Photography 101


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Photography 101

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  • It's better to maximize resolution then crop the part you want in Photoshop instead of digital zoom
  • Bag – shock proof, water proof, convenient Memory cards – better to buy 2 2gb than 1 4gb so than if it gets corrupted it will not damage all the pictures Filter – polarizer makes colors stand out, good for travelling (makes the sky bluer) - removes reflections buy circular/neutral polarizer ) Tripod – heavy, sturdy, carbon and not plastic, can be repositioned sideways upwards and different angles Lens hood – blocks the light that comes in the lens Lens cleaning kit – blow brush, lens tissue and cleaner fluid - make sure there is no dust first before using the lens tissue or it will be like sanding your lens - wipe glass in circular motion from inside out - use anti-static brush
  • When you do override your camera and choose a specific ISO you’ll notice that it impacts the aperture and shutter speed needed for a well exposed shot. For example - if you bumped your ISO up from 100 to 400 you’ll notice that you can shoot at higher shutter speeds and/or smaller apertures.
  • When choosing the ISO setting I generally ask myself the following four questions: Light - Is the subject well lit? Grain - Do I want a grainy shot or one without noise? Tripod - Am I using a tripod? Moving Subject - Is my subject moving or stationary? Situations where you might need to push ISO to higher settings include: Indoor Sports Events - where your subject is moving fast yet you may have limited light available. Concerts - also low in light and often ‘no-flash’ zones Art Galleries, Churches etc- many galleries have rules against using a flash and of course being indoors are not well lit. Birthday Parties - blowing out the candles in a dark room can give you a nice moody shot which would be ruined by a bright flash. Increasing the ISO can help capture the scene.
  • The f-number is the ratio of that focal length divided by the diameter of the aperture (the width of the opening). when the aperture of a 200mm lens (focal length) is 50 mm (aperture opening) wide, your f-stop will be f/4, because the ratio of 200/50 equals four. If you "stop down" your aperture to half that size - 25 mm wide - your f-stop will be f/8. (200 divided by 25.) So the "f-number" gets larger as you let in less light.
  • This technique can come in particularly handy in portraiture. Tightly focus on the subject's face and open up your aperture to blur whatever is in the background. You'll have a portrait that jumps out at you you can use depth of field to make one object stand out from a large group of similar objects
  • you want to use deep depth of field – so that just about everything in the picture is in focus. This is commonly used in landscape and architectural photography, and a small aperture is the way to go
  • -More blur for low ISO -too long shutter would make movement invisible -Flash also effective for freezing
  • Under exposure caused by lack of light to add light we either use - longer aperture or slower shutter Overexposed is caised by too much light to reduce light we either use a - small aperture or faster shutter speed
  • Photography 101

    1. 1. Digital Photography 101
    2. 2. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up for a shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Photography <ul><li>Recording and generating permanent images </li></ul><ul><li>Recording light patterns as reflected from objects onto a sensitive medium through a timed exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical, digital, chemical </li></ul>
    4. 4. An art of observation <ul><li>“ To me, photography is an art of observation . It's about finding something interesting in an ordinary place... I've found it has little to do with the things you see and everything to do with the way you see them.” ~ Elliot Erwitt </li></ul>
    5. 5. A self-expression <ul><li>&quot;I wish more people felt that photography was an adventure the same as life itself and felt that their individual feelings were worth expressing. To me, that makes photography more exciting. ~ Harry Callahan&quot; </li></ul>
    6. 6. Photography SUBJECT Lighting Composition Visualization
    7. 7. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up for a shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Types of Digital Cameras <ul><li>Compact Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Great for point-and-shoot photo-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Offer plenty of scene modes </li></ul><ul><li>Some have semi-automatic and manual controls </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Digital or Prosumer Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Have high quality lenses and advanced features for creative control </li></ul><ul><li>May have mega telephoto zooms lenses while others have wide angle lenses </li></ul><ul><li>May accept accessories and add-ons including converter lenses, filters, remote controls and external flashes. </li></ul><ul><li>May have image stabilization </li></ul>
    9. 9. Single-Lens Reflex Camera This cross-section (side-view) of the optical components of an SLR shows how the light passes through the lens assembly (1), is reflected by the mirror (2) and is projected on the matte focusing screen (5) . Via a condensing lens (6) and internal reflections in the pentaprism (7) the image appears in the eye piece (8) . When an image is taken, the mirror moves in the direction of the arrow, the focal plane shutter (3) opens, and the image is projected in the film (4) in exactly the same manner as on the focusing screen.
    10. 10. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>The Exposure Triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to White Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul>
    11. 11. Parts and Features of the Digital SLR <ul><li>Sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Lens </li></ul><ul><li>Viewfinder </li></ul><ul><li>Control Panel </li></ul><ul><li>Dust Removal System for newer DSLR models </li></ul><ul><li>LCD Display </li></ul><ul><li>Built-In Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter Button </li></ul><ul><li>Live View for newer DSLR models </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Shoe </li></ul><ul><li>Self-timer </li></ul>
    12. 12. Sensor <ul><li>A device that captures the intensity of light on each of its pixels and flushes it in a memory card </li></ul><ul><li>DSLRs sensors are either CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) or CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxyde Semi-conductor) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, all Point-and-Shoot cameras use CCDs </li></ul><ul><li>DSLR’s sensor is as much as 14x as large as the sensor for P&S </li></ul><ul><li>A larger sensor would mean that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more light will hit the sensor for a given exposure time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more accurate in measuring intensity of light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less electronic noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performs much better in low light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>displays a larger dynamic range </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Sensor 2000 3000 6 Megapixel pixel is a picture element, one spot in a sensor <ul><li>DPI – dots per inch (output) </li></ul><ul><li>50-100 – billboards, tarpaulin, web </li></ul><ul><li>100-200 – inkjet, newspaper, back lit film </li></ul><ul><li>200-300 – glossy magazine, offset printing, photo lab </li></ul><ul><li>formula to get size of picture </li></ul><ul><li>PIXEL </li></ul><ul><li>DPI </li></ul><ul><li>for a 6 megapixel printed at 300 DPI the right size would be 7” x 10” </li></ul><ul><li>2000 3000 </li></ul><ul><li>300 300 </li></ul>--------- = INCHES --------- = 7” --------- = 10”
    14. 14. DSLR Lenses <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom Ring: zooming action is mostly mechanical unlike with point-and-shoot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aperture Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kit Lenses : entry-level zoom lenses designed for everyday shooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Lenses (50-55mm) : gives an angle of view that is roughly equal to the human eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Lenses : has only one focal length; known for quality and speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephoto Zoom Lenses : heavy and expensive, you need to combat camera shake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro Lenses : for shooting objects up close, producing images that are life size </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. DSLR Lenses <ul><li>Focal Length (mm – millimeter) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the higher/longer the focal length the narrower the field of view and the closer the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is used to crop the subject (include/exclude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide angle effect – short focal length, distorted, closer objects appear larger (used for effects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephoto effect – long focal length, perspective flattened distortion minimized (used for portraits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital zoom – not recommended to be used because it gets a portion of the limited optical zoom and enlarges the picture electronically. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide Angle Lenses (28 to 35mm) : useful for big subjects at fairly close range and landscapes, distorts images at the edges </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheye Lenses : at the extreme end of the wide angle lenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Note: A zoom lens is any lens that can vary its focal length. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Viewfinder <ul><li>Light travels through the lens, then hits a mirror and is eventually redirected in the viewfinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of any filter placed in front of the lens can be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally does not show the whole scene , but between 80-95% of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Will display the various focus areas superimposed over the image, and the most important image parameters at the bottom or side of the frame. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Extras <ul><li>Camera Case/Bag </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Spare Batteries/Recharger </li></ul><ul><li>Filters </li></ul><ul><li>Tripods/Monopods </li></ul><ul><li>External Flashes and Diffusers </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectors </li></ul><ul><li>Lens hood </li></ul><ul><li>Lens cleaning kit </li></ul>
    18. 18. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up for a shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Capturing Light <ul><li>The central point of photography is turning light into an image . An image is actually just an illusion. Anything that is a representation in light of a real thing is an image. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Characteristics of Light <ul><li>Light is everywhere , even where you can’t see it. Without delving too deeply into the mysterious physics of light, there are some basics that are helpful to know as a photographer: </li></ul><ul><li>We only see light when it reflects from something, or we look directly at the source </li></ul><ul><li>Light can be bounced ( reflected ) or bent ( refracted ) and always does so in predictable ways </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected light scatters depending on the “smoothness” of the surface </li></ul><ul><li>White light is made up of all of the visible colors </li></ul><ul><li>Shadows occur when something comes between a light source and another surface </li></ul><ul><li>Light varies hugely in brightness, and our eyes very cleverly adapt to see clearly in a wide varieties of brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras are far less capable of “seeing” clearly in as wide a variety of lighting conditions </li></ul>
    21. 21. camera obscura or the pinhole camera <ul><li>The light from the sun travels in parallel rays (black lines) </li></ul><ul><li>When they hit the tree, the light is scattered in all directions. This is known as “diffuse” light. (gray lines) </li></ul><ul><li>Because of diffuse light you can see the tree, as some of this scattered light hits your eyes. </li></ul>
    22. 22. camera obscura or the pinhole camera <ul><li>A single ray hitting the tree will diffuse in all directions, but only a very tiny sliver of that light will go through the small hole. </li></ul><ul><li>If you were sitting in this tent in the middle of the floor and you closed one eye and looked through the hole from there, you would only see a very tiny part of the tree at once. If you move to the right a bit, you will see the left of the tree. If you move up, you will see further down the tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Your view of the tree is opposite to the direction of your movement. </li></ul>
    23. 23. camera obscura or the pinhole camera <ul><li>Of course there is more than one ray of light hitting the tree. These rays reflect diffusely in all directions. </li></ul><ul><li>If we were to set up a screen in the tent opposite the hole, which is made of nice bright white material, we would actually be able to see an image of the tree, projected onto it! </li></ul><ul><li>For the reason that we saw parts of the tree in the opposite direction when we moved, the projected image of the tree appears upside down . </li></ul>
    24. 24. As a photographer, you should… <ul><li>Learn how to measure light </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to control light (by refraction or reflection) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to capture light </li></ul>
    25. 25. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up for a shot </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to White Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul>
    26. 26. Topics Covered <ul><li>Definition of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Digital Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Parts and Features of a Digital SLR Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Light </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up for a shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Histograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to Metering Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of Composition </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Setting Up For a Shot
    28. 28. 1. ISO <ul><li>The lower the ISO, the less sensitive your sensor is to light so less light needed </li></ul><ul><li>As the number increases, your sensor becomes more and more sensitive. Sharper but more noisy images </li></ul><ul><li>Using a higher ISO will enable you to get faster shutter speeds in lower light. This helps if you don’t have a flash and/or a tripod. </li></ul><ul><li>Be warned that the higher the ISO, the more noise and grain will enter your photo. Sharpness versus quality </li></ul><ul><li>Typically ISO 100 or less during daylight </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 200 when there’s low light or higher </li></ul>
    29. 29. 1. ISO
    30. 30. 2. White Balance <ul><li>At its simplest - the reason we adjust white balance is to get the colors in your images as accurate as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The range in different temperatures ranges from the very cool light of blue sky through to the very warm light of a candle. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t generally notice this difference in temperature because our eyes adjust automatically for it. So unless the temperature of the light is very extreme a white sheet of paper will generally look white to us. However a digital camera doesn’t have the smarts to make these adjustments automatically and sometimes will need us to tell it how to treat different light. </li></ul>
    31. 31. 2. White Balance <ul><li>Here are some of the basic White Balance settings you’ll find on cameras: </li></ul><ul><li>Auto - this is where the camera makes a best guess on a shot by shot basis. You’ll find it works in many situations but it’s worth venturing out of it for trickier lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten - this mode is usually symbolized with a little bulb and is for shooting indoors, especially under tungsten (incandescent) lighting (such as bulb lighting). It generally cools down the colors in photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent - this compensates for the ‘cool’ light of fluorescent light and will warm up your shots. </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight/Sunny - not all cameras have this setting because it sets things as fairly ‘normal’ white balance settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloudy - this setting generally warms things up a touch more than ‘daylight’ mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Flash - the flash of a camera can be quite a cool light so in Flash WB mode you’ll find it warms up your shots a touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Shade - the light in shade is generally cooler (bluer) than shooting in direct sunlight so this mode will warm things up a little. </li></ul>
    32. 32. 2. White Balance <ul><li>If light source is higher than the set WB you’ll get a blue image </li></ul><ul><li>If light source is lower than the set WB you’ll get a red image </li></ul>
    33. 33. Custom White Balance <ul><li>Tell your camera what white looks like in a shot so that it has something as a reference point for deciding how other colors should look. </li></ul><ul><li>You can do this by buying yourself a white (or grey) card which is specifically designed for this task - or you can find some other appropriately colored object around you to do the job. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Exercise <ul><li>Try the Auto White Balance and take a shot of the room </li></ul><ul><li>Try the Fluorescent White Balance and take a shot of the room </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the two pictures. </li></ul>
    35. 35. 3. Image Resolution <ul><li>Better to take a large/high resolution and just down size it </li></ul><ul><li>JPEG not good for enlargement, if can shoot in RAW then do. </li></ul>
    36. 36. 4. Exposing for the shot Exposure Triangle ISO - the measure of a digital camera sensor’s sensitivity to light Aperture - the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken Shutter Speed - the amount of time that the shutter is open
    37. 37. Aperture <ul><li>The hole through which light passes in the lens of a camera. In a camera, this opening can be adjusted. Its diameter is described by numbers like f/1.4 , f/2.8 , f/11 . </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the number (f/1.8, f/2.8), the wider the opening. The wider the opening, the more light will enter the lens. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the number (f/11, f/22), the narrower the opening. With a narrower opening, less light will enter the lens. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Aperture Affects the Depth of Field <ul><li>The wider the opening of the lens, the shallower the depth of field . This means that, if you focus on one subject, the background will be more and more out of focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the camera is not as selective as the human eye, we must learn to control depth of field to add emphasis to our pictures and to direct the attention of the viewer. </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits are generally taken with a wide aperture to make the subject stand out. </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes are generally taken with a narrower aperture so that the entire landscape is in focus. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Depth of field shallow deep
    40. 40. Shallow DOF <ul><li>photo taken at f4 </li></ul>photo taken at f4.5
    41. 41. Deeper DOF <ul><li>photo taken at f9 </li></ul>photo taken at f8
    42. 42. Shutter Speed <ul><li>A faster shutter speed means that less light enters and vice versa with a slower shutter speed. </li></ul><ul><li>As your shutter speeds decrease, though, you’ll start to introduce camera shake. </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how steady you think your hands are, when you start dipping below shutter speeds of 1/20 of a second, you’ll notice considerable blur. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, shutter speed should not be slower than 1/focal length of the lens if you’re not using a tripod. Note: The bigger the lens, heavier it gets and more chances for shake to occur. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Shutter Speed <ul><li>Controls light and subject movement </li></ul><ul><li>Higher shutter speed would freeze movement and lower shutter speed would show blur </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter is always close and only opens when shutter button is pressed </li></ul><ul><li>Apperture controls volume of light while Shuuter speed controls light through time </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter 8 means shutter is open at 1/8 of a second </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter 8” means shutter is open 8 seconds </li></ul>
    44. 44. Shutter Speed Slow Fast
    45. 45. Take advantage of your camera modes! <ul><li>P: Program Mode </li></ul><ul><li>You let the camera decide what the aperture and shutter speed should be </li></ul><ul><li>You can adjust the focus, light metering, and ISO </li></ul><ul><li>One step away from Auto and it isn’t a bad choice for most snapshots </li></ul>
    46. 46. Take advantage of your camera modes! <ul><li>A: Aperture Priority Mode </li></ul><ul><li>You can set the focus, metering, and ISO </li></ul><ul><li>You now have control over the aperture. </li></ul><ul><li>The camera will adjust the shutter speed accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the aperture affects the focus of the camera more than anything else, many photographers spend a lot of time in Av Mode. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Aperture Priority
    48. 48. Take advantage of your camera modes! <ul><li>T or sometimes S: Shutter Priority Mode </li></ul><ul><li>You still control metering, focus, and ISO </li></ul><ul><li>You control the shutter speed </li></ul><ul><li>The camera will adjust the aperture appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>This is effective for shots where you know you need either a fast or slow shutter for a particular subject. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Shutter Priority Mode
    50. 50. Exercise <ul><li>Take a picture in Aperture Priority mode. Set aperture to the widest opening possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Set aperture to f8 and take a photo. Never mind if the photo is under-exposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a picture in Shutter Priority mode. Set the shutter to any speed faster than 1/60. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a picture in Shutter Priority mode. Set the shutter to any speed slower than 1/60. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Take advantage of your camera modes! <ul><li>M: Manual mode </li></ul><ul><li>- You have control of everything: you can manually set focus, metering, ISO, aperture, and shutter speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly useful if you feel the camera isn’t making the best decision. </li></ul><ul><li>You could use the light meter that shows if the combination of the aperture, shutter and ISO is overexposed or underexposed </li></ul>
    52. 52. Manual Mode
    53. 53. Holding Your Camera <ul><li>Grip the camera firmly with one hand leaving the index finger free to operate the shutter control. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the other hand free to operate the zoom control or the focus ring (for manual focus mode) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your elbows tucked in </li></ul><ul><li>Consider getting a battery grip for a more convenient hand grip that can be used to shoot in portrait orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider leaning against a wall for extra support </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to adjust ISO, aperture, metering mode, white balance, and shutter speed without taking your eye off the viewfinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to read information found in the viewfinder (aperture, shutter speed, exposure reading). </li></ul>
    54. 54. Exercise <ul><li>Stand-up and hold your camera </li></ul><ul><li>Half-press the shutter button to meter any subject </li></ul><ul><li>Can you see the information within the viewfinder? Can you tell which is the aperture setting? Can you tell which is the shutter speed? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scene over-exposed? Is it under-exposed? If the scene is under-exposed, the camera will indicate a negative value. If the scene is over-exposed, the camera will indicate a positive value. </li></ul><ul><li>Try adjusting the settings (increase/decrease shutter speed or aperture or adjust ISO) so that the exposure will be set to 0. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Exposure <ul><li>Set your camera to Manual Mode . </li></ul><ul><li>Picture A </li></ul><ul><li>Set your aperture to f5.6 and shutter speed to 1/15 . Take a photo of any subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Picture B </li></ul><ul><li>Set your aperture to f4 and shutter speed to 1/30 . Take a photo of the same subject. Do not change the ISO or the metering mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the two pictures. Observe that they have almost the same exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you guess why? </li></ul>
    56. 56. Guide Chart <ul><li>F(apperture stop): 2, 2.8, 4 , 5.6 , 8, 11, 16, 22 </li></ul><ul><li>t (or shutter speed): 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 , 30 , 60, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>ISO: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Given that ISO is constant, an image with aperture f5.6 at 1/60 will have same exposure as another image of the same subject with f4 at 1/125. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Understanding the Histogram <ul><li>Helps the users get a quick summary of the tonal range present in any given image </li></ul><ul><li>It graphs the tones in your image from black (on the left) to white (on the right). </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the graph at any given point the more pixels of that tone that are present in an image. </li></ul><ul><li>So a histogram with lots of dark pixels will be skewed to the left and one with lots of lighter tones will be skewed to the right. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Exercise <ul><li>Look at the histogram for the pictures taken from the previous exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>What can you say about the tonal range? Are there more dark tones? Are there more light tones? </li></ul>
    59. 59. Introduction to Metering Modes <ul><li>Every time you point your camera at a scene it needs to take a guess at what is important to you in the picture and which part you want to be exposed optimally. The metering mode you have your camera set to will signal to the camera how you want it to approach this task. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Metering (Multi-segment/Zone metering) </li></ul><ul><li>- Camera attempts to take into consideration everything in your frame </li></ul><ul><li>- Numerous metering zones (35 points for Canon EOS 5D) </li></ul><ul><li>- It assesses overall lighting from all these zones and takes a best guess by averaging them to decide on how to expose the shot. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Overall Metering
    61. 61. Metering Modes <ul><li>Spot metering </li></ul><ul><li>Camera is metering from a very small ’spot’ in the scene. Instead of taking information from all 35 zones, the Canon EOS 5D hones right in on one - ignoring all others. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful mode for tricky lighting conditions where the whole scene is either darker or lighter than the point that you want to be exposed correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Spot metering gives you very exact control when there is a very specific (and small) part of the scene that you want to get right. </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable in back-lit situations to avoid getting silhouettes </li></ul><ul><li>Center-weighted Metering </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a little from both overall and spot metering modes </li></ul>
    62. 62. Spot Metering
    63. 63. 5. Getting better results <ul><li>If subject has middle gray tone then you’ll get true to life exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Middle gray reflect 18% of light received </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure value (EV) button used to override camera settings </li></ul><ul><li>Usually if subject is dark lessen EV if light add EV at around +/- 1.5 this is to show what your eyes see and not what your camera interprets </li></ul>
    64. 64. 6. Designing Photographs <ul><li>Follow the subject Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot horizontal mode if elements/ subject are arranged horizontally (landscape) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot vertically for portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Angle shot should be taken in a certain degree around 30 or 60 degrees </li></ul>
    65. 65. 7. Composition <ul><li>Cardinal rules of composition – Rule of Thirds . Place the important elements of photos where the lines intersect. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Composition - Rule of Thirds
    67. 67. Composition – Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Vertical lines such as lamp posts and trees and horizontals like the horizon should also be placed on the divisions of the thirds, rather than the center. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Composition – Rule of Thirds
    69. 69. Composition - Motion <ul><li>Panning - Motion blur of just the background while the subject is clear. Follow the subject with your camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing the Motion - use very high shutter speed, at least 1/300 </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Blur – use slower shutter speed, 1/100 or lower </li></ul>
    70. 70. Composition - Motion
    71. 71. Composition - Motion
    72. 72. Composition - Motion
    73. 73. Composition - Framing <ul><li>Could be anything: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- doorway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- bushes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on the main subject </li></ul><ul><li>High Depth of Field (narrow aperture) </li></ul><ul><li>Take the light reading on the main subject </li></ul>
    74. 74. Composition - Framing
    75. 75. Composition – Balance or Counter-Weight <ul><li>Formal balance – creating figures to form an isosceles triangle (static – boring?) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal balance – arranging figures in irregular triangles (dynamic) </li></ul>
    76. 76. Composition - Balance
    77. 77. Aspects of Balance <ul><li>There are many other factors to consider in order to make pictures appear balanced. Some of these are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>An object far from the center of the picture seems to have more weight than one near the center. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects in the upper part of a picture seem heavier than objects of the same size in the lower part of a picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation seems to increase the weight of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensely interesting objects seem to have more compositional weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular shapes seem to have more weight than irregular shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements on the right side of an asymmetrical picture appear to have more weight than elements of the same size on the left side of the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>The directions in which figures, lines, and shapes appear to be moving within the picture area are important to balance; for example, a person may be walking in a direction, or his eyes may be looking in a direction, or the shape of some element creates a feeling of movement. When the feeling of direction is present within a scene, it tends to upset the balance if judged on the size of the subject alone. </li></ul>
    78. 78. Composition – Leading Lines <ul><li>Are used to lure the eye deeper into the picture or to an important subject </li></ul><ul><li>Straight, curved, parallel, or diagonal </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, rivers, streams, bridges, branches, or fences </li></ul>
    79. 79. Composition – Leading Lines
    80. 80. Composition - Lines
    81. 81. Composition –Converging Lines
    82. 82. Composition – Selective Focus <ul><li>Isolating the subject from the background to give emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Requires use of a large aperture or long focal length to create a shallow depth of field </li></ul>
    83. 83. Composition – Showing Scale
    84. 84. Composition - Texture <ul><li>Could be anything: </li></ul><ul><li>- rocks </li></ul><ul><li>- walls </li></ul><ul><li>- tree barks </li></ul><ul><li>- surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>- hands </li></ul><ul><li>If light is coming from the side, it creates shadows in key and interesting places. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Composition - Texture
    86. 86. Composition – Shapes, Pattern
    87. 87. Composition – Point of View <ul><li>Changing your point of view can radically change the composition of your image </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional points of view: Eye (Human)-Level; Bird’s Eye View; Worm’s Eye View </li></ul>A good photograph is knowing where to stand – Ansel Adams
    88. 88. Composition – Point of View
    89. 89. Composition – Low Angle of View
    90. 90. Composition – Color and Contrast
    91. 91. Exercise <ul><li>Take a picture showing the different compositions and design elements and making use of the exposure triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Balance or Counter-Weight Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Showing Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes, Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Color and Contrast </li></ul>
    92. 92. Online Resource <ul><li> </li></ul>