Think about how power can shift and change
Page 33
Power analysis & power mapping as part of
your programme’s advocacy and campaigning
• Put it at the core of any successful campaign strategy development.
• Integrate it at all the stages of strategy development
• Ideally all members of your team and your partners should be
part of power analysis
• Update and review
• Don’t overdo it – rigorous but light!
Process Mapping
Page 35
Process maps
• Help illustrate the network of flows of decision making,
resources or information
• Help identify bottlenecks and constraints
• Help analyse opportunities for changing processes to
make them more efficient or effective
• Help us work out how formal and informal institutions
affect:
• how things are intended to work
• how they actually work
Page 36
Institutional analysis
• The formal and informal ‘rules of the game’ and how they
are embedded in organisations and processes
• Some institutions will need to be ‘taken as given’, and
therefore understood better so can work with or around
them
• Some can be changed – and therefore you need to
understand them in order to work out how
Page 37
Analysing policy and decision-making processes
• Underlying processes of decision making, and how policy is
developed and decided on
• The technical processes e.g. how budgets processes or service
delivery works
• The less tangible issues of social exclusion, gender relations
and historical legacy in decision-making
• National and sub-national relationships
• Laws and regulations
• Ideology and cultural/religious values that effect decision-
making
• Global drivers
Page 38
Page 39
Theories of Change
Page 41
Ways people describe theory of change
from Comic Relief Study
• Programme theory/ logic/ approach
• A road map for change
• A causal pathway/ chain/ model/ map
• Pathways mapping
• Intervention theory/ framework/ logic
• A process of open enquiry and dialogue
• A clear and testable hypothesis
• A logic model
• A blueprint for evaluation
• Back to basics
• A direction of travel
• A sense of direction
Page 42
Approaches to theory of change
• Approach 1: Those that focus on how projects or programmes
expect to bring change
• OR
• Approach 2: Those that explore how change happens more
broadly and then what that means for programme
interventions – including advocacy and influencing!
Theory of Change is simply an on-going process of reflection
to explore change and how it happens – and what that means
for the part we play in a particular context, advocacy
campaign or programme
Page 43
THEORY OF CHANGE
Political literacyTechnical tool
ToC is seen as
providing
practitioners with an
opportunity to
engage more
honestly with the
complexity of
change processes.
ToC is seen as
extending the
assumptions/risks
column
of a logical
framework.
Participatory process
Evolving, iterative
A questioning attitudeA questioning attitude
Page 44
Develop your unique change pathway –
way to do it
Backward mapping –outcomes to activities
1. Clarify your goal – ultimate impact that you want to influence/ achieve (write as
results statement)
2. Identify long term changes that will support this goal and that you can
influence (indirectly)
3. Work backwards: ask yourselves, in order for this to happen what needs to
change (who would be doing what differently)?
4. Again: ask “in order for these changes to take place, what has to be different
(who would be doing what differently – what would have to be in place? )
5. Once you have agreed and written up long, medium and short term changes,
discuss and agree:
o Who you should be working with?
o What you should be doing with them?
Page 45
Developing a Theory
of Change
1.Define the impact you want to see (your
goal, vision).
2.Outline the outcomes or preconditions
necessary to achieve the goal - explaining
why (check your assumptions).
3. Do a power analysis and mapping
4. Based on this, determine effective strategies (your specific
contribution to the change you want to see)to achieve outcomes and
any ‘intermediate outcomes’ along the way.
5. Pull together a theory of change or logic model diagram illustrating the
influencing work’s impact, outcomes, and strategies, and a narrative.
Page 46
Elements of a Theory of Change for Advocacy
and Influencing
lasting change
=
convinced decision makers
+
credible arguments
+
broad and intense support
+
an infrastructure that sustains change
+
mass attitudes and beliefs that can sustain
change (and sometimes are the change)
Page 47
What do they look like?
• No “official” format – depends on context in which you are developing
one and what type of intervention
For instance
• Policy change focus only
• Focused on attitude and behaviour change as well as political or policy
change at national level
• Part of a “one programme” approach – delivery programme at
community level linked to partners linked to national policy change or
the creation of an enabling environment etc.
Examples of theories of change
Page 49
Page 50
Page 51
Page 52
Page 53
Political Economy Analysis
Page 55
Page 56
DFID’s Political Economy Analysis: How To Note
Questions ANDNEXT
STEPS

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Calp 5 webinar on power - final

  • 1. POWERANALYSIs, Tocs and Political Economy Analysis CALP webinar December 2015
  • 3. Page 3 Agenda • Re-cap on HCH & Power from Module 1 • The Power Cube in Practice • Power Analysis Examples  Benefits and challenges • Introducing Theories of Change • Political Economy Analysis
  • 4. Page 4 Re-cap HCH and Power • Putting power at the centre of our thinking: political power, economic, psychological, religious and cultural and who & what drives change • Transformative change – i.e. sustainable changes in power relationships in the lives of poor people • Achieving change involves using power and affecting power relations and putting power at the centre of all our influencing strategies
  • 5. Page 5 When do you analyse your context? • At the beginning to ensure your programme: - takes account of the external context - establishes why change is necessary and what that change should be (your ToC) • Once you have established your main change objectives and who the specific targets of your influencing work are – go deeper • Be alert to changes in the external environment throughout your influencing work
  • 6. Page 6 When analysing the external context it is important to: • Grapple with complexity • Deepen our understanding of power, power relationships, institutions • Understand the interaction between political and economic processes and the trends in distribution of power and wealth – (see political economy analysis) • Work out your theory or theories of change in order to decide HOW to go about your programmes and WHO to work with
  • 7. Page 7 The iterative advocacy planning process External context & How Change Happens Defined Problem Proposed Solution/Overall Theory of Change SMART Objectives/Outcomes Power analysis Strategies & Tactics Theory of Change Plan of actions with Timeline Resources required MEL Plan & Risk Alliances Who to collaborate with? Targets Who to influence? Credible research Policy analysis and development Lobbying Policy Dialogue Citizens voice Media Alliances Popular mobilisation
  • 9. Page 9 The four types of power • Power over: the power of the strong over the weak, including the power to exclude others • Power to: the capability to decide actions and carry them out • Power with: collective power, through organisation, solidarity and joint action • Power within: personal self-confidence, often linked to culture, religion or other aspects of identity, which influences the thoughts and actions that appear legitimate or acceptable.
  • 10. Page 10 Adapted from Gender at Work Community Household National Global Individual Change Formal Systemic Change Informal Women’ s access to resources Formal institutions, laws, practicesCultural norms, values, practices Women’ s and men’ s consciousness A framework for looking at gender and power
  • 13. Page 13 POWER and STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE • http://www.powercube.net/strategize-and-act/strategies-and- forms-of-power/
  • 23. Examples of power analysis
  • 25. Page 25 Power Mapping What is a 'power analysis map’? Why do one? • Understand the networks and relationships between people and institutions – who has the direct power to deliver the change you want, who can influence them? i.e. • Who makes decisions concerning your objective? • How are these decisions made? • Who can influence the decision making process and those with the power to bring about the change you want? • Allies and opponents? What are their interests?
  • 26. Page 26 Power Mapping cont. • More than way to cut a cake! • So a few different tools to establish: - the stakeholders for your advocacy objective(s) - their degree of power to deliver the change you want - who has influence over who.
  • 27. Page 27 Power Power mapping grid High Influence Medium Influence Low Influence Blocker Floater Champion
  • 30. Page 30 Power mapping at global level Progressive G77, incl. LDCs e.g. Bangladesh *Adapted from graphic developed by J. Morgan (E3G) for CAN-International / GCCA Annex: Map of key players: Power v. ambition* More powerfulLess powerful More Supportive 2o C Less supportive 2o C China USA Japan Australia Canada S. Korea Mexi co India Brazil Prog. A1 e.g. Norway Other EU Saudi/ OPEC Russia Indon esia AOSIS Rest of Africa e.g. Uganda Other G77 e.g. Egypt / Pakistan Progressive EU Climate champions Swing states Deal-blockers Core/deal-makers S. Africa
  • 31. Page 31 Your policy, practice, attitude or behaviour change objectives And at the level at which decision- making is made e.g. local, district, national, global Who are Key decision- makers? What is their current position on issue: Champion (potential driver of change) Swingers (undecided and persuadable) Blocker (opposed) Who can influence them? And their current position on issue: Champion, Supporter or Blocker Level of influence: High or Low What will influence decision- makers? Ideas; evidence and research; peer pressure; popular pressure; shocks; etc. What are their main sources (form) of power? Is it a visible? Is it hidden? Is it invisible? Who are the key allies or partners on this issue? What is their influence and position? What role can they play? Where are particular decisions made? – the spaces - Closed -Invited -Claimed Implications What advocacy strategies and activities should you be adopting and what does this mean or for what you are currently doing? 1. 2. Power Analysis Map
  • 32. Page 32 Top tips • Make your stakeholders specific to your objective i.e. ‘targeted’ & ‘prioritised’ • Ideally your analysis of an institution needs to be subdivided in to named individuals so a) you can be specific and b) there may be allies/champions, opponents/blockers, floaters or targets within one institution • Think about how power can shift and change
  • 33. Page 33 Power analysis & power mapping as part of your programme’s advocacy and campaigning • Put it at the core of any successful campaign strategy development. • Integrate it at all the stages of strategy development • Ideally all members of your team and your partners should be part of power analysis • Update and review • Don’t overdo it – rigorous but light!
  • 35. Page 35 Process maps • Help illustrate the network of flows of decision making, resources or information • Help identify bottlenecks and constraints • Help analyse opportunities for changing processes to make them more efficient or effective • Help us work out how formal and informal institutions affect: • how things are intended to work • how they actually work
  • 36. Page 36 Institutional analysis • The formal and informal ‘rules of the game’ and how they are embedded in organisations and processes • Some institutions will need to be ‘taken as given’, and therefore understood better so can work with or around them • Some can be changed – and therefore you need to understand them in order to work out how
  • 37. Page 37 Analysing policy and decision-making processes • Underlying processes of decision making, and how policy is developed and decided on • The technical processes e.g. how budgets processes or service delivery works • The less tangible issues of social exclusion, gender relations and historical legacy in decision-making • National and sub-national relationships • Laws and regulations • Ideology and cultural/religious values that effect decision- making • Global drivers
  • 41. Page 41 Ways people describe theory of change from Comic Relief Study • Programme theory/ logic/ approach • A road map for change • A causal pathway/ chain/ model/ map • Pathways mapping • Intervention theory/ framework/ logic • A process of open enquiry and dialogue • A clear and testable hypothesis • A logic model • A blueprint for evaluation • Back to basics • A direction of travel • A sense of direction
  • 42. Page 42 Approaches to theory of change • Approach 1: Those that focus on how projects or programmes expect to bring change • OR • Approach 2: Those that explore how change happens more broadly and then what that means for programme interventions – including advocacy and influencing! Theory of Change is simply an on-going process of reflection to explore change and how it happens – and what that means for the part we play in a particular context, advocacy campaign or programme
  • 43. Page 43 THEORY OF CHANGE Political literacyTechnical tool ToC is seen as providing practitioners with an opportunity to engage more honestly with the complexity of change processes. ToC is seen as extending the assumptions/risks column of a logical framework. Participatory process Evolving, iterative A questioning attitudeA questioning attitude
  • 44. Page 44 Develop your unique change pathway – way to do it Backward mapping –outcomes to activities 1. Clarify your goal – ultimate impact that you want to influence/ achieve (write as results statement) 2. Identify long term changes that will support this goal and that you can influence (indirectly) 3. Work backwards: ask yourselves, in order for this to happen what needs to change (who would be doing what differently)? 4. Again: ask “in order for these changes to take place, what has to be different (who would be doing what differently – what would have to be in place? ) 5. Once you have agreed and written up long, medium and short term changes, discuss and agree: o Who you should be working with? o What you should be doing with them?
  • 45. Page 45 Developing a Theory of Change 1.Define the impact you want to see (your goal, vision). 2.Outline the outcomes or preconditions necessary to achieve the goal - explaining why (check your assumptions). 3. Do a power analysis and mapping 4. Based on this, determine effective strategies (your specific contribution to the change you want to see)to achieve outcomes and any ‘intermediate outcomes’ along the way. 5. Pull together a theory of change or logic model diagram illustrating the influencing work’s impact, outcomes, and strategies, and a narrative.
  • 46. Page 46 Elements of a Theory of Change for Advocacy and Influencing lasting change = convinced decision makers + credible arguments + broad and intense support + an infrastructure that sustains change + mass attitudes and beliefs that can sustain change (and sometimes are the change)
  • 47. Page 47 What do they look like? • No “official” format – depends on context in which you are developing one and what type of intervention For instance • Policy change focus only • Focused on attitude and behaviour change as well as political or policy change at national level • Part of a “one programme” approach – delivery programme at community level linked to partners linked to national policy change or the creation of an enabling environment etc.
  • 48. Examples of theories of change
  • 56. Page 56 DFID’s Political Economy Analysis: How To Note

Editor's Notes

  1. Note: Keep the power analysis light - 'good enough' to ensure effectiveness and efficient investment of resources. More scoping is required once you have established your main change objectives and who the specific targets of your influencing work are, for example to investigate their views and position on the issue in more detail
  2. People in meeting – discussing strategy One view is best way for change is to get a law passed Another street demonstrations or grassroots people power to effect change another believes in alliances – creating bridges, working with like-minded people another in using media to change beliefs The aim is to have these people work together. We all have own ‘preferred theories’ - as individuals (because of our own personal beliefs, upbringing and education) and because of the roles we play in our organisations and teams Key points: = its not just one theory = it depends on the issue, the context and the power What are other theories of how change can happen?
  3. Consciousness: knowledge, skills, political consciousness and commitment to change toward equality Cultural Norms: influences what changes are possible at individual level, some think most important We need to understand what change is needed in all of the domains to plot our intervention and achieve sustainable change and long-term impact.
  4. Targets need to be specific Limited number of fronts on which your organisation or you can work. Refer to named individuals rather than simply institutions
  5. One element it doesn’t look at fully is the relationship between targets – ‘who influences who’ So actively think about that. If you’re a visual person you can capture some of that thinking by drawing a power map (next slide)
  6. This explores the relationship between targets – ‘who influences who’. Ask participants to spot the error. Answer: IMF has not been broken down to specific individuals within it! Ask them to remind you why that’s a problem i.e. IMF is a large institution – there may be allies and opponents within it so don’t treat it as ‘a blob’.