PART A – TODOROV’S THEORYThis is a sheet wecompleted in classwhere we looked atthe disruptions/conflicts andresolutions indifferent genres.
PART B – TODOROV’S THEORY:The Hunger GamesTodorov suggested there are 5 stages ofnarrative:1.Equilibrium2.Disequlibrium3.recognition of Disequilibrium4.Attempt to repair disequilibrium5.New EquilibriumThe next slides will show how Todorov’stheory applies to the film ‘The HungerGames’
PART B: EQUILIBRIUM• Equilibrium is shown in the beginning of the hunger games in thescene where Katniss and Gale are out hunting and relaxing in theforest.
PART B: DISEQUILIBRIUM• Disequilibrium is shown in the scene where the reaping in takingplace.• This is because in this scene Katniss’s sister is chosen to go into theHunger Games but Katniss volunteers to take her sisters place.Peeta is also picked to enter the Hunger Games.
RECOGNITION OF DISEQUILIBRIUM• Recognition of disequilibrium can be found in the scene where thepeople taking part in the hunger games are taken into the trainingroom,• It can also be found when Haymitch begins to mentor Katniss andPeeta.• This is because in these scenes both Peeta and Katniss haveaccepted that they are going into the Hunger games.
ATTEMPT TO REPAIR DISEQUILIBRIUM• The attempt to repair the disequilibrium can be found in the sceneswhere Katniss is fighting for her life in the hunger games.• It can also be found when Katniss and Peeta meet up again andrealise that they can win and go home together.
NEW EQUILIBRIUM• The new equilibrium can be found when Katniss and Peeta surviveand win the hunger games.• This is because they have returned to their old lives, however theyare not the same as before.
Levi –Strauss believedthe world is described asbinary opposites and thisis the same in movies aswe always have a villainand a hero.The following slides willshow how this can be aapplied to a variety ofgenres.Night and Day…Example of abinary opposite.
*Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationBatman They are oppositesbecause:• Batman is good heis the hero• The Joker is evilhe is the villain• Batman is trying tosave Gotham• The Joker isdestroying itThe Joker is theevil villain fromthe batman movieBatman is thehero, his identityis a secret.
*Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationTheCraziesThey are oppositesbecause:• The man is evil andhe is trying to killinnocent people• The woman isinnocent and she istrying to survive.This character is azombies. He is evil ashe goes around killinginnocent people whohave not yet beeninfected by the virus.This woman isthe victim tryingto hide awayfrom the evilzombie.
*Film Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationMissionimpossibleThey are oppositesbecause:• Ethan is working tostop the evil forces• The other man is aterrorist• Ethan is trying toprotect the people• The other man hasthe power to killthousands if hedoesn’t get whathe wants.The man (Ethan) is anAmerican agentworking againstterrorist and evilforces to protect hiscountryThis man is a terrorist,who want power andmoney in exchange for thesafety of the people
Barthes theory is similar to Todorov’s. Barthe says that the audiencesexperiences of narrative involves anticipation and experience.Barthes identified this by codes:•Enigma code•Action code•Semantic code•Symbolic code•Cultural code.
Barthes enigma code states that narratives set up puzzles to besolved by the audience. These puzzles intrigue and draw in theaudience.For example this scene from the filmSaw raises questions from the audiencelike..Who is the person on the floor?What happened to them?Who are all the people in the room?
These are codes of behaviours or actions that lead the audienceto expect certain consequences.Thriller/ Mystery RomanceAction: villain holding a knifestanding behind teenage girl.Action: couple have broken upbut still miss each otherAssumption: The girl is going todieAssumption: the couple will getback together.
These are the connotative meanings ofcharacters, locations, objects etc.
These are symbolic features whichsignify oppositions. This example isfrom the film Harry Potter and thedeathly hallows part 2.The dark costume and evil facial expressionconnotes that this group of people are thevillains in this film.These features signify opposition withthe characters on the next page as itshows that they are one the ‘bad’side.
These are symbolic features whichsignify oppositions. This example isfrom the film Harry Potter and thedeathly hallows part 2.In this scene from the film the statues arebrought to life to defend Hogwarts. The factthat they are defending the school shows thatthe are on the ‘good’ side.In this scene a force field is created toprotect Hogwarts from the ‘dark side’.As we can see the shield protecting theschool is a white colour which signifiespeace, good and purity.This image shows the symbolic features ofthe heroes as all the characters areilluminated in a bright white light.
Another Example from The Lord of the Rings.Gandalf representsgood, which theaudience can tellbecause of thecolour of his clothes(white) and hisrelaxed and calmdemeanourFrom this picture theaudience can tell thatthis character is the‘villain’ because of hisdark clothes, angryfacial expression andevil disfigured face.
Outside knowledge we share to bring understanding of themeaning in a text. This often happens through references topopular culture and historical events.The cultural code can be appliedto the film the Kings Speechbecause it is based on historicalevents.The Kings Speech is a Britishhistorical drama film about KingGeorge VI ( played by Colin firth)who, to cope with a stammer,sees Lionel Logue.
Propp’s theoryPropp developed a theory about the seven types of characters intraditional classic fairy tales. He called this the ‘ seven spheres of action’which are :1. Hero2. Villain3. Dispatcher4. Donor5. helper6. Heroine7. False heroThe next slides will identify these characters in the film The hungergames.
Propp – HeroThe hero is usually:●On a quest/ search●Traditionally male however today more female heroes arebeing seen like Katniss from The Hunger Games
Propp – villianThe villain :●Opposes the hero●Causes destruction●And often poses a threat to the safety of the heroine.●The ultimate villain from the hunger games would bethe president of Capitol as he is the person that createdthe hunger games.●However there is another villain in the movie and thiswould be Cato as he poses a threat to the safety ofboth Katniss and Peeta.
Propp - dispatcherThe dispatcher usually :●Starts the hero on their way.●Is the father of the heroine.●In the case of The Hunger Games Cinna is thedispatcher as he helps Katniss and prepares herfor the hunger games.
Propp - donorThe Donor usually:• Helps the hero by giving them a tool/gift(which could also be advice) to help them ontheir journey• The donor in the Hunger games is Haymitchas he helps to prepare Katniss for thehunger games by giving her advice on whatto do.
Propp - helper• As the name suggests the helper assiststhe hero in restoring normality/ equilibrium• Rue is the helper in the Hunger Games asshe helps Katniss when she is hurt andtakes care of her.
Propp - heroine• The Heroine is usually female – but not always– and is a more passive and vulnerablecharacter. The heroine often falls in love withhero• In the Hunger Games Peeta is the heroine ashe falls in love with Katniss and neededrescuing from the Katniss.
Propp – false hero The false hero is initially on the side of the hero but then turns against ordeceives him/her Tempts hero away from quest. There is no false hero in The Hunger Games, so an example of a false herofrom another movie would be Victor from the Underworld movie.Victor is the false hero because:•He lied to Selene (the hero) by telling herthat the lycans had killed her family when ithad been him.•He tried to kill Selene and the man the sheloved.
The diegesis is the internal world created by the story that thecharacters themselves experience and encounter. An example of this is the film Avatar as the characters are in their ownworldDiegesis
Unrestricted narration: An unrestricted narration is one which has no limit to the informationthat is presented ( there is nothing hidden from the audience). An example of this is the documentary March of the Penguins.Narrative range –
Restricted narration: Restricted narration only offers a restricted amount of informationand this may be to create enigmas. Restricted narration is usually usedin thrillers. An example of restricted narration in films is the film TexasChainsaw Massacre as the villain is wearing a mask which means he ishiding his identity and the audience is unable to see who he is.Narrative range -
Allan Cameron identified four types of modular narratives which are:• Forking path• Episodic• Anachronic• Split screenAs I am doing the green level I will explain the forking path, episodicand anachronic narrative.lModular narratives: AllancAMERON
Forking paths juxtapose alternate version of a story, showing thepossible outcomes that might result from small changes in a singleeven of group of events. An example of this is in the movie Sliding Doors, where the storyalternates between the character catching the train and finding herboyfriend in bed with another woman, and the character missing thetrain and not finding out about her boyfriend. To understand this narrative better, the trailer for thisfilm explains how this forking path narrative is used. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsQuNu4NBmQ&safe=activeForking paths
This narrative involves flash-backs and flash-forwards, thesenarratives also often repeat scenes directly or via a differentperspective. An example of an anachronic film is the film 4-3-2-1 as in this film thesame day is shown four times but in the perspectives of four differentpeople.Anachronic
Episodic narratives can be organised as an abstract series or an anthology.• Abstract series – which is structured so that all the series go in order.• Anthology narrative – consists of a series of shorter tales which appear to bedisconnected but share a random similarity. Episodic structure can also be described as narratives that have many heroeswith many goals. An example of this is the film Crash which is an anthologynarrative.EpisodicThe film crash is episodic because: It features many characters that aim for their owngoals The characters – and their goals- are intertwinedwith each other ( for example the shop owner andthe locksmith ) Each character has their own story which doesntappear to be connected but is.