Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Workshop 2 audiovisual conservation, preservation and digitisation

706 views

Published on

Conservation of analogue audiovisual content; planning for preservation; planning a digitisation project

Published in: Technology, Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Workshop 2 audiovisual conservation, preservation and digitisation

  1. 1. Conservation, Digitisation and PreservationThe need for digitisationPreservation planning mapping your collections; setting priorities; making a collection strategy, apreservation strategy and a preservationplanThe Preservation Factory approach4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 1
  2. 2. Terminology Preservation – “Everything needed to ensure permanent access” = maintenance  Conservation: keeping what you have (for as long as you can) = safe storage and handling  Preservation actions: interventions. Changing what you have = repair and replace − Making a new negative or interneg − Copying from an old carrier to a new carrier − Digitising  Which separates content from carrier = liberation4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 2
  3. 3. Conservation VFI in Ho Chi Minh City showed excellent film conservation packaging, handling and shelving environmental conditions: temperature and humidity; protection from pollution, dirt etc protecting the masters; and condition monitoring = checking the stockFull description on Preservation Guide wiki: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PreservationStrategy#Conservation4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 3
  4. 4. The need for digitisationOnly three ways to preserve:1.Keep what you have2.Copy using same technology3.Copy using new technologyKeep what you have: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteCopy on same technology: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsolete4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 4
  5. 5. What about vinyl? Gramophone records: lacquer, shellac and vinyl  Lacquer = a master recording (acetate, instantaneous disc); very fragile ! 4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 5
  6. 6. More on gramophone records Shellac was used for 78 rpm commercial recordings Also fragile – the main risk is handling; the shellac itself is stable (compared to laquer)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 6
  7. 7. But, what about vinyl? Used for 45 and 33 1/3 rpm recordings They are fragile (though less fragile than shellac) Warp from heat (can be fixed with care) Easily scratched, and can get very dirty The groove can be damaged in playback (if the needle and tone arm adjustment is not right) Vinyl is soft !!! Vinyl and shellac can suffer chemical damage4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 7
  8. 8. Gramophone damage Dropping a needle onto a vinyl disc Oil coming to the surface on a lacquer disc4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 8
  9. 9. Where was I?Only three ways to preserve:Keep what you have: only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteCopy on same technology:only works for film• Audio, Video: analogue technology obsoleteSo we are left with only one option (for audio and video):Copy using new technology4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 9
  10. 10. Preservation of Film VFI provides excellent example of conservation Film technology still exists BUT – the situation is rapidly changing  Kodak in severe economic trouble  Commercial cinemas changing to digital projection − Norway changed completely in 2011-2012 Commercial cinema will change or go out of business Commercial cinema will not keep old projectors4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 10
  11. 11. The end of film projection?“ Were About to Lose 1,000 SmallTheaters That Cant Convert to Digital.Does It Matter?”Indiewire, USA 4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 11
  12. 12. Digitisation of Film Now: needed for access  Internet  Digital cinema Soon: needed for preservation  When manufacture of film stock is stopped Result: ALL media needs to be digitised, audio and video and film  Thats a lot of content that has to be digitised  There isnt enough time  There isnt enough money4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 12
  13. 13. PRESTO Digitisation“Better Faster Cheaper” Daniel Teruggi, Institut National de lAudiovisuel (INA), ParisBasic concepts:1) Dealing with the whole collection2) Developing a strategy For the institution and its collection For the preservation work3) Developing a preservation plan4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 13
  14. 14. Digitisation Planning All the Presto information on a wiki: http://wiki.prestospace.org/ Strategy – what does your institution do?  What does the collection do?  What can digitisation do? Planning – making a preservation plan  How to estimate a budget  Building a business case4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 14
  15. 15. Collection Strategy Long-term purpose of the digitisation  Preserving the collection  Maintaining services (old business)  Creating new services (new business) Physical Outcomes:  Digital files  Mass storage  Cheaper, better maintenance  Cheaper, better digital access copies  Web access4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 15
  16. 16. Access Outcomes Collection access from computer stations  Mediatheque approach Collection access via the Internet  With restricted access − British Film Institute: higher education, public libraries … and on YouTube − British Library Sound Archive: higher education institutions only  Or even unrestricted access − INA has 30 000 hours of broadcast content online !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 16
  17. 17. Restrictions on Access Attitudes: we dont do that Fear: somebody might complain Rights: we dont hold the rightsA solution:1) public institutions create public value by opening their collections as widely as possible2) non-fiction content has the most information and the least rights problemsWe have a public service obligation to create access to our collections !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 17
  18. 18. Access: Technical Requirements A usable catalogue Online support services: questions, linking to online sales, dealing with faults Logins, access control, authentication, data protection … Computing power to support what could be large numbers of people requiring access  UK National Archive crashed; Europeana crashed Managing lots of information technology4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 18
  19. 19. Digital Archive: workflow Everything changes when shelves disappear:  Acquisition: digital ingest  Cataloguing: complex metadata issues: embedded metadata, preservation metadata, mapping  Curation: huge opportunity to create online collections  Research: self-research, fast scanning of hits – changes the requirements of cataloguing  Access: requirements need to be built into the digitisation workflow (access copies, public metadata, rights clearance, censorship?)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 19
  20. 20. Getting Started Map – The collection needs to be divided by format, condition, purpose ... Priorities – arrange the “areas on the map” according to what needs to be done first wiki: Make a Map of your Collection Divide the collection by physical formats, and collect the following information on each format: age range storage history genre or value physical condition4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 20
  21. 21. BBC film examples from wikiMap: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.GettingStartedStrategy: http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PreservationStrategyPlan:http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.PresPlan4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 21
  22. 22. The Factory Approach Photo by Toban Black4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 22
  23. 23. The Factory Approach The division of labour in pin manufacturing: (and the great increase in the quantity of work that results) Approach: NOT about cutting corners or reducing quality Instead: about cutting wasted time and wasted effort Batches: doing one thing at a time, and then doing it again (and again, and again) Problem: how to keep the work interesting!4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 23
  24. 24. A BBC Preservation Factory4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 24
  25. 25. The Factory Approach “Division of labour” requires having specialists, which means having a team Which means having a middle-sized or larger project But: even a single person can use a batch approach, and get some efficiencies4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 25
  26. 26. BBC Preservation: £5M per year (for 20 years)Audio: 7000 hours per year of ¼ inch tape Also digitised 63 000 “sepmag” elements: separate magnetic sound tracks for film; − Transferred to CD (good!) and to polyester (bad!) Also 35 000 shellac and vinyl recordings Also DAT and MD digital recordings2” videotape: 46 000 tapes, transferred to D3 or Digibeta, done over 7 years1” videotape: 80 000 in 5 yrs, to D3/Digibeta U-matic: 40 000 in 3 yrs, to MPEG-2 files
  27. 27.  News film: 43 000 items in 3 years  Ektachrome; digitised to SD video (Digibeta) 10% of total cost is cataloguing 20 to 30% is quality control (checking) Since 2008: transfer 40k D3 videotape to files:  Uncompressed; MXF wrapper = INGEX Now: transfer of BetaSP and Digibeta to files Major confusion over High Definition formats !4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 27
  28. 28. Discussion Digitisation projects of delegatesIn the afternoon we will discuss technical issues, but we need to begin with knowing what projects the delegates are working on: Audio, video, film Which physical formats (eg ¼-inch audio tape, 1-inch video tape, 16mm B&W film … ) ? Size: how much content, how many people, how many years ?4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 28
  29. 29. Time for LunchThis afternoon:1) Practical Session on Digitisation What is your long-term plan? What are your immediate problems?2) Digital Formats and Hardware  (tomorrow is software)4-5 September 2012 Vietnam Film Institute Workshops 29

×