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Environ Science Presentation

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Environ Science Presentation

  1. 1. Air Pollution: How do we reduce emissions
  2. 2. So why is air pollution important?
  3. 3. So how do we protect ourselves from pollution?  Criteria pollutants  Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)  Greenhouse Gases
  4. 4. Ambient criteria pollutant standards Pollutant [final rule cite] Primary/ Secondary Averaging Time Level Form Carbon Monoxide primary 8-hour 9 ppm Not to be exceeded more than once per year 1-hour 35 ppm Lead primary and secondary Rolling 3 month average 0.15 μg/m3 (1) Not to be exceeded Nitrogen Dioxide primary 1-hour 100 ppb 98th percentile, averaged over 3 years primary and secondary Annual 53 ppb (2) Annual Mean Ozone primary and secondary 8-hour 0.075 ppm (3) Annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hr concentration, averaged over 3 years Particulate PM10 primary and secondary Annual 15 μg/m3 annual mean, averaged over 3 years Particulate PM2.5 24-hour 35 μg/m3 98th percentile, averaged over 3 years 24-hour 150 μg/m3 Not to be exceeded more than once per year on average over 3 years Sulfur Dioxide primary 1-hour 75 ppb (4) 99th percentile of 1-hour daily maximum concentrations, averaged over 3 years secondary 3-hour 0.5 ppm Not to be exceeded more than once per year
  5. 5. Attainment/Nonattainment
  6. 6. State Implementation Plans Standard Area Attainment Status PM-2.5 1997 Greensboro-Winston Salem- High Point, NC Nonattainment PM-2.5 1997 Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, NC Nonattainment 8-Hr Ozone Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC Moderate
  7. 7. State Permit Programs
  8. 8. Voluntary programs AgSTAR Program Burn Wise Clean Diesel Campaign Clean Construction USA Clean Ports USA Clean School Bus USA Diesel Retrofit Coal Combustion Products Partnership (C2P2) Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP) Combined Heat and Power Partnership Community-Based Childhood Asthma Programs Design for the Environment EnergyStar Environmental Technology Verification Program GreenChill Green Power Partnership Green Racing Initiative GreenScapes Green Suppliers Network High GWP Partnership Programs Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) Mobile Air Conditioning Partnership Natural Gas STAR Program Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program SmartWay Transport Partnership Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership
  9. 9. Regulated HAPs Hazardous Air Pollutants ( 33/188 Regulated Chemicals) 1. acetaldehyde 18. formaldehyde 2. acrolein 19. hexachlorobenzene 3. acrylonitrile 20. hydrazine 4. arsenic compounds 21. lead compounds 5. benzene 22. manganese compounds 6. beryllium compounds 23. mercury compounds 7. 1, 3-butadiene 24. methylene chloride 8. cadmium compounds 25. nickel compounds 9. carbon tetrachloride 26. perchloroethylene 10. chloroform 27. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 11. chromium compounds 28. polycyclic organic matter (POM)* 12. coke oven emissions 29. propylene dichloride 13. 1, 3-dichloropropene 30. quinoline 14. diesel particulate matter 31. 1, 1, 2, 2-tetrachloroethane 15. ethylene dibromide 32. trichloroethylene 16. ethylene dichloride 33. vinyl chloride 17. ethylene oxide
  10. 10. Example HAP emission density
  11. 11. Process- specific regulations NESHAP (MACT) STANDARD Aerospace Acrylic / Modacrylic Fiber (area sources) Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Auto & Light Duty Truck (surface coating) Benzene Waste Operations Boat Manufacturing Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Cellulose Products Manufacturing Miscellaneous Viscose Processes Cellulose Food Casing Rayon Cellulosic Sponge Cellophane Cellulose Ethers Production Caroxymethyl Cellulose Methyl Cellulose Cellulose Ethers Chromium Electroplating Chromic Acid Anodizing Decorative Chromium Electroplating Hard Chromium Electroplating Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Coke Ovens Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, and Sulfite Pulp & Paper Mills Commercial Sterilizers Degreasing Organic Cleaners Dry Cleaning Commercial dry cleaning dry-to-dry Commercial dry cleaning transfer machines Industrial dry cleaning dry-to-dry Industrial dry cleaning transfer machines
  12. 12. GHGs
  13. 13. So how are we doing?
  14. 14. Reductions over time
  15. 15. So how are we doing 1989 2008
  16. 16. But we still have a long way to go
  17. 17. 2002 National Air Toxics Cancer Risk Assessment
  18. 18. GHG Trends
  19. 19. What next?
  20. 20. Improvements to air traffic
  21. 21. Improvements to shipping
  22. 22. More hybrid/electric vehicles
  23. 23. Wind/solar/geothermal
  24. 24. Fuel cell technologies
  25. 25. Hydrogen energy system
  26. 26. Changes in life style to reduce energy consumption and emissions  Smart growth measures ◦ Easier to integrate alternative energy options ◦ Easier to provide public transportation ◦ Reduced passenger car VMT ◦ Encourage walking and bike riding ◦ Better linkage with community
  27. 27. Example of Smart Growth changes
  28. 28. Addition of walkways/bike paths
  29. 29. Better integration of residential and commercial activities
  30. 30. More integration
  31. 31. Continuing
  32. 32. Continuing
  33. 33. Vegetate buffers
  34. 34. Another example
  35. 35. Again mixing of commercial and residential activities
  36. 36. More
  37. 37. Better
  38. 38. And better
  39. 39. One more example
  40. 40. Addition of pathways and bike lanes
  41. 41. Lighting and safety features
  42. 42. Mixing of commercial and residential
  43. 43. Continuing incrementally
  44. 44. Maturing of beneficial plants
  45. 45. Addition of public transportation
  46. 46. Summary  We are able to reduce emissions while still sustaining growth  GHG challenges can be addresses with available technologies to make US businesses more competitive  Sustainable cities can be developed that reduce fuel consumption and improve quality of life
  47. 47. But what about the rest of the world?
  48. 48. Population Increasing
  49. 49. Future traffic
  50. 50. Can we develop our green technologies and sustainable lifestyles quickly enough to save the world?

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