MORALITY• is the quality of human acts which leads us to call some of them good and some bad.• Form the latin means MORALITAS (means manner, character, proper behavior)
The Foundation of the Moral Life 1. Man 2. The Human Other 3. God
1. Man - WHO is man? WHAT is man? a.) For Aristotle and the scholastics, man is rational animal. b.) Msgr. Fulton Sheen compares him to a three-level structure the 1st level is his body, the 2nd level is his soul, & the 3rd level is his spirit. c.) Traditional philosophy presents the soul as the composed of the intellect & the will. d.) To Teilhard de Chardin, man is a phenomenon,”a very special phenomenon”
• 2. The Human Other - today when so much conflict is going on in the world due to violations of human rights, a review of the traditionalists’ charge that contemporary ethics is weak in its vagueness of personal relationships and moral choices, as well as for the contemporaries’ charge that traditional ethics is frustrating in its formalism and concentration on acts instead of persons
The Determinants of Morality• The act in itself• The motive of the act• Circumstances of the act – Who - How – What - when – Where – With whom – Why
Human actsCharacteristics of Human Act• It must be performed by a conscious agent who is aware of what he is doing of its consequences.• It must be performed by an agent who is acting freely , that is , by his own violation and powers.• It must be performed by an agent who decides willingly to perform the act.
Kinds of Human Act1. Elicited Acts – voluntary uses of understanding and will2. Command Acts – are perfected by the action of mental and bodily power under the control of the will, or so to spread under orders from the will.
Actions that are classified into:• Moral – refers to the action which are on conformity with the norm of morality• Immoral – Actions which are not in conformity with the norm of morality• Amoral – action which stand neutral in relation to the norm of morality.