History of Education in Libya
The Ottoman Empire encouraged Koran schools from the sixteenth to the twentieth
century’s in...
In 1951, about 10 percent of Libyans were literate. At that time there were no female
teachers. Secondary school teachers ...
training institutes whose curriculums dovetail with those of vocational, technical, and
universities.
Technically trained ...
Education

School/Level

Grade
From

Grade
To

Age
From

Age
To

Years

Notes

other
alternative is
religious
secondary
sc...
Middle Education
The final 3 years of basic education take place at middle school. Upon completion,
a basic education cert...
According to figures reported for the year 2000, approximately 766,807 students
attended primary school and had 97,334 tea...
Web Rank

University

Local Name

City

2

Benghazi University

‫جامعة ب ن غازي‬

Benghazi

3

University of Tripoli

‫جام...
programs help the government impart skills and attack illiteracy simultaneously.
Government employees are given full pay a...
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Libya Educational System

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Libya Educational System

  1. 1. History of Education in Libya The Ottoman Empire encouraged Koran schools from the sixteenth to the twentieth century’s in Libya. Small kuttabs, or Arab Koran schools, were affiliated with mosques and taught children to read the holy Koran and write Arabic script. Higher order religious training was available through institutes, such as Murad Pasha and Darghut Pasha. Here students could also study law (figh). Zawiya stressed the study of astronomy, science, geography, history, mathematics, and medicine, as well as religion. Some zawiya also taught military arts to defend the faith. Italy expanded educational opportunities as compared with the Ottomans. By 1939, Libya had 93 Italian schools. However, these were for the exclusive education of Italian settlers and children of administrators. These schools rivaled schools in Rome, but Arabs and Bedouins could not attend them. In addition to the Italian schools for Italian youth, there were 16 Jewish schools, 1 Greek school, and 418 Arab schools, which were religious schools or Kuttabs for the most part. Libyans graduating from these kuttab schools were not able to compete with Italians. The only secondary schools in the country were built to educate Italian children; Arabs and Bedouins were again not allowed to attend. Under Italian rule, Libyans were denied education beyond the fourth grade and discouraged from learning either the Bedouin or Arabic language. They were taught Italian, to love Italy, and not to trust Arabs or Bedouins. Poor Italians did menial labor, semi-skilled, and skilled work. Little was left for the Libyans. Italian schools continued to function, but Libyan Arab education was added. Textbooks and syllabi were rewritten in Arabic. Government primary and secondary schools were built throughout Libya and it reopened Koran schools that had closed during the independence struggle. This gave education a strong religious element. A shortage of qualified Libyan teachers led to rote learning, rather than reasoning. Despite these limitations, school enrollments rose rapidly, especially primary education. Jewish schools declined and closed as Jews migrated to the new state of Israel. Vocational education was added, and Libya's first university was opened in 1955 at Benghazi. Women began to attend school in growing numbers, and adult education was added to the system. Total school enrollment at the end of the colonial era was 34,000. Between 1951 and 1962 enrollment increased to 150,000 and by 1969, just before the revolution, enrollment had increased to 360,000 students. Mobile classrooms became common, as did prefabricated classrooms. Classes were even held in tents in desert oases. Through these efforts, enrollments totaled 1.2 million students by 1986. There were 670,000 males (54 percent) and 575,000 females (46 percent). One third of the Libyan population was enrolled in school or in some other form of educational endeavor. Between 1970 and 1986, Libya built 32,000 new classrooms for primary, secondary, and vocational schools. The number of teachers rose from 19,000 to 79,000 during the same time period. The student teacher ratio also rose and the quality of education suffered.
  2. 2. In 1951, about 10 percent of Libyans were literate. At that time there were no female teachers. Secondary school teachers numbered 25, and only 14 Libyans held university degrees. A national education system was built virtually from scratch. By 1977, literacy rose to 51 percent. The literacy rate for women during the same time-frame rose from 6 percent to 31 percent. By the late 1980s more than 70 percent of men were literate as compared to 35 percent of women. In the early twenty-first century, education at all levels is free, and university students are given very generous stipends to encourage them to pursue higher education and modernize the workforce. For students ages 6 through 15 years of age, education is compulsory. Roughly 8 percent of Libya's entire budget is dedicated to supporting education up through university level. The revolutionary regime has considerably expanded the educational system that it inherited from the monarchy. All types of education are seen as equal, since human knowledge is viewed as inherent to building a modern civilization. Many schools are needed to fulfill these aims. Libya still suffers from a shortage of qualified Libyan teachers at all levels, and female attendance at the secondary and higher levels is low. An attempt to close all private and religious schools since 1970 has created problems. Vocational and technical training lag the rest of the system. In 1977, fewer than 5,000 students were enrolled in 12 technical high schools. By 1990, most doctors, dentists, and pharmacists were expatriates, despite having nearly 17,000 Libyan students studying for degrees in these disciplines. Libyan youth avoid scientific and technical training, preferring white-collar jobs associated with prestige and high social status. Reliance on foreign technicians will characterize Libya's economy well into the foreseeable future. From 1981, compulsory military education for males and females formed part of the curriculum for all secondary schools and universities. Male and female students must wear uniforms to class and attend daily military exercises and physical training. University students are not forced to wear uniforms, but they must attend military camps for training. Females are encouraged to attend special female military academies. These measures are not popular, especially among the families of many females. A backlash might be expected in the future. The increase in female enrollment is remarkable, considering the fundamentally conservative and religious nature of Libya society on gender issues. Libya's first university was founded at Benghazi in 1955, and it had a branch in Tripoli. These two campuses became separate universities in 1973. In 1976, they were renamed Gar Yunis University and Al Fatah University, respectively. A technical university, specializing in engineering and petroleum, opened at Marsa al Burayqeh in 1981. Al Fatah added schools of nuclear engineering, electronic engineering, and pharmacy during the 1980s. An agriculture college was constructed at Al Bayda and technical institutes exist at Birak, Hun, and Bani Walid. The expansion of opportunities in higher education is seen as vital to meeting personnel requirements by the revolutionary regime. Eventually, many secondary schools will be converted into special
  3. 3. training institutes whose curriculums dovetail with those of vocational, technical, and universities. Technically trained students are compelled to work in the areas of their training, which causes some discontent. The idea is to end dependence on foreign technical workers, but this is unlikely in the near future, especially in light of recent cutbacks in spending on technical education. Enrollment trends for higher education have moved steadily upward from independence to the present. There were 3,000 university students in 1969. By 1975 this number increased to 12,000, and by 1980, it reached 25,000. In 1992, this figure soared to 72,899, of whom 46 percent were female. The increase in female university enrollment is especially impressive, considering that in 1970 females were only 9 percent of the university student population. Libya formerly paid totally for students to attend foreign universities and, by 1978, some 3,000 Libyans were studying in America. But in 1985, Libya cut back on fellowships for foreign study, forcing many Libyan students to continue their education locally. University students were among the few groups to openly express dissatisfaction with that. Students feel that university education is the path to personal and social advancement best left free from government interference. They resent constant efforts to control their thought and to politicize education at every level. For example, in 1976, university students mounted violent protest in Benghazi and Tripoli over compulsory military training. Students studying French and English at Al Fatah University frustrated efforts to close their departments and destroy their libraries. Formal education Education System in Libya Education School/Level Primary Primary School Grade From Grade To Age From Age To Years 1 6 6 12 6 Notes Students attend Vocational or Secondary Secondary 12 Education 14 3 Technical schools for secondary education. The
  4. 4. Education School/Level Grade From Grade To Age From Age To Years Notes other alternative is religious secondary school. Extends for 3-4 Specialized Secondary years. 15 19 3 Secondary Considered A levels Higher Education extends from 3 Higher years at Education Technical Tertiary Colleges on to 6 years at other colleges. Primary Education The first 9 years of school education in Libya are compulsory and free. This basic education program includes lessons in Arabic, Islamic languages, Jamahiriyi society, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, art, music, and technical and physical education. The first 6 years of this take place at primary school.
  5. 5. Middle Education The final 3 years of basic education take place at middle school. Upon completion, a basic education certificate may be awarded, following which pupils have the choice of finding work, or going on to secondary school. Secondary Education Grades 10 to 12 at secondary school complete the Libyan schooling cycle at general level, where students may choose between science and arts to prepare to go on to university. Should they prefer to go to technical secondary school instead, then they may spend 4 years studying one of economics, arts and media, biology, engineering or social sciences there, with a view to perhaps spending time at a higher institution later too. Vocational Education Vocational education programs are available to pupils who do not complete their 9 years of basic education, although they may receive these during this period too. Over 44 programs are available in fields as diverse as electrical & mechanical, building & carpentry, architectural, agricultural and marine fishing, and even in what are referred to locally as female vocations. Tertiary Education Higher education in Libya is provided by both general and specialized universities, and polytechnics, higher institutes and teacher training colleges too. There are 8 universities of which the University of Libya (depicted here) is the oldest having been founded in 1955. In 1973 it spawned the Universities of Benghazi (Garyounis) and Tripoli (Al Fateh). There is also an Open University based in Tripoli, but with 16 branch campuses spread throughout the country.
  6. 6. According to figures reported for the year 2000, approximately 766,807 students attended primary school and had 97,334 teachers; approximately 717,000 students were enrolled in secondary, technical, andvocational schools; and about 287,172 students were enrolled in Libya’s universities. In 2001 public expenditures on education amounted to about 2.7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP). Although no figures were found for government expenditures on education, Libyan television announced on September 1, 2004, that a new ministry for education had been formed, the General People’s Committee for Higher Education. In the early 1980s, estimates of total literacy were between 50 and 60 percent, or about 70 percent for men and 35 percent for women, but the gender gap has since narrowed, especially because of increased female school attendance. For 2001 the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report estimates that the adult literacy rate climbed to about 80.8 percent, or 91.3 percent for males and 69.3 percent for females. According to 2004 U.S. government estimates, 82 percent of the total adult population (age 15 and older) is literate, or 92 percent of males and 72 percent of females. Grading System in Libya Libya GPA calculator Scale US Grade 85.00 - 100.00 A 75.00 - 84.99 A- 65.00 - 74.99 B 50.00 - 64.99 C 35.00 - 49.99 D 0.00 - 34.99 F Universities in Libya This list includes universities, colleges, vocational schools, and other higher education institutions. Web Rank 1 University Local Name City Sabha University ‫جامعة س بها‬ Sabha
  7. 7. Web Rank University Local Name City 2 Benghazi University ‫جامعة ب ن غازي‬ Benghazi 3 University of Tripoli ‫جامعة طراب لس‬ Tripoli 4 Academy of Graduate Studies 5 Libyan International Medical University ‫أك ادي م ية ال ذرا سات‬ ‫ال ع ل يا‬ Janzour ‫ال جامعة ال ل ي ب ية‬ ‫ال ذول ية ل ل ع لىم‬ AL-Fwaihat ‫ال ط ب ية‬ 6 Omar Al-Mukhtar University ‫جامعة عمر ال مخ تار‬ Bayda 7 Misrata University ‫جامعة م صرات ة‬ Misurata 8 Al Zawiya University ‫ال ساوي ة جامعة‬ Zawiya The Higher Institute of Computer ‫ال م عهذ ال عال ي‬ Technology ‫ل ت ق ن يات ال حا سىب‬ 9 Tripoli Non formal Education Adult Education: Libya confronts colonial neglect when it attacks adult education and tries to remedy past abuses. In 1973, 51 percent of the population was illiterate. By 1980, this had fallen to 47.1 percent or 765,000 people, of whom 253,000 or 28.5 percent were male, and 512,000 or 69.4 percent were female. In 2000, this number declined to 20.2 percent, of whom 9.1 percent were male, and 32.4 percent were female (UNESCO). A variety of successful programs have been directed at illiteracy, and as the numbers show, progress has been made. There are centers for literacy training in each district. Baladiya or centers for literacy training often have vocational and technical programs attached to functional literacy programs. About 7,000 students per year benefit from these programs. The Secretariat of Labor also runs other programs to help upgrade workers. The Secretariats of Commerce and Electricity run programs to upgrade skills in road maintenance, construction, airport management, telecommunications, and public transportation. The Secretariat of Agriculture trains 700 students per year in tractor operation and management, farm machinery, tool use, and maintenance. Worker development
  8. 8. programs help the government impart skills and attack illiteracy simultaneously. Government employees are given full pay and release time to encourage personal growth. Programs vary in intensity and last from one month to four years in duration, depending on the goal of the program. The government's goal is to have each worker reach a fourth grade level in reading and math, as well as to develop specific job related skills. Despite great strides, illiteracy is still considered a major problem in Libyan society. Because of the demand for skilled labor, there is great competition for graduates of each program. Distance Education: Barnamaj Nahw al-Nur and similar television programs attack adult illiteracy by providing the basics of reading and mathematics to adults in a creative and inviting manner. Through such programs remote populations can be reached, which might otherwise be neglected, but the cost per student is very high. References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Libya http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/855/Libya-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html http://www.classbase.com/countries/Libya/Education-System http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Lang uage=en&BR_Country=4340 http://www.classbase.com/Countries/Libya/Grading-System http://www.classbase.com/Countries/Libya/Universities http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/862/Libya-NONFORMAL-EDUCATION.html

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