Presentation Accountability in Education Uganda


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Results of a fact finding mission on initiatives to strengthen social accountability in the education sector in Uganda

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  • Presentation Accountability in Education Uganda

    1. 1. Accountability in Education in Uganda Preliminary Findings and Suggestions for a Way Forward Presented to the Embassy of the Kingdom of The Netherlands, Uganda Joint Council of Churches, Uganda Change Agents Association, NGO Forum, Action Aid Uganda, and SNV Uganda on March 13 th , 2009 Ria van Hoewijk (IC Consult, The Netherlands ) Joseph C. Okurut (Transform, Uganda)
    2. 2. Purpose of the Presentation <ul><li>Highlighting the preliminary findings to the key people involved = you as to </li></ul><ul><li>enable you within your different mandates and capacities to (jointly) map out the next steps </li></ul><ul><li>Validation should await a final analysis and the final report </li></ul>
    3. 3. Structure of the Presentation <ul><li>Why this fact finding? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus, related concepts and conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Main findings </li></ul><ul><li>Observations and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>Way forward </li></ul><ul><li>The report will also contain sections on Context general, Education Sector, Position government in domestic accountability </li></ul>
    4. 4. Education resources being wasted – Dutch envoy The New Vision, Monday, March 2, 2009 <ul><li>Uganda’s education system has many “leakages and wastes”, Ambassador Jeroen Verheul of the Royal Netherlands Embassy has said. ……. “Resources are limited and unlikely to grow. Yet recent studies have shown that often salaries are paid to teachers who don’t teach or at least do not teach enough”. …….”While we recognise that much progress has been made in getting the funds in a timely manner, we still face the challenge of funds reaching schools later or in reduced amounts”. </li></ul><ul><li>(Adressing the 6 th MOES Planning and Budgeting workshop, Febr. 26 th -27 th ). </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why this fact finding? <ul><li>Education for All goals can only be achieved with functional domestic accountability ( EFA Global Monitoring Report , 2009 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine democracy demands citizen’s engagement going beyond free elections (“deep democracy”, ( John Gaventa, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the embassies, Dutch NGO development organisations, SNV ) prioritize investments in strengthening domestic accountability </li></ul>
    6. 6. Focus of the fact finding: domestic (internal) accountability <ul><li>Public Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>relying on government’s willingness </li></ul><ul><li>and capacity to inform, explain, </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate feedback, and its readiness to </li></ul><ul><li>take action, learn, improve </li></ul><ul><li>Social Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>relying on citizen’s agency </li></ul>
    7. 7. Related Concepts used in Uganda People’s Power Community empowerment engagement participation monitoring Fighting Corruption Citizen’s Agency Governance Monitoring Education Watch
    8. 8. Conceptual Framework Accountability is about Relations This World bank 2004 (Make Service Work for the Poor) framework - although later enriched through adding decentralised state and professional associations - does not fully reflect the Uganda situation.
    9. 9. Uganda Accountability Relations <ul><li>Need to take the New Education Act as a starting point: implications for the roles of the different ‘partners’: government, service providers and caretakers and pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Need to include accountability relations with external donors (multilateral, bilateral, Foundations, NGOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to include accountability relations with civil society: Founding Bodies, professional associations, teacher’s union, NGOs, CBOs </li></ul><ul><li>In Uganda the government is also service provider. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Conceptual Framework Accountability is a Process
    11. 11. Main Findings: who is involved? (focus on civil society) <ul><li>Specific on education </li></ul><ul><li>Founding Bodies: UJCC (Edukans supported), BESP (Teso, ICCO/Edukans supported), Catholic Secretariat, ?? </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs (and networks) through ActionAid (CEF) : Bundibuguwo CBO/NGO Forum, Livelihoods Development Initiatives (was Kiguli Development group), Acenlworo Child&Family Programmes, Christian Children Fund, Uganda Adult Education Network </li></ul><ul><li>CEFORD (Netherlands Embassy and Oxfam/Novib supported) </li></ul><ul><li>SNV </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency International </li></ul><ul><li>Deniva (Oxfam/Novib supported), </li></ul><ul><li>?? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Main Findings: who is involved? (focus on civil society) 2 <ul><li>More general (but often incl. education) </li></ul><ul><li>ACCU and regional ACC’s (some CEF supported), </li></ul><ul><li>Regional and district level NGO networks (some CEF supported), </li></ul><ul><li>Agency for Co-operation and Research in Development (Oxfam/Novib supported), </li></ul><ul><li>Uganda Governance Monitoring Programme/Group (ICCO, Oxfam/Novib, Hivos, Cordaid supported), </li></ul><ul><li>Uganda Debt Network (Cordaid supported) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CEF supported) </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Main Findings: who is involved? (focus on civil society) 3 <ul><li>Gender perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Fowode (Hivos supported), EASSI (Beijing Platform),?? </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/aids </li></ul><ul><li>HEPS, ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Water & sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>CIDI, ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Child rights </li></ul><ul><li>ANPPCAN Uganda (CEF and ICCO supported), UCRNN (ICCO supported) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge centres / research institutes </li></ul><ul><li>KRC, ActionAid, SNV, Transparency International </li></ul>
    14. 14. Main Findings: who is involved? (focus on civil society) 4 <ul><li>Capacities to build on </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learners (experiences are there) </li></ul><ul><li>Uganda Change Agents (Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Network of Uganda Researchers and Research Users (action research) </li></ul><ul><li>Not (yet) found in Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Twaweza Initiative (imagination, citizen’s agency and public accountability), Hivos and SNV supported </li></ul><ul><li>Not found in Uganda, such organisations as </li></ul><ul><li>Hakielimu (Tanzania, on Education), Novib and Hivos supported </li></ul><ul><li>IDASA (South Africa, on good governance), Netherlands supported </li></ul>
    15. 15. Observations and Reflections Key observation <ul><li>Many projects and programmes can be noticed, and progress is reported on national and lower levels (CEF publications and orally). However in terms of impact: the accountability relations and processes are still weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is that so? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Observations and Reflections <ul><li>Few CSOs focus specifically on accountability in (basic) education. Those who do so put emphasis on public or grant-aided schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The main thrust of concern is on performance (P.L.E. results, completion, retention), and only to a certain extend on following the money and on budget spending. </li></ul><ul><li>Less attention put on the balance of administration costs and resources available at the school level to facilitate teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The participation of CSOs in budget conferences is by invitation not by law / policy. </li></ul><ul><li>There is more emphasis on workshops (talk shops) at the expense of well prepared forums, that clearly hold specific actors to account on specific issues. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Observations and Reflections accountability relations <ul><li>The linkages between local and national level is often weak: aggregation of information on grass root level to inform the higher levels in the vertical chain receives only here and there some systematic attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Most initiatives assume the problem is lack of awareness and understanding of roles (to be remedied by training), ignoring that not wiling to accept responsibilities, or the quality of the relations is key, and that the problem in addition might be in the lack of sensing who is influential where and how. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Observations and Reflections approaches taken by CSOs <ul><li>Whereas many projects are geared at campaigns, lobby and advocacy, there is a general affirmation that Uganda has the right structures/policies, but implementation is weak. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis is on the phase of information gathering and to some extent on dialogue, debate, recommendations (phase 2), but actions following on that and learning, rewarding and sanctioning (phase 3) is still incidental. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak if any relations of CSOs with formal accountability actors, such as the Inspector General of Government, Auditor General, auditing units at various ministries, parliament (committees), or government programmes aimed at improving public accountability. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Observations and Reflections approaches taken by CSOs 2 <ul><li>Many reported weak conceptualisation by CSOs of their roles in the landscape of actors as mentioned in the education act 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>There is limited capitalisation on / use of the existing structures at the grass roots, such as community leaders, church, youth and women groups, change agents groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot project orientation: weak coverage, small scale, as resources come in on a project basis; scattered as (pilot) areas of operation are chosen on the bases of organisational presence, own policies and criteria. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Observations and Reflections approaches taken by CSOs 3 <ul><li>Many pilots or projects/programmes started with meagre, or even no context analysis, and mapping of existing (past, current or planned) initiatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches are in some cases designed in Kampala, or even abroad, ignoring local knowledge, experiences, and informal, traditional methodologies for social accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Except for ActionAid who, resulting from its role as host of the CEF has a rather good overview, most others have limited knowledge on what others do, why, how and where. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Observations and Reflections approaches taken by CSOs 4 <ul><li>Approaches, methodologies are not shared; no synthesis on the few existing project evaluations or analysis of experiences as to improve design and implementation, except for the work supported by CEF. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to, or active searching for best practices is only seen in international organisations. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Keeping the Flame burning! Next Steps <ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Not adding another small flame </li></ul><ul><li>Not putting a ‘master plan’ or ‘logframe’ blanket on the various flames as this will kill the fire, but put fuel on it (triggers of change) </li></ul><ul><li>Not just importing concepts, methodologies, tools etc. without localising / contextualising </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalising on existing commitment and focus (e.g. children, community groups, change agents) </li></ul><ul><li>Not assuming that a confrontational approach will improve accountability relations; ‘ engagement ’ probably is more effective, but at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging and respecting distinctive authorities and responsibilities of ‘partners in education’ on national as well as district, sub-county, parish/village and school level </li></ul><ul><li>Linking public and social accountability </li></ul>
    23. 23. Keeping the Flame burning! Next Steps 2 <ul><li>Who could put the fuel? </li></ul><ul><li>you ????????? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>action research? </li></ul><ul><li>further mapping? </li></ul><ul><li>further (build on CEF work) collecting of best practices and disseminating? </li></ul><ul><li>participatory impact study? </li></ul><ul><li>well prepared and targeted linking &learning activities? </li></ul><ul><li>creating a knowledge hub / portal (Uganda level)? </li></ul><ul><li>an Uganda Hakielimu? </li></ul><ul><li>Uwezo initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>????????? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Keeping the Flame burning! Next Steps 3 <ul><li>What is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting (by you as well as government) the key conclusion: it is time to upscale and professionalise for Uganda-wide sustainable improvement of accountability relations and processes in education </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘pusher and puller’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kick off funds: ICCO (and ??) </li></ul><ul><li>More substantial funds: multi-lateral and bilateral donors (not awaiting the Civil Society Education Fund), Hewlett Foundation and ??, Uganda Civil Society Fund, Uganda based Companies </li></ul>