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# Introducing basic concepts

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### Introducing basic concepts

1. 1. Introducing basic concepts 1 Richard Baker Professor of Clinical Gait Analysis
2. 2. Goals • Outline basic concepts that we’ll be using for the rest of the day
3. 3. Colour Left Right
4. 4. 4 Cyclic walking
5. 5. Distance and time
6. 6. 6 Stride length How far does one foot move each stride
7. 7. 7 Stride length right stride length = left stride length
8. 8. 8 Stride length Doesn’t matter which cycle you use
9. 9. 9 Stride length Doesn’t matter which point on the foot you use
10. 10. 10 Step length (symmetrical walking) How far is one foot in front of the other
11. 11. 11 left step length = right step length IF gait symmetrical Step length (symmetrical walking)
12. 12. 12 stride length =left step length + right step length Step length (symmetrical walking)
13. 13. 13 Step length Doesn’t matter which cycle you use
14. 14. 14 Step length Doesn’t matter which point on the foot you use
15. 15. 15 Step length (asymmetric gait) How far is one foot in front of the other
16. 16. 16 Step length (asymmetric gait) Left step length ≠ right step length
17. 17. 17 Step length (asymmetric gait) Stride length = left step length + right step length
18. 18. 18 Step length (asymmetric gait) Left stride length = right stride length
19. 19. 19 Step length (asymmetric gait) Doesn’t matter which cycle you use
20. 20. 20 Step length (asymmetric gait) Doesn’t matter which point on the foot you use
21. 21. 21 Step width How far are the feet apart?
22. 22. 22 Step width Not defined separately for left and right
23. 23. 23 Step width Depends on point of foot chosen
24. 24. 24 Cadence Strides per minute or steps per minute
27. 27. 27 Cadence Not defined separately for left and right
28. 28. 28 Walking speed Walking speed = stride length / stride time
29. 29. 29 Walking speed Walking speed = stride length * cadence
30. 30. Phases
31. 31. 31 Stance and swing Stance SwingFoot contact Foot contact Foot off
32. 32. 32 Oppositefootcontact Stance and swing OppositeFootoff Firstdoublesupport Single support Seconddoublesupport Swing Footoff Footcontact Footcontact
33. 33. According to Perry Loading response Initialcontact Mid-stance Terminal stance Pre-swing Initial swing Mid-swing Terminal swing 0% 2% 10% 30% 50% 60% 73% 87% 100% Timings only applicable for healthy walking
34. 34. Issues with Perry Loading response Initialcontact Mid-stance Terminal stance Pre-swing Initial swing Mid-swing Terminal swing Initial contact isn’t a phase Loading occurs throughout first single support Mid-stance isn’t in the middle of stance Terminal stance isn’t at the end of stance Pre-swing emphasises continuity of gait cycle Why not pre-stance? Single support and swing are divided into a different number of phases
35. 35. Adapting Perry Loading Mid-stance Pre-swing Initial swing Mid-swing Terminal swing First double support Single support Pre-stanceSecond double supportEarly Middle Late
36. 36. Making graphs
37. 37. 37 75 -15 Flx Ext deg Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext deg
38. 38. 38
39. 39. 39 75 -15 Flx Ext deg Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext deg
40. 40. 40
41. 41. 41 50% rule
42. 42. Another example Hip Flexion -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 FlexExtdeg 20 40 60 80 What is hip flexion in mid-stance on the left (red) side? 5° flexion 30° What is hip flexion on the right (blue) side at the same time as mid-stance on the left (red) side? 30° flexion 50% 5°
43. 43. Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext
44. 44. Reference data Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext
45. 45. Multiple walks Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext
46. 46. Different aspect ratios 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg All graphs in this course have an aspect ratio of 3:4
47. 47. Different scaling All graphs in this course have consistent scaling 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 60 0 Flx Ext deg 90 -90 Flx Ext deg 75 -15 Flx Ext deg 60 0 Flx Ext deg 90 -90 Flx Ext deg
48. 48. Graph arrays (NormBF11 16.c3d) (NormBF11 16.c3d) Pelvic Tilt 60 0 Ant Pst Hip Flexion 70 -20 Flex Ext Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext Dorsiflexion 30 -30 Dor Pla Pelvic Obliquity 30 -30 Up Dwn Hip Adduction 30 -30 Add Abd Knee Adduction 30 -30 Var Val Ankle Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Pelvic Rotation 30 -30 For Bak Hip Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Foot Progression 30 -30 Int Ext Sagittal plane Transverse plane Coronal plane Pelvis Hip Knee Ankle
49. 49. Graph arrays (NormBF11 16.c3d) (NormBF11 16.c3d) Pelvic Tilt 60 0 Ant Pst Hip Flexion 70 -20 Flex Ext Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext Dorsiflexion 30 -30 Dor Pla Pelvic Obliquity 30 -30 Up Dwn Hip Adduction 30 -30 Add Abd Knee Adduction 30 -30 Var Val Ankle Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Pelvic Rotation 30 -30 For Bak Hip Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Foot Progression 30 -30 Int Ext All graphs will be consistent throughout this course
50. 50. “missing” graphs (NormBF11 16.c3d) (NormBF11 16.c3d) Pelvic Tilt 60 0 Ant Pst Hip Flexion 70 -20 Flex Ext Knee Flexion 75 -15 Flx Ext Dorsiflexion 30 -30 Dor Pla Pelvic Obliquity 30 -30 Up Dwn Hip Adduction 30 -30 Add Abd Knee Adduction 30 -30 Var Val Ankle Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Pelvic Rotation 30 -30 For Bak Hip Rotation 30 -30 Int Ext Foot Progression 30 -30 Int Ext
51. 51. Kinetics Sagittal plane Transverse plane Coronal plane Hip moment Knee moment Ankle moment
52. 52. Kinetics Joint power
53. 53. Thanks for listening