Team building - Football/soccer


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  • Outside pressure; coach, club expectations, audience, relatives, media, commercial interests: the attention has become greater and greater because so many get income from the game
    Perfect match never to be played
    Pro/amateur: money is important at both levels, the amount varies. The more money, the better players and facilities, the better youth program…
  • Structural learning process for ages 6-16 and 17-21 is neede now more than ever –> the rise of academies, of which only few have achieved a top notch level
    Through analyzing many Matches the coach gets to kno how the team building mechanism works
  • - So the present coaches are not inventing anything new
  • The mentality of the players and team spirit
    Players’ willingness to work is essential for the team building process to succeed, or the coach
    Motivation to collectively optimize the level of performance = individual mentality to win at all costs
    Affectin factors: last match, previous exercises, media, club management, nonsensical remarks to the press, players’ private problems, club’s transfer policy…
    Always clear and honest behaviour from the coach/manager
    Sometimes have to be hard
  • How football is played? All coaches work on team tactics but many of them do not realize that it’s a structural process. It’s usually seen only as a form of game tactic. (which is important if it’s based on optimally developed playing style)
  • Should I adjust to the opponent? Which variations do I use?
    Variations of familiar team strategies, based upon sepcific resistances from the match.
    In business world, there is no space factor, but time factor can be defined
    The business mamagers are very interested in team building methods developed in sports, and in football, the mechanisms are more difficult than in any other sports
  • 4v4 vs 11v11
    Basic tasks and additional tasks (surplus value) attacking, building up and defending
    Continuous – subtitution limitd – earlier no subst.
    Only set pieces can be adequately rehearsed beforehand – others the players decide in accordance to the tactical framework and guidelines set by the coach
  • TO create as many possible scoring opportunities as possible and to give up as many chances as possible
  • Tactics: the insight of how to resolve arising problems in variating situations
    Determines to what extent the other attributes can be utilized
    The right balance
    Success: instant credibility to the coach, motivation and pride to the players (as a team)
  • Compensation for the playing time and space
  • Parreira worked with the team building process years before the tournament, to create a solid team
    No other team since 1970, but Ajax Amsterdam (as a variation of 4-3-3); too vulnerable and high demands
    Romario’s team tactical awareness and defensive skills and attitude were not at the appropriate level
    Usually the midfielders were a bit too artistic and slow during the build up
    Unity and team spirit is the psychological basis of the teram tactical develoment
    Separate meeting room outside the hotel – the coach could control the situations
    Poor results in the beginning – did not influence the team
  • Defending midfielders as the first playmakers
    Parreira received a team a little bit more and a little bit better than the players already were
    Compare with Ronaldo’s Brazil in 1998- they lacked that little bit extra (which France had)
  • Team tactical coaching: match analyses, reading of the game, theoretical knowledge of the game is needed as much as practical
    Insight: by taking an action or moving one meter forward/other direction or not to move can have a massive influence in the result
    Recognize the team tactical aspect, analyze it, make it a trainable exercise that makes the team tactical aspect alive.
    Most coaches execute general training exercises which do not reflect in any problems that have been arised in the game
  • The individual qualites to take position at the right time are of great importance and value
    - More important than ever
  • Balance between defending, buildin up and attacking
    Tactical changes according to the performance level of the opposite, during the game
    Much expertise is asked from the coach when it comes to training the team tactical fragments
  • Balance between defending, buildin up and attacking
    Tactical changes according to the performance level of the opposite, during the game
    Much expertise is asked from the coach when it comes to training the team tactical fragments
  • Balance between defending, buildin up and attacking
    Tactical changes according to the performance level of the opposite, during the game
    Much expertise is asked from the coach when it comes to training the team tactical fragments
  • A coach just making himself important is of no use for the team: the same goes with the selfishness of the players
  • Team building - Football/soccer

    1. 1. What do you do with football skills and stamina? Team Building { The Road to Success Copyright: Rinus Michels, Netherlands Kimmo Haapea
    2. 2. General Introduction         Types of Team Building Complexity of Football Limits of Team Building External Factors on the Psychological Team Building Process Levels of Development Steps in the Development Process Performance Level Value of the Team Building Introduction 2
    3. 3. General Introduction Leonard Bernstein, conductor, orchestra leader: ”Individually you are very accomplished, but as an orchestra you will have to travel a long and difficult road. You think you have achieved the ultimate level, but the perfection of the orchestra can be taken from 95 to 100 %  Not enough that you play your own instrument correctly, you must also be harmonic with the orchestra  Football coach must think how he/she can create a team that can produce the best possible outcome in difficult (constantly pressurized) situation  No note book  The quality of the players  The quality of the coach Introduction 3
    4. 4. General Introduction Anticipation and Decision Making          Constantly changing situation Hundreds of Millions of possibilities during the match Split-second decision making Take into account your team-mates and the opponents Team efficiency vs showing off The aim of the match Outside pressure Money Perfect match?  Pro level, amateur level –any difference in the pressure to succeed? Introduction 4
    5. 5. General Introduction Pressure to Succeed          Ever higher demands for the peformance level of the team Striving to perfection Team defensive preformance Result: higher demands on attacking and building up -qualities Individual and team level Structural learning process Academies Awareness of the team tactical effectivity Cohesiveness of the team  Match analyses as the key Introduction 5
    6. 6. General Introduction Types of Team Building Teamwork is as old as the game itself.  Increasing demands and pressure put on the coaches and players  Structural means which help the players perform  More speed & higher difficulty level -> players have to perform at a higher level  Individually and within the team  Players had much more time in the earlier days!  PSYCHOLOGICAL team building process  TEAM TACTICAL team building process Introduction 6
    7. 7. General Introduction Psychological Team Building Process Obvious approach      Better mentality – better environment for the team tactical team building process Players’ willingness to work – MOTIVATION! Willingness to win What works today. Is not guaranteed to work tomorrow -> remain alert Changes in the tension level – which factors affect? -> the coach must stay alert in each training session and feel the atmosphere & ACT ACCORDING TO THE MENTAL ATTITUDE OF THE PLAYERS  Before the game  During the game: positive and negative developments  Tact, harshness, continuous improvement  Consistent, clear and honest behaviour from the coach! Introduction 7
    8. 8. General Introduction The Team Tactical Team Building Process     At least as imortant as mental team building Team tactics a structural process Based on a developed playing style Reguires strucutral training work using clear team tactical guidelines  Organizational team building  Strategical team building  Tactical team building Introduction 8
    9. 9. General Introduction Organizational team building  Concerns the guidelines of team organization, team structure and the organizational form (4-4-2, 4-3-3 and so on)  Traffic lights – prevent chaos  Every player has a role and function within the team organization  Conduct through experience  Action is taken fast and ”automatically”  Too stiff approach? Strategical team building  A series of guidelines how a team or a line or a group defend, build up, or attack  Continuous positioning in relation to each other Introduction 9
    10. 10. General Introduction Tactical team building  How to prepare team tactically to the match next Saturday?  Which variations do I use?  Based upon specific resistances from a match Football is complex  Connection between the complexity of the game and the quality of the players  The best players are very clever (~ the up 5 % of the people)  Space and time –dimensions in a match – quick reflection to upcoming situations  In comparison to the business world, space and time –dimensions are different Introduction 10
    11. 11. General Introduction Complexity Factors of Team Building Team tactically the most sport  Size of the team demanding  Unpredictability  Roles of the individuals; versatility is expected  Continuous action  Most decisicive demands placed on individual qualities of players  Technically Players are  Physically (incl. psychologically) directors  Tactically (insight)  Intelligence, fast reaction to altering situations  All players are ”quarterbacks” Players’ sport  Played by feet discipline  Contact sport Adequate training, team spirit  Playing time, tempo -> physical Introduction 11
    12. 12. General Introduction The Complexity of football is determined by  The size of the team  Individual qualities combined with versatility  Unpredictability: the players have to make quick TEAM EFFICIENT decisions out of several options in ever changing situations  The ball is played with feet  Physical contact sport      The duration of the match The measurements of the field Players’ game team tactically Constant action Tempo Team tactical guidelines a necessity
    13. 13. General Introduction Limitations of Succeeding in the Team Building  Every coach attempts to improve his team’s performance by helping to develop an extra team tactical dimension in every player = team efficiency/ by each member of the team  Scoring chances can be created by good team play, but the team needs a player with the ability to score in order to succeed  The same goes with other roles ~ duels Introduction 13
    14. 14. General Introduction Limitations in Succeeding in the Team Building  Quality of the players (most important factor)  Physics, technics, mentality, tactics LIMITING FACTORS:  Balance  Between defending, building up and attacking  One of the most difficult tasks of the coach  Success  Powerful weapon in team building process  Opponent  The countermeasures  What worked in the last game won’t necessarily work in the next one Luck  Unpredictability  WC 1978  CL Final 1999
    15. 15. General Introduction Psychological Team Building Process External Factors Performance level is never a constant factor Tension between self-interest and the interest of the team  Power struggle  Between board members, coach and bms, coach and assistant coach…  Self-interest vs the best of the team  Statements  Board member, a coach, a player,…  The coach must always be on the look-out & focus on TBP!  Only the coach is able to build a team and a team efficient style of play -> the coach must have credibility and clear football vision  Self-confidence Introductionthe big picture, but the details are what matter  Not 15
    16. 16. General Introduction Levels of Development All levels  Challenges of coaches at all levels  Make players perform better  Reach the limits of the performance level of the team  Big difference in the potential of all players in the talent pool  -> difference in quality  Coach must possess an adequate technical level (exceptions?)  Theoretical knowledge of the game  Theoretical knowledge of the team building process  Ability to communicate  No more street football – compensation  Whoever wins is correct??  Youth football: keeping the players busy vs teaching the game  Organizing the training sessions efficiently  Training football realistic situations 16 Introduction
    17. 17. General Introduction World Class Level of Development  Relationship betw. Team Building and Performance Level  Brazil 1994  In 1970, Brazil used 4-2-4, in 1980s 4-4-2  Also Parreira used 4-4-2 from the preparation on  Everyone must take a part in defence, even Romario  Few touches during the build up - midfielders  Team spirit vs the stars – dream of all the Brazilians  Unity and Team Spirit No money talk in the team – ”WC bigger than money”  No press, family members, agents, fríends to the training camp The team members could only communicate with each other in the training camp  Scrimmages especially helpful  Not the result but the execution what counted Introduction 17
    18. 18. General Introduction World Class Level of Development  Relationship betw. Team Building and Performance Level Why was Parreira’s 4-4-2 different?  Full backs helped in build up  Centre backs covered the positionsof full backs  The role of defending midfielders in defence and attack  Attackers had to move a lot and go deep  Not allowedto play close to each other durin the build up  Had to be able to receive the ball in the flanks and behind the defensive line  Shifts according to the state of possession were practiced over and over -> by varying the line-up this became familiar TEAM EFFICIENCY was the key word -> UNITY was clear  Compare with Barca of Guardiola
    19. 19. General Introduction Steps in the Development Process A rapid development of team tactics in the modern football since 2000 - the necessity to win has grown (places in big competitions a.s.o)  When the ball is lost it has to be taken back, everyone is responsible – there are no hiding places  Lightning fast transition from a team function to another, and MOST IMPORTANT is to act in the most team efficient manner in each situation -> UNITY, no false running -> efficiency  Compare with Barca of Guardiola, or Athletic of Bielsa  Individual qualities of the players: physical, mental, tactical  Good coaching is a must  Team tactical coaching; break the match down and analyze  Not enough to rely on experiences as a player  Video analyses take hours (Guardiola a.o.)  Still, each player can increase his value to the team by improving his insight  The hardest part: planning and executing the training sessions to serve the team tactical development – most coaches don’t make it  Simulate the match situtations in exercises 19 Introduction
    20. 20. General Introduction Steps in the Development Process (cont.) Practise team tactical positional games in a real high tempo Team efficient speed of action Quality of the individuals Positioning of the teammates Glue of the team spirit Problem: lack of professionalism of the leading players -> resist the exercises A good coach demands high tempo and accuracy (game mentality) -> team spirit If you succeed, t he players will make the exercises as their own Success: when team building process (tactically, psychoogically) is mastered to the minutest detail  A new face as a coach is usually needed after few years, otherwise the players must be changed periodically (crediblity)  Cataloque = frame of reference when regularly working on improving the perfrormance level          Introduction 20
    21. 21. General Introduction Performance Level he building blocks of the most reachable performance level The most negative influences on this: The individual qualities of the players - As much as possible in compliance with the team structure and style of play - Sufficient´ly balanced in game mentality/qualities - Excellent training qualities - Well developed team building qualities (mental and team tactical) - Introduction lack of key players Lack of success Negative audience Too many changes in trainers Lack of flexibility in relation to a realistic style of play Negative internal and external factors in relation to the team building process Budget problems at the club Wrong coach in a wrong place Lack of challenges Youth education does not have a center stage Overestimating and underestimating the opponent 21
    22. 22. The Evolution of Football  Introduction  Top Coaches            Mario Zagallo (att. style of play) Helenio Herrera (def. style of play) Sir Alf Ramsey (the demise of the wing forwards) Rinus Michels (total and pressure football) Franz Beckenbauer (5-3-2) Johan Cruijff (3-4-3) Louis van Gaal (further development of 3-4-3) Sir Alex Ferguson Marcelo Bielsa (argentinian developer of the 4-3-3 -play Jose Mourinho (players coach) Josip ”Pep” Guardiola (dev. total and pressure football) Evolution 22
    23. 23. The Evolution of Football Today’s pressure football  Introduction  demands team tactical maturity from all players  Total soccer was introduced in the early 70s – now the most applied team tactical strategy  Pressure football is carried out by 11 players, each player has his own task (c.)  The aim is to play in the opposite’s side: press and disturb and prevent build-up as early as possible  Force them to deliver an inaccurate pass or rotate from backwords again to gain time to get organised  Or get the possession on the opponents’s half and make a quick transition  Especially well developed in Spain and earlier in England Evolution 23
    24. 24. Combination play/high quality positional play  The Evolution of Football ”A must”  Introduction  Individual qualities  Positioning and timing  Passing and timing  Decision-making  Ball-control: give up the ball soon enough  Crucial in the build-up  The best team efficient solutions  Individual qualities of the players have developed /average level - High quality coaches  - Team tactical aspects and skills must be taught as early as possible - Youth educational system Higher demands all the time Evolution - As a whole 24
    25. 25. The Evolution of Football  Introduction More speed, higher tempo, more pressure in the opposite’s side, less time  Each coach has to be able to develop a personal style of play  Correct balance is required  Ready made style of play  Tactical changes, variations – developed and practiced beforehand    Entails a lot of training work and tactical talk Only a skilled coach can do Theoretically and practically  Incredible difference between the games of the 60’s and 70’s compared to today’s  Especially in the transition and pressing - High quality coaches Speed of play -  - Individual qualities determine the level of performance Modern team building mechanism - Difference between friendly matches and competitive matches Evolution 25
    26. 26. Top-Notch Coaches ”The evolution can be attributed in the influence of a few coaches (and players), who have innovated new dimensios in the game”  Mario Zagallo Attacking style of play  Evolution from the 50’s  WC 1970: 4-2-4  Main focus ín building up and attacking functions  Defensively covering of space instead of opponent  Each player must participate  Pelé, Tostao, Rivelino, Jairzinho Imitated and developed in Holland, and later in Barcelona, and in the teams of Bielsa  Risky style – demands high quality players in every line  Evolution Players must have been brought up in this style 26  Lack of Culture 
    27. 27. Top-Notch Coaches  Sir Alf Ramsey – the developer of 4-4-2  Replaced the classical wing attackers with midfield wingers who had also an attacking task  Franz Beckenbauer : 5-3-2         Defencive version 5-3-2 Attacking version 3-5-2 Two man-to-man markers in the center A sweeper who played defensively behind them and offensively in front of them Defenders in the wings who have duties in the build-up Must cover the whole field from end line to end line Evolution - history 27 Cautious style of play
    28. 28. Top-Notch Coaches Rinus Michels: total- and pressure football – 4-3-3 Total football (Ajax of the 70’s)  Required actions during the build-up and attack to break through the enforced defenses  The surprise effect continuous changes in positions within and between the three lines  All players may and must take part in the build-up and attack as long as they look after their defensive tasks  Very demanding style of play individually and team tactically  Each player must Holland in Pressure football (Team participate the 70’s and ’88) ”The Hunt”  Hunt for the ball, regaining the possession asap  All three lines push up and play close to each other – familiar?  Lots of free space in the own half – vulnerability  Quick transitions when the ball is lost and won  Demands years of team building and choosing players Evolution 28  Demands very much practice of small details – movements and tasks
    29. 29. The Evolution of Football  Introduction More speed, higher tempo, more pressure in the opposite’s side, less time  Each coach has to be able to develop a personal style of play  Correct balance is required  Ready made style of play  Tactical changes, variations – developed and practiced beforehand       Entails a lot of training work and tactical talk Only a skilled coach can do Theoretically and practically Incredible difference between the games of the 60’s and 70’s compared to today’s- Individual qualities determine the level of performance Especially - the transition and pressing in High quality coaches - Modern team building mechanism Speed of play Evolution - Difference between friendly matches and competitive matches 29
    30. 30. The Ground Rules of The Team Tactical TeamBuilding -Process      Organizational guidelines Strategical Team Tactical Guidelines Personal Choice Strategical Guidelines Per Team Function Strategic Team Tactical Guidelines
    31. 31. Team Tactical Team Building Organizational Guidelines     Organizational forms Basic Tasks within the Organizational Form The Balance The Defensive Team Function as The Starting Point The Ground Rules of the Team Tactical Team Building Process
    32. 32. Team Tactical Team Building Strategic Team Tactical Guidelines  Guidelines for the Play-Making Strategy  Guidelines for the Counter Attack Strategy The Ground Rules of the Team Tactical Team Building Process
    33. 33. Team Tactical Team Building Strategic Guidelines per Team Function    Defensive Strategies as the Basis Build Up -Strategies Attacking Strategies The Ground Rules of the Team Tactical Team Building Process
    34. 34. The Ground Rules of the Psychological TeamBuilding Process         Harmony Rules of Conduct – On and Off the Field Team Hierarchy Kingdoms Clear Objectives Common Enemy Culture of the Club Strategy of Confrontation The Ground Rules of the Psychological Team Building Process        The Credibility of the Coach Consult Situation Communication Training Camps Atmosphere Success Summarizing
    35. 35. Summarizing          The Corporate World The Dream Structural Process Communication Dynamics Credibility Team Spirit Guidelines Leadership The Ground Rules of the Psychological Team Building Process
    36. 36. The Soccer Learning Process  Guidelines to Each Age Category           5 y old 6-8 y old 10-12 y old 12-14 y old 14-16 y old 16-18 y old 18-21 years old (Final Phase) Structured Training Sessions Organization Gifted and Non-Gifted The Soccer Learning Process
    37. 37. Translation to the Training Pitch      General Criteria Organization Most Common Mistakes Made in Team Tactical Training Activities That Focus on Team Tactical Assignments Team Tactical Exercises The Translation to the Training Pitch
    38. 38. Team Tactical Exercises     Defensive Cohesiveness in the Defensive Line While Under Attacking Pressure The Cogwheels of the Team Tactical Training Mechanism Destrctive TeamTactical Abilities as an Example of a Tactical Training Activity in Defense Build Up Team Function The Translation to the Training Pitch
    39. 39. Perceiving the Value of the TeamBuilding Activities Value added acts      the Style of Play The Formation of the Team Activities That Focus on Team Tactical Assignments Make Each Player Fully Understand his/her role in the squad Team Tactical Exercises Non-value added acts       Arguments between members of the team External factors Selfishness Activities Lacking the Team Building Function Team Tactical Exercises a Coach Just Exposing Himself 39