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ADDRESSING LIABILITY AND RISK IN CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS June 29, 2011 Meeting
Leadership Decision  Making Risk Management
GOALS
How do you make a decision?
 
DECISION MAKING F acts A lternatives R isks T he consequences
 
LEADERSHIP <ul><li>What is your definition of a leader? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your department’s definition of leadersh...
 
 
RISK MANAGEMENT
Who is the facility’s risk manager?
WHO GETS SUED? <ul><li>Officer (conduct) </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and Administrators (failure to do something) </li><...
LEVELS OF LIABILITY <ul><li>Civil Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional torts </li></ul><ul><li>Negligence Actions </li></...
COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS Adapted from Gordon Graham, Graham Research Consultants High Frequency Low Frequency High Risk Low R...
SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul>
 
SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Training </...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Growing area of litigation </li></ul><ul><li>Standard:  deliberate indifference  to the...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Be proactive! </li></ul><ul><li>Training : implement policies and procedures </li></ul>...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Supervisor Liability: Shaw v. Stroud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual or constructive knowl...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Use of Force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced Prisoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cr...
SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Classificat...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must protect a prisoner’s safety </li></ul></ul>...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLBTQI Inmates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race <...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Duty to Protect from Assaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government actors have  a duty to...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff must show acts or omissions sufficiently...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain medical evaluation of prisoner whenever pos...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay in medical treatment, causing a more serious...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the degree of liability for the jail when the d...
SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prison officials are obligated to provide inmates wit...
SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes wi...
MISCELLANEOUS PRISONER RIGHTS <ul><li>Identity Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Strip Searches </li></ul><ul><li>Religious A...
IDENTITY VERIFICATION <ul><li>Cannot rely on the arresting agency’s identification of an individual.  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
STRIP SEARCHES <ul><li>Preliminary Matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered intrusive and subject to 4 th  Amendment Prote...
STRIP SEARCHES <ul><li>Justification to Perform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be done automatically during the booking pro...
RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATIONS <ul><li>Accommodations requested:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATIONS <ul><li>Religious Land Use of Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govern...
GRIEVANCE PROCESS <ul><li>“ No action shall be brought with respect to prison conditions under §1983 or any other federal ...
EMPLOYMENT ISSUES <ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Work conditi...
BUILDING YOUR DEFENSE <ul><li>Before Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Post Incident </li></ul>
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
 
Contact Information [email_address] Extern to the Police Legal Advisor, City of Tempe
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Addressing Liability and Risk in Correctional Institutions

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Addressing Liability and Risk in Correctional Institutions

  1. 1. ADDRESSING LIABILITY AND RISK IN CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS June 29, 2011 Meeting
  2. 2. Leadership Decision Making Risk Management
  3. 3. GOALS
  4. 4. How do you make a decision?
  5. 6. DECISION MAKING F acts A lternatives R isks T he consequences
  6. 8. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>What is your definition of a leader? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your department’s definition of leadership? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the duties and responsibilities of a leader? </li></ul>
  7. 11. RISK MANAGEMENT
  8. 12. Who is the facility’s risk manager?
  9. 13. WHO GETS SUED? <ul><li>Officer (conduct) </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and Administrators (failure to do something) </li></ul><ul><li>Agency (deep pockets) </li></ul>
  10. 14. LEVELS OF LIABILITY <ul><li>Civil Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional torts </li></ul><ul><li>Negligence Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Violations of Civil Rights (42 U.S.C. § 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) </li></ul><ul><li>42 U.S.C. § 1997a </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Actions </li></ul><ul><li>State criminal actions </li></ul><ul><li>Depravation of Rights Under Color of Law (18 U.S.C. § 242) </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate Indifference </li></ul>
  11. 15. COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS Adapted from Gordon Graham, Graham Research Consultants High Frequency Low Frequency High Risk Low Risk
  12. 16. SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul>
  13. 18. SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Force </li></ul>
  14. 19. SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Growing area of litigation </li></ul><ul><li>Standard: deliberate indifference to the inmates’ constitutional rights </li></ul>Training Documentation Supervision
  15. 20. SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Be proactive! </li></ul><ul><li>Training : implement policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation : if it is not documented, it did not happen! </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision : performance management </li></ul>Training Documentation Supervision
  16. 21. SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Supervisor Liability: Shaw v. Stroud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual or constructive knowledge of subordinate’s conduct; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor’s response was “so inadequate” to show deliberate indifference; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An link between supervisor’s inaction and injury to plaintiff. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. SAFETY AND SECURITY: STAFF <ul><li>Use of Force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced Prisoner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cruel and unusual punishment standard (8 th Amendment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonableness standard (4 th Amendment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-trial Detainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 th Circuit : reasonableness standard (4 th Amendment) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Duty to Protect from Assault </li></ul><ul><li>Medical </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul>
  19. 24. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must protect a prisoner’s safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it is a violation of prisoner’s rights to do this through use of a discriminatory scheme of classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict scrutiny standard </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLBTQI Inmates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang Affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Duty to Protect from Assaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government actors have a duty to protect prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate indifference standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly no liability if the officer responded to the situation in a reasonable manner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 27. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff must show acts or omissions sufficiently harmful to evidence deliberate indifference to serious medical needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard: cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain medical evaluation of prisoner whenever possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But , having an inmate evaluated by a medical professional may not be enough if there is other deliberate indifference. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Medical Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay in medical treatment, causing a more serious injury/illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to Follow Doctor’s Orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental Needs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the degree of liability for the jail when the detained individuals’ injury is self inflicted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still have a duty to protect prisoner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard: deliberate indifference to the need for suicide prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whether officers knew that the detained individual was a suicide risk; and </li></ul><ul><li>The steps taken by the department to reduce the risk of custodial suicide </li></ul>
  26. 31. SAFETY AND SECURITY: INMATES <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prison officials are obligated to provide inmates with nutritionally adequate meals on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not doing this = Serious deprivation (and liability) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. SAFETY AND SECURITY <ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates </li></ul><ul><li>General Public </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes will be magnified </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Good will </li></ul>
  28. 33. MISCELLANEOUS PRISONER RIGHTS <ul><li>Identity Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Strip Searches </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance Process </li></ul>
  29. 34. IDENTITY VERIFICATION <ul><li>Cannot rely on the arresting agency’s identification of an individual. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jail must have own policies, procedures, and practices to identify the arrestee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due process violation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. STRIP SEARCHES <ul><li>Preliminary Matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered intrusive and subject to 4 th Amendment Protections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing searches for institutional security (not evidence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governed by 9 th Circuit case law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There have been no cases involving the rules on strip searches decided by the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 th Circuit is relatively restrictive on this issue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 36. STRIP SEARCHES <ul><li>Justification to Perform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be done automatically during the booking process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have individualized reasonable suspicion to believe the particular suspect is concealing weapons or contraband </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manner must be reasonable </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing of prisoner during clothing change or showering = strip search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without individualized reasonable suspicion, this is a violation of the 4 th Amendment </li></ul></ul>
  32. 37. RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATIONS <ul><li>Accommodations requested: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious texts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, 1st and 14th Amendment Claims </li></ul>
  33. 38. RELIGIOUS ACCOMMODATIONS <ul><li>Religious Land Use of Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governs jails and prisons that accept federal prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides protections for religious rights unless strict scrutiny standard met </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. GRIEVANCE PROCESS <ul><li>“ No action shall be brought with respect to prison conditions under §1983 or any other federal law by prisoner unless all administrative remedies available are exhausted.” 42 U.S.C. 1997e(a) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means that prisoner must “properly” exhaust his/her remedies through a grievance process before filing suit in federal court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proper standard only applies to those who are prisoners when they file suit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grievance must give enough information to alert the prison to the problem and facilitate its resolution </li></ul></ul>
  35. 40. EMPLOYMENT ISSUES <ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Work conditions, hours, wages </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING! </li></ul>
  36. 41. BUILDING YOUR DEFENSE <ul><li>Before Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Post Incident </li></ul>
  37. 42. CONCLUSION
  38. 43. CONCLUSION
  39. 45. Contact Information [email_address] Extern to the Police Legal Advisor, City of Tempe

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