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Lec. biostatistics introduction


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Lec. biostatistics introduction

  1. 1. Public Health Methodologies
  2. 2. 3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 2
  3. 3. 3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 3
  4. 4. Data• Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurements. OR• Data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. OR• Data are any facts, numbers, or text that can be processed by a computer.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 4
  5. 5. Statistics Statistics is the study of the collection, summarizing, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 5
  6. 6. Vital statistics Vital statistics is collecting, summarizing, organizing, analysis, presentation, and interpretation of data related to vital events of life as births, deaths, marriages, divorces, health & diseases.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 6
  7. 7. Biostatistics Biostatistics is the application of statistical techniques to scientific research in health- related fields, including medicine, biology, and public health.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 7
  8. 8. Descriptive Statistics The term descriptive statistics refers to statistics that are used to describe. When using descriptive statistics, every member of a group or population is measured. A good example of descriptive statistics is the Census, in which all members of a population are counted.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 8
  9. 9. Inferential or Analytical Statistics Inferential statistics are used to draw conclusions and make predictions based on the analysis of numeric data.3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 9
  10. 10. Types of Data• Raw or Primary data: when data collected having lot of unnecessary, irrelevant & un wanted information• Treated or Secondary data: when we treat & remove this unnecessary, irrelevant & un wanted information• Cooked data: when data collected not genuinely and is false and fictitious3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 10
  11. 11. Types of Data – cont.• Ungrouped data: when data presented or observed individually. For example if we observed no. of children in 6 families 2, 4, 6, 4, 6, 4• Grouped data: when we grouped the identical data by frequency. For example above data of children in 6 families can be grouped as: No. of children Families 2 1 4 3 6 2 or alternatively we can make classes: No. of children Frequency 2-4 4 5-7 23/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 11
  12. 12. Variable A variable is something that can be changed, such as a characteristic or value. For example age, height, weight, blood pressure etc3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 12
  13. 13. Types of Variable Independent variable: is typically the variable representing the value being manipulated or changed. For example smoking Dependent variable: is the observed result of the independent variable being manipulated. For example ca of lung Confounding variable: is associated with both exposure and disease. For example age is factor for many events3/3/2012 Dr. Riaz A. Bhutto 13
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