Canada Educational System


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Canada Educational System

  1. 1. CANADA Canada is the second largest country in the World located in North America. It has ten provinces and three territories. There are six time zones in Canada. Ottawa is the capital city which is located in the province on Ontario. Canada is neighboring with USA and share the largest land border in the World. The population of Canada is 34 million which is mostly contributed by foreigners settled in Canada. Canada has a diverse makeup of nationalities and cultures, and has constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism. Canada has high slandered of living and it has been ranked at no 4 in the World. Vancouver, Toronto, Calgary, Montreal and Edmonton are the main cities. The main languages are English and French and these are official languages at Federal level making it a bilingual nation most native French speakers in Canada live in the province of Quebec and interpretation may be required for business meetings. With a very high per-capita income, excellent infrastructure and living standers Canada is one of the world's most highly developed countries. It is a member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN. Canada is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary democracy. Many people believe that Canada’s climate is same and cold throughout the year but this is not the case. In winter temperature falls below freezing point in most parts of the country. South-western coast has a relatively mild climate. Along the Arctic Circle, mean temperatures are below freezing for seven months a year. In summer southern provinces have high level of humidity in air and temperature surpasses 30 degrees Celsius regularly similarly Western and south eastern Canada have high rainfall but the Prairies are dry experience just 250 mm to 500 mm of rain every year. KEY POINTS The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Canada is the second largest country in the world, smaller only to Russia. Culture Name - Canadian Population: 28 million people Geographic size: 3.9 million square miles Capital: Ottawa (has the coldest average temperature of any capital city in the world). Major cities and population: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Halifax
  2. 2. 7. Area: 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi), 91.08% land 8.92% water Type of government: Federal Parliamentary Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy. Canada is a federation, which means powers are shared between federal and provincial governments. 8. Head of Government: Prime Minister. Queen Elizabeth II is Canada's official head of state, and is represented in Canada by the Governor General. 9. There are more than 100 national parks and historic sites in Canada. 10. Mountain Ranges include: Torngats, Appalachians, Laurentians, Rocky, Costal, Mackenzie, Mt.St. Elias and the Pelly Mountairs. 11. The longest river is the Mackenzie River flowing 4241 km through the NWT. 12. Canada is well-known as a champion of peace, human rights, equality and democracy. It is active in many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth and La Francophonie National Symbols: 13. 14. 15. The National emblem is the maple leaf and has been associated with Canada since the 1700's. The flag of Canada has two red bars and a white center - within there being a maple leaf. It was adopted as the National Flag in 1965. (Before hand Canada used the Union Jack - the British Flag for its flag.) The National Anthem for Canada is "O Canada" - proclaimed on July 1st 1980 - a century after being sung for the first time. (Before hand Canadians sang God Save the Queen/King) GEOGRAPHY
  3. 3. Canada is the world’s second-largest country (9,976,140 km2), surpassed only by the Russian Federation. The country is encased by the world’s longest coastline. Distances in Canada can be vast. Consider the Trans-Canada Highway, which at 7,821 km long is longer than the distance from London to Bombay. More than 50 percent of Canada’s land is blanketed with rich forest ranges, accounting for 10 percent of the world’s remaining forests and 20 percent of the world’s remaining wilderness areas. Canada is made up of ten provinces and three territories. The provinces from west to east are: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and furthest east, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The territories are the Yukon, the Northwest Territories (NWT), and Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, formed in 1999 out of the eastern part of the NWT and the homeland of the native Inuit. There are some two million lakes in Canada, covering about 7.6% of the Canadian landmass. Canada shares four of the five Great Lakes, the largest sources of fresh water in the world, with the United States. The largest lake situated entirely in Canada is Great Bear Lake (31,326 km2) in the Northwest Territories. At 3,058 km long, the St. Lawrence is Canada’s most important river, providing a seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. The longest Canadian river is the Mackenzie, which flows 4,241 km through the Northwest Territories. Canada has six time zones. The easternmost, in Newfoundland, is three hours and 30 minutes behind Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The other time zones are the Atlantic, the Eastern, the Central, the Rocky Mountain and, farthest west, the Pacific, which is eight hours behind GMT. Despite the enormous size of this country, approximately 80 percent of all the people in Canada live in a concentrated area of cities and towns within 100 kilometres of the U.S. border. Region Atlantic Region Central Canada Prairie Provinces West Coast North Province/Territory Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Nunavut Northwest Territories Yukon Territory Capital St. John’s Charlottetown Halifax Fredericton Québec Toronto Winnipeg Regina Edmonton Victoria Iqaluit Yellowknife Whitehorse
  4. 4. GEOGRAPHIC LANDMARKS Top 10 Canadian Landmarks" Canada is the northern-most country in North America and is surrounded by three oceans (Pacific to the west, Arctic to the north and Atlantic to the east). With ten provinces and three territories, Canada is the world’s second largest country by total area (Russia is by far the largest). Canada’s border with the United States to their northwest (Alaska) and to the south is the world’s longest border. Here’s my list of the top 10 landmarks in the beautiful country of Canada: 10. Confederation Bridge Read With its official opening on May 31, 1997, the Confederation Bridge is located in the Abegweit Passage of the Northumberland Strait and links together the provinces of Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. The two-lane highway toll bridge is eight miles long and it is the longest bridge in the world that crosses ice-covered water. The majority of the bridge is 40 meters above water, with a 60 meter high navigation span for traveling ships. The speed limit on the bridge is 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) and takes approximately ten minutes to cross. Prior to the construction of the Confederation Bridge, people wanting to visit Prince Edward Island had to travel by ferries. 9. West Edmonton Mall Located in Edmonton, Alberta, the West Edmonton Mall is the largest shopping mall in North America and the fifth largest in the entire world. It was previously the world’s largest mall from 1981 until 2004. With an area of over six million square feet, the mall contains over 800 stores and services, along with over 23,000 employees. There is also parking for more than 20,000 vehicles. With over 28 million visitors each year, the mall offers many theme parks and attractions, such as Galaxyland, World Waterpark, Marine Life, Ice Palace, Putt n’ Glow and Deep Sea Derby, just to name a few. They also have numerous nightlife and dining
  5. 5. options, such as the Cactus Club, Edmonton Event Centre, Empire Ballroom, Jubilations Dinner Theatre, Palace Casino and other lounges. We also can’t forget about their three theatres, along with endless other attractions, like the Caesar’s Bingo, Centre of Gravity, Skateboard Park and the Fun House & Haunted House. 8. Hopewell Rocks The Hopewell Rocks are rock formations caused by tidal erosions located on the upper shores of the Bay of Fundy. Specifically, they are located at Hopewell Cape, which is near Moncton, New Brunswick. The base formations of the rocks are covered with water twice daily, but can also be seen from ground level at low tide. With tides sometimes as high as 52 feet, the Hopewell Rocks are home to one of the highest average tides in the world. Also in the area is Fundy National Park, which has approximately 110 kilometers of hiking trails, 40 kilometers of mountain biking trails, along with numerous camping areas. 7. Saint Joseph’s Oratory Saint Joseph’s Oratory is a Roman Catholic basilica located on the west slope of Mount Royal in Montreal, Quebec. Construction began in 1904 by Saint Andre Bessette, but later had to be enlarged due to the number of visitors. The Oratory’s dome is the third-largest in the world, next to the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, which is located in the Ivory Coast, and Saint Peter’s Basilica, which is located in Rome. Saint Joseph’s Oratory is the largest church in Canada. Brother Andre has reportedly healed many visitors who came to the Oratory. Thousands of crutches are on display in the basilica by visitors who were healed. The Oratory also contains Brother Andre’s heart, which he requested to remain in there as protection of the basilica. With a seating capacity of 1,000, Saint Joseph’s Oratory receives over two million visitors and pilgrims each year. The Oratory was featured in the 1989 film “Jesus de Montreal” and is also used as the picture representing the city of Montreal in the game “Monopoly: Here and New: The World Edition”.
  6. 6. 6. Chateau Lake Louise Located on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff, Alberta, Chateau Lake Louise was originally built in 1890. Built by the Canadian Pacific Railway, Chateau Lake Louise is “kin” to the Banff Springs Hotel and the Chateau Frontenac. With a lake located in front of the hotel and a mountain glacier behind it, the view is absolutely breathtaking. The area around the hotel is part of Banff National Park, which is also declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1982, the hotel is opened year-round and offers endless activities for nature lovers, including hiking, canoeing, skiing, snowboarding, ice skating, ice sculpture contests, snowshoe excursions and sleigh rides, just to name a few. This top Canadian tourist destination has been visited by Christopher Reeve and Marilyn Monroe. 5. Parliament Hill Located in Ottawa, Ontario, Parliament Hill receives approximately three million visitors every year. The Hill was originally used by First Nations people, followed by adventurers and traders who would congregate there during their travel. The site was also used as a location for a military base, called Barrack Hill. With an area of 88,480 square meters, Parliament Hill rests between the Ottawa River (north), the Rideau Canal (east) Wellington Street
  7. 7. (south) and Kent Street near the Supreme Court (west). Parliament Hill has some incredible architecture, including the Centre Block and the Peace Tower. 4. The Canadian Rockies Known as a major mountain range in western North America, The Rocky Mountains extend more than 3,000 miles between the state of New Mexico in the United States and the province of British Columbia in Canada. The Canadian Rocky Mountains range from British Columbia to Alberta. Unlike the American Rockies, the Canadian Rockies are made up of shale and limestone. The Canadian Rockies are also known for their high peaks, such as Mount Columbia, which is 3,747 meters high and Mount Robson, which has an elevation of 3,954 meters. Four national parks that are located in the Canadian Rockies are part of the World Heritage Site. These parks are Banff, Kootenay, Yoho and Jasper. There is another park, called Waterton, which is not part of the World Heritage Site 3. CN Tower Located in Toronto, Ontario, the CN Tower is a communications and observation tower, which is used by radio and television stations. Built in 1976, it is an astonishing 1,815 feet tall. For 34 years, it held the record for the world’s tallest tower and tallest free-standing structure until Burj Khalifa in Dubai and Canton Tower in
  8. 8. Guangzhou were built. It is still, however, the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. With the tower being so incredibly tall, it attracts lightning and gets hit up to fifty times a year. The CN Tower attracts more than two million visitors each year. Many tourists take the elevator up to the SkyPod, which is the world’s largest observation deck, for a breathtaking view. 2. Chateau Frontenac The Chateau Frontenac is a grand hotel located in Quebec City overlooking the St. Lawrence River. The hotel was named after Louis de Baude, Count of Frontenac. He was the governor of the colony of New France from 1672 to 1682 and again from 1689 until 1698. The Chateau Frontenac first opened in 1893, five years after its sister-hotel, the Banff Springs Hotel, opened in Banff National Park, Alberta. Alfred Hitchcock’s drama film “I Confess” was filmed at the hotel in 1953. Princess Grace, Winston Churchill and Theodore Roosevelt also visited the hotel. With over 600 rooms and suites, the Chateau Frontenac holds the Guinness World Record as “the most photographed hotel in the world”. 1. Niagara Falls The Niagara Falls are situated on the Niagara River which lies on the border of the province of Ontario and the state of New York. The Horseshoe Falls are located on the Canadian side of the border. The Niagara Falls are the most powerful waterfall in North America with an average of 4 million cubic feet of water falling over the crest line every minute. The Horseshoe Falls dispense 90% of the water from the Niagara River and are also a valuable source of hydroelectric power. The Niagara Falls are a huge tourist
  9. 9. attraction with approximately 30 million visitors each year. In the evenings, there are floodlights which light up both sides of the falls until midnight. Many tourists also take a boat cruise, named Maid of the Mist, which carries passengers below the falls. The Canadian System of Government Current prime minister Stephen Harper, Canada's head of government Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing the Sovereign's insignia of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit Canada is a democratic constitutional monarchy, with a Sovereign as head of State and an elected Prime Minister as head of Government. Canada has a federal system of parliamentary government: Government responsibilities and functions are shared between federal, provincial and territorial governments. Federal responsibilities are carried out by the Monarchy and the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of Government. Constitutional Monarchy 1. Sovereign- Queen Elizabeth II: Monarch, Leader of Commonwealth, Canada's formal Head of State, Head of both the Executive and Legislative branches 1. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2. 2. Monarchy in Canada Governor General- Viceroy - represents the Queen in Canada and carries out the duties of head of state
  10. 10. 1. His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston 2. Governors General Since Confederation 3. Executive Branch 4. Legislative Branch 5. Judicial Branch
  11. 11. CULTURE Lifestyle: 6. 7. Canada has one of the world's highest living standards. In 1991: 83 percent of households had 1 car, 97.5 had color televisions and 1 out of 5 had a computer. (surely that has increased by now) All Canadian have free access to health care with the exception of dental services. Most people over 65 receive their prescriptions for free. 8. Canada has an extensive social safety network with old age pensions, family allowance, unemployment insurance and welfare. 9. Canada is often symbolically connected with three key images: the hockey, the beaver, and the dress uniform of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. • • • Hockey - described as Canada's national sport is a vigorous, often violently competitive team sport and, as such, it carries the same kind of symbolic weight as baseball does for many Americans. The beaver - which appears often on Canadian souvenirs, might seem to be an odd animal to have as a national symbol. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) - represented in their dress uniform which includes a tight-fitting red coat, riding pants, high black boots, and broad-brimmed felt hat, also represent this Canadian concern with diligence and humility. The core values that inform these symbols are cooperation, industriousness, and patience that is, a kind of national politeness. The Canadian symbolic order is dominated by a concern for order and stability, which marks Canadian identity as something communal rather than individualistic. Culture of Canada: Race Canada is a country of immigrants. The vast majority of Canadian families can trace their family roots back to European, Asian or other origins. Some families have members that have come to Canada in the past 10-20 years, while others have been in Canada for several generations. On the West Coast, common family backgrounds may include: German, Croatian, Italian, Serbian, Romanian, Polish, Trinidadian/Tobagonian, Brazilian, Peruvian, Filipino, Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese, as well as other regions of the world. Please do not expect all host families to be Caucasian. The primary language at home should be English.
  12. 12. Culture of Canada: Religion About 77 percent of Canadians are Christians, but the beliefs of the different denominations are diverse, and society is highly secularized. The majority of the people are either Catholic (43.6 percent) or Protestant (29.2 percent). In urban centers, Islam (1.9 percent), Judaism (1.1 percent), Buddhism (1 percent), Hinduism (1 percent), and Sikhism (1 percent) are growing because of immigrant populations. Vancouver has the largest Sikh community outside of the Punjab province of India. A growing portion of the population (16.5 percent) claims no religion. Culture of Canada: General Attitudes Most Canadians are proud of their shared cultural heritage. They are also proud of their multiculturalism; ethnic groups and immigrants are encouraged to maintain their distinct cultures. Atlantic Canadians are considered conservative and traditional. To the west, the people of Ontario are considered fairly reserved and formal, while those in the Western Provinces are thought of as more open and friendly. Life in large urban areas is fast-paced, whereas the pace of life in the rest of Canada is more relaxed. Canadians take great pride in their nationality. Despite close ties and many similarities between their nation and the United States, Canadians emphasize that they are not just U.S.-type people living in Canada. Indeed, Canadians often dislike U.S. foreign policy and the prevalence of U.S. culture. Despite a close relationship with the United States, Canadians often see people from the United States as more aggressive and materialistic than themselves. Canadians also feel they are more tolerant, community-oriented, and polite.In general, Canadians admire people who are educated, skilled, modest, and polite. In relation to the rest of the world, Canadians see themselves as associated with humanitarianism and fairness. ECONOMY OF CANADA Canada has the eleventh-largest economy in the world (measured in US dollars at market exchange rates), is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). As with other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada also has a
  13. 13. sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry especially important. With a long coastal line, Canada has the 8th largest commercial fishing and seafood industry in the world. The economy of Canada is one of the global leaders of the Entertainment Software Industry Canadian Money: Penny $0.01 CND Nickel $0.05 CND Dime $0.10 Quarter $0.25 CND Currency is not shown in proportion. Click on the pictures for a close-up of each coin. 50 Cent Piece $0.50 CND Dollar Coin (aka "loonie" $1.00 CND Two Dollar Coin (aka "twoonie" $2.00 CND 10. 11. The Canadian dollar is divided into 100 cents (like the American dollar) In Canada $1 and $2 are represented by coins. Nicknamed the "loonie" (because there is a loon on it) and the Twonie (I guess because it rhymes with loonie.) 12. Principle Natural Resources are: natural gas, oil, gold, coal, copper, iron ore, nickel, potash, uranium, and zinc along with wood and water. 13. The GDP for Canada in 1992 (recession year) was (in Canadian Dollars) $668.5 Billion.
  14. 14. EDUCATION HISTORICAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA Prairie Coldridge School, circa Saskatchewan Archives Board) 1905 School (courtesy School At Canoe Cove, P.E.I. Painting by Robert Harris, oil on canvas. This scene illustrates a Prince Edward Island one-room schoolhouse in the early 1900s, where children of various ages sat together and were instructed by one teacher (courtesy Confederation Centre Art Gallery/CAGH-72). Ryerson, Egerton School promoters such as Egerton Ryerson, the founder of Canadian curriculum development, saw state-controlled schooling as the primary means of assimilating "alien" elements (courtesy PAO/S2641). Prairie Classroom, 1915 Prairie classroom at Bruderheim, Alberta. Prairie schools were to be the vehicles by which immigrants would be assimilated (courtesy Glenbow Archives).  17th century In the 17th century education was usually an informal process in which skills and values were passed from one generation to the next by parents, relatives and older siblings. Four hundred years later, informal learning has become secondary to extensive systems of formal schooling under the jurisdiction of provincial governments.  Education in New France (17th and 18th century) During the French regime in Canada, the process of learning was integrated into everyday life. While the French government supported the responsibility of the Catholic Church for teaching religion, mathematics, history, natural science, and French, the FAMILY was the basic unit of social organization and the main context within which
  15. 15. almost all learning took place. In the labour-intensive economy of the 17th and 18th centuries, families relied on the economic contributions of their children, who were actively engaged in productive activity. Children learned skills such as gardening, spinning and land clearing from other family members. Young males were trained for various trades through an APPRENTICESHIP system. Schooling in Rural New France Similarly, because the population was small and dispersed, it was usually the family that provided religious instruction and, in some cases, instruction in reading and writing. In certain areas, parish priests established petites écoles in which they taught catechism and other subjects. However, the majority of the population in New France, particularly in the rural areas, could not read and write. In the early 17th century, about one-quarter of the settlers were literate, but by the turn of the 18th century, the preoccupation of survival had taken its toll on the literacy rate and only one person in seven could sign his or her name. Formal instruction for females was quite limited and usually did not extend beyond religious instruction and skills such as needlework. However, girls who lived in the countryside may have been better educated than boys as a result of the efforts of the sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame, who established schools in rural areas as well as in towns, and travelled as itinerant teachers.  Schooling after the British Conquest of 1759-60 In the years after the Conquest of 1759-60, the British authorities were exceedingly concerned about the strong French Canadian presence in the colony, and they tried repeatedly to assist in the establishment of schools that were outside the control of religious authorities. These efforts were undermined by the Catholic Church and, more importantly, by the disinterest of local communities, in which education was associated more with households than classrooms.However, the concept of schooling became more widespread among social leaders during the early 19th century. In these years, politicians, churchmen and educators debated questions of educational financing, control and participation, and by the 1840s the structure of the modern SCHOOL SYSTEMS can clearly be discerned in an emerging official consensus. The leading figure in Ontario, EGERTON RYERSON, worked in collaboration with Jean-Baptiste Meilleur in Québec, as well as John Jessop in British Columbia. In turn, these school promoters operated in an international context. For example, Egerton Ryerson visited more than 20 countries during 1844 and 1845 when he was developing his proposals for a public school system. School promoters such as Egerton Ryerson, the founder of Canadian curriculum development, saw state-controlled schooling as the primary means of assimilating "alien" elements. Leading educators, or school promoters, argued that mass schooling could instill appropriate modes of thought and behaviour into children. In their minds, the purpose of mass schooling did not primarily involve the acquisition of academic knowledge. School systems were designed to solve a wide variety of problems ranging from crime to poverty, and from idleness to vagrancy.
  16. 16. Educators related these potential and actual problems to 3 main causes: the impact of constant and substantial immigration; the transition from agricultural to industrial capitalism; and the process of state formation in which citizens came to exercise political power. While all 3 of these causes played key roles in the minds of school promoters across Canada, the relative importance that each educator attributed to them depended on the regional and cultural context in which the school promoter functioned.  The Mid-19th Century In mid-19th century Ontario, the predominantly rural population (with only smaller commercial cities) meant that fears about the impact of massive economic change were based on developments elsewhere rather than immediate experience. However, massive immigration and the importance of state formation were very visible at the local level. During the REBELLIONS OF 1837, rural and village leaders in a variety of communities in central British North America took up arms in pursuit of political change. To many community leaders, the various uprisings supported the argument that school systems were needed to form the rising generation of citizens. School promoters in Ontario often opposed the employment of teachers or textbooks from the United States. Instead, they imported certain components of Irish schools; most notably, the Irish readers which had been written to accommodate a Protestant and Catholic population. This strategy also made sense in that Irish immigrants formed the majority in mid-19th century Ontario. Religion and Minority-Language Education A great deal of educational conflict and controversy has involved religion and language. The establishment of schools brought local practice under official scrutiny and forced communities to conform to prescribed standards of formal instruction which did not accord with the reality of a diverse society. For example, religious groups did not always agree on the desirability of nondenominational Christian curricula, and their protests led to the growth of parallel Catholic and Protestant school systems in Québec, the provision for SEPARATE SCHOOLS in provinces such as Ontario, and a completely denominationally based school system in Newfoundland. These developments were legally guaranteed by the Constitution Act, 1867, which not only assigned education to the provinces but also enshrined the continued legitimacy of denominational schools that were in place in the provinces at the time that they joined Confederation. In the context of higher levels of Asian immigration and rising prejudice, schooling developed somewhat differently on the West Coast than in the rest of Canada. One noteworthy difference was the emergence of a trend for examinations, especially the first standardized "intelligence tests" during the early 20th century. Somewhat more than provinces such as Ontario, and considerably more than Québec, educators in British Columbia seized upon "scientific" testing as an appropriate way to classify students.
  17. 17. The British Columbian leaders focused considerable attention on Asian students and were careful to examine test results in light of each student's ancestry. The consistent finding that Asian-origin students scored very well astounded educational officials and inspired them not only to concoct explanations based on the selective nature of immigration, but also to continue testing in the pursuit of educational "progress" for the British-origin population of the province. Growing acceptance of public education (late 19th century) Changing parental strategies help explain why children were sent to school in increasing numbers and for longer periods during the course of the 19th century. The development of agrarian, merchant and industrial capitalism heightened perceptions of economic insecurity. Everyone became aware that while great fortunes could be made, they could also be lost just as quickly. The obvious insecurity of even well-paying jobs or successful businesses came to loom increasingly large in the minds of parents planning for their children. One response was to have fewer children and to invest more in their education. By the mid-19th century, many parents across English Canada were practising contraception in an attempt to raise a smaller number of children with a better quality of life. By the time compulsory attendance legislation was passed in the Canadian provinces (except Québec) during the late 19th century, only a minority of parents were not already enrolling their children in class. Some resistance to schooling did develop, particularly from those reluctant to pay extra taxes, from those who did not approve of the local teacher, and from those who wished to maintain the connection between formal religious instruction and mass schooling. In cities, truant officers rounded up children (particularly from working-class and immigrant backgrounds) and sent them to residential "industrial" schools. However, this resistance was generally focused on the form and cost rather than the need for mass schooling; thus, compromises such as the acceptance of parochial schools (those funded by religious bodies) resolved some of the conflicts. For the most part, the attendance requirements of the compulsory laws were met well before the actual legislation was introduced. The Quiet Revolution (1960’s) By the beginning of the 1960s, the Department of Public Instruction in Québec managed over 1,500 school boards, each with its own programs, textbooks and criteria for graduation. In many rural areas, children of different grade levels shared a single one-room schoolhouse. The Liberal government of Jean Lesage saw the need for change and appointed a major commission of inquiry of inquiry on education, which was chaired by Msgr.Alphonse-Marie Parent, at the start of what came to be called the QUIET REVOLUTION. In response to the resulting report's recommendations the Québec government revamped the school system in an attempt to enhance the francophone population's general educational level and to produce a better-qualified labor force. Catholic Church leadership was rejected in favor of government administration and vastly increased budgets were given to school boards across the province. In keeping with the aspirations of the Quiet Revolution, the value of schooling for the Québécois was described in two ways. First, leaders emphasized that a legacy of
  18. 18. high illiteracy and low attendance rates had to be rejected in order to achieve an appropriate societal level of modernity. Education was promoted as an inherently valuable possession required in contemporary civilization. Secondly, the revamped school system was designed to produce a modern Québec society by ensuring economic competitiveness. Better skills in mathematics and science were particularly seen as an important strategy for overcoming British-origin oppression dating from the Conquest of 1763. The long-established emphasis on religion and the humanities in the francophone schools was not immediately abandoned, but their importance steadily eroded after the early 1960s. Parents also began embracing the ambition to raise a smaller number of children in whom greater educational investment could be made. During the course of the 1950s and early 1960s, the birth rate in Québec dropped sharply, moving the provincial average from its traditional place at the highest level in Canada and the United States to a position at the lowest level. Interestingly, both religious and secular leaders in Québec opposed this trend — it threatened to decrease the relative importance of the francophone population. Despite this opposition, parents continued to limit family size to an unprecedented extent as part of their changing strategies of family reproduction.  20th Century By the late 20th century, schooling had become part of an institutional network which included hospitals, businesses, prisons, and welfare agencies. Various groups experienced this development in different ways, sometimes by official design and sometimes by their own choice. As a result, there are many histories of Canadian education and important distinctions within the general trends. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AT PRESENT Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba, Ontario and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 (180 in Quebec) school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in Quebec when it is just before June 24 – the provincial holiday). Canada-wide
  19. 19. Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. Some educational fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. For example, the Department of National Defence includes the Royal Military College of Canada, while the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is responsible for the education of First Nations. Vocational training can be subsidized by the Learning branch of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (a federal department). Junior Kindergarten (or equivalent) as an official program exists only in Ontario currently. Kindergarten (or its equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial funding, and the number of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at age six or seven, there is universal publicly funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). Dependent on the province the age of mandatory entry is at 4–7 years. Children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen (eighteen in Manitoba, Ontario, and New Brunswick). About one out of ten Canadians does not have a high school diploma – one in seven has a university degree – the adult population that is without a high school diploma is a combination of both immigrant and Canadian-born. In many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population. The ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly, partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Majority of Schools 67% percent are co-Ed. Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education. Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada (if the population of children speaking the minority language justifies it), although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, antiracism, Aboriginal cultures and crafts; visits by elders and other community members; and content in areas like indigenous languages, Aboriginal spirituality, indigenous knowledge of nature, and tours to indigenous heritage sites. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order" [26] Finally, "some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes.", although there is criticism that educators are merely telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves. Furthermore, "subjects that typically get assessed (i.e., language arts, mathematics, and science) assume greater importance than nonassessed subjects (i.e., music, visual arts, and physical education) or facets of the
  20. 20. curriculum (i.e., reading and writing versus speaking and listening)." The students in the Canadian school system receive a variety of classes that are offered to them. The system is set up to meet the diverse needs of the individual student. Length of study Most Canadian education systems continue up to grade twelve (age seventeen to eighteen). In Quebec, the typical high school term ends after Secondary V/Grade eleven (age sixteen to seventeen); following this, students who wish to pursue their studies to the university level have to attend college. Grade 11 was also the end of secondary education in Newfoundland and Labrador prior to the introduction of grade 12 in 1983. Authorities Normally, for each type of publicly funded school (such as Public English or Public French), the province is divided into districts (or divisions). For each district, board members (trustees) are elected only by its supporters within the district (voters receive a ballot for just one of the boards in their area). Normally, all publicly funded schools are under the authority of their local district school board. These school boards would follow a common curriculum set up by the province the board resides in. Only Alberta allows public charter schools, which are independent of any district board. Instead, they each have their own board, which reports directly to the province. Levels in education Canada outside Quebec As the education system in Canada is managed by the varying provincial governments in Canada, the way the educational stages are grouped and named may differ from each region. For example, the Ministry of Education in Nova Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary. Also, opposed to their French designations in Quebec, Junior Kindergarten and Kindergarten in Ontario are called Maternelle and CPE Centre de la Petite Enfance in French. Students in the Prairie provinces are not required by statute to attend kindergarten. As a result, kindergarten often is not available in smaller towns. The ages are the age of the students when they end the school year in June. • Early childhood education o Junior Kindergarten (ages 4–5) (Ontario only) o • Grade Primary or Kindergarten (ages 5–6) Elementary education
  21. 21. o o Grade 2 (ages 7–8) o Grade 3 (ages 8–9) o Grade 4 (ages 9–10) o Grade 5 (ages 10–11) o • Grade 1 (ages 6–7) Grade 6 (ages 11–12) Junior High/Middle School o o Grade 8 (ages 13–14) o • Grade 7 (ages 12–13) Grade 9 (ages 14–15) High School o o Grade 11 (ages 16–17) o Grade 12 (ages 17–18) o • Grade 10 (ages 15–16) Grade 12+ (ages 18+) (Ontario only) Tertiary education o College: In Canada, the term college usually refers to a community college or a technical, applied arts, or applied science school. These are postsecondary institutions granting certificates, diplomas, associates degree, and bachelor's degrees. o University: A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. o Graduate school: A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic certificates, diplomas and degrees (i.e. master's degree, Ph.D.) Quebec • préscolaire (Pre-school); Under 5 • maternelle (Kindergarten); 5-6 • école primaire (literally Primary school, equivalent to Elementary School or Grade School)
  22. 22. o o Grade 2; 7-8 o Grade 3; 8-9 o Grade 4; 9-10 o Grade 5; 10-11 o • Grade 1; 6-7 Grade 6; 11-12 école secondaire (literally Secondary school, or High School) o Secondary I; 12-13 o Secondary II; 13-14 o Secondary III; 14-15 o Secondary IV; 15-16 o Secondary V; 16-17 Secondaries I-V are equivalent to grades 7-11. In most English High Schools, the different terms are used interchangeably. In some English high schools, as well as in most French schools, high school students will refer to secondary 1-5 as year one through five. So if someone in Secondary three is asked "what grade/year are you in?" they will reply "three" or "sec 3," or "grade 9". It is presumed that the person asking the question knows that they are referring not to "Grade 3" but "Secondary 3". However, this can be confusing for those who are asking the question from outside of Quebec. • College o Pre-university program, two years (typically Social Sciences, Natural Sciences or Arts) o • Professional program, three years (e.g. Paralegal, Dental Hygienist, Nursing, etc.) University (Usually requires a Diploma of College Studies (DCS (DEC in French)) or equivalent) o Undergraduate  o Three or four years leading to a Bachelor's degree. Non-Quebec students require an extra year to complete the same degree because of the extra year in college. Graduate (or postgraduate)  One or two years leading to a Master's degree.
  23. 23.  three or more years leading to a Doctoral degree. English schools in Quebec have the same grade system as French schools, but with English names. For example, "elementary school" is not called "école primaire" in an English school, but has the same grading system. Grade structure by province The following table shows how grades are organized in various provinces. Often, there will be exceptions within each province, both with terminology for groups, and which grades apply to each group. Elementary Alberta (source) Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n British Columbia (source) Manitoba (source) New Brunswick (source) Newfoundland and Labrador (source) Northwest Territories (source) Nova Junior High Scotia 5 Primary 6 Senior High 7 10 8 Middle Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n 5 Early Years Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n 5 Elementary 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 S3 S4 11 12 Senior Years 8 S1 5 6 7 8 9 Primary Elementary Junior High Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n S2 5 6 7 8 9 10 Senior High Level I Level II Level III Intermediat Junior Secondary Senior Secondary e Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n Elementary 12 Middle School High School Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n Primary 11 Secondary Middle Years 6 9 5 6 7 8 9 Junior High 10 11 Senior High 12
  24. 24. (source) Primary 1 2 3 4 5 Junior Kindergarte Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n n Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n Quebec 6 Saskatchewan (source) 8 Maternelle 1 2 3 4 5 5 Elementary Level Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n 7 & 8 10 11 12 11 12 Secondary 9 10 6 Senior High 7 10 8 9 6 6 12 College Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V first Middle Level 5 11 Secondary School 7 8 5 6 7 second third Secondary Level 9 10 11 12 Junior Secondary Elementary Kindergarte 1 2 3 4 n 9 Intermediate School Primary School Garderie Yukon (source) 5 Elementary PEI (source) 7 Middle others Elementary Ontario (source) 6 Senior Secondary 8 11 9 10 12 Notes: • • In British Columbia some schools may group together the higher Elementary and lower Secondary Grades. These schools are referred to as Middle Schools or Jr. Secondary Schools. Some Elementary Schools consist solely of grades K-5. Likewise, some Secondary Schools may only have grades 11 and 12. In addition, some school districts may use just elementary (K-7) and secondary (8-12) schools. British Columbia informally subcategorizes the Elementary level into "Primary" (K-3) and "Intermediate" (4-6 or 7). In Ontario, the terms used in French schooling consist of Maternelle in regards to Junior Kindergarten, Kindergarten is then referred to as Jardin. This differs from Quebec's Maternelle which is the equivalent of Ontario's Kindergarten. • In Manitoba, grade-9 - grade 12 is referred to as Senior 1-Senior 4; • In Nova Scotia the terms for groups, and grades they apply to varies significantly throughout the province. A common, but not universal, organization is shown.
  25. 25. • In Quebec college is two or three years, depending on what a student selects, based usually on what their post-secondary plans are. College in Quebec overlaps what other provinces consider the boundary between secondary education (high school) and post-secondary education (college and university). "Sec I" = "Secondary Year One" = "Grade 7" • In Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, schools are now set up as elementary schools with grades K-5, middle schools with grades 6-8, and high schools with grades 9-12. However, high school graduation requirements only include courses taken in grades 10-12. Pre-university Primary education and secondary education combined are sometimes referred to as K12 (Kindergarten through Grade 12). It should be noted that this structure can vary from school to school, and from province to province. For example, Ontario and Québec are the only provinces which provide two levels of Kindergarten (Junior and Senior). In Canada, secondary schooling, known as high school or collegiate institute or "école secondaire" or secondary school, differs depending on the province in which one resides. Additionally, grade structure may vary within a province and even within a school division. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick (where the compulsory ages are 18). Students may continue to attend high school until the ages of 19 to 21 (the cut-off age for high school varies between province). Those 19 and over may attend adult school. Also if high schoolers are expelled or suspended for a period of time over 2 months or so they could attend night school at the high school. Ontario had a "Grade 13" known as Ontario Academic Credit (OAC) year, but this was abolished by the provincial government to cut costs. OAC was last offered for the 20022003 school year. As a result, the curriculum has been compacted, and the more difficult subjects, such as mathematics, are comparatively harder than before. However, the system is now approximately equivalent to what has been the case outside of Quebec and Ontario for many years. Secondary education in Quebec continues to Grade 11 (Secondary V), and is typically followed by college (CEGEP), a two-year preuniversity (university for Quebecers is three years, except Engineering, Education, Medical, and Law), or three year vocational program taken after high school. (see Education in Quebec). Quebec is the only province where Grade 12 is part of postsecondary. An increasing number of international students are attending pre-university courses at Canadian high schools.
  26. 26. Post-secondary education Canadian university enrollment in various subjects - 2005/2006 [32] Post-secondary education in Canada is also the responsibility of the individual provinces and territories. Those governments provide the majority of funding to their public post-secondary institutions, with the remainder of funding coming from tuition fees, the federal government, and research grants. Compared to other countries in the past, Canada has had the highest tertiary school enrollment as a percentage of their graduating population. Nearly all post-secondary institutions in Canada have the authority to grant academic credentials (i.e., diplomas or degrees). Generally speaking, universities grant degrees (e.g., bachelor's, master's or doctorate degrees) while colleges, which typically offer vocationally oriented programs, grant diplomas and certificates. However, some colleges offer applied arts degrees that lead to or are equivalent to degrees from a university. Private career colleges are overseen by legislative acts for each province, For example in British Columbia training providers will be registered and accredited with the (PCTIA) Private Career Training Institutions Agency regulated under the Private Career Training Institutions Act (SBC 2003) [33] Each province with their own correlating agency. Unlike the United States, there is no "accreditation body" that oversees the universities in Canada. Universities in Canada have degree-granting authority via an Act or Ministerial Consent from the Ministry of Education of the particular province. Post-secondary education in Quebec begins with college following graduation from Grade 11 (or Secondary V). Students complete a two- or three-year general program leading to admission to a university, or a professional program leading directly into the labour force. In most cases, bachelor's degree programs in Quebec are three years instead of the usual four; however, in many cases, students attending a university in Quebec that did not graduate from college must complete an additional year of coursework. When Ontario had five years of high school, a three-year bachelor's degree was common, but these degrees are being phased out in favour of the four-year degree. The main variation between the provinces, with respect to the universities, is the amount of funding they receive and the amount of tuition and other fees they charge. The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), is the military academy of the Canadian Forces and is a full degree-granting university. RMC is the only federal institution with degree granting powers. Private schools About 5.6% of students are in private schools. ] A minority of these are elite private schools, which are attended by only a small fraction of students, but do have a great deal of prestige and prominence. A far larger portion of private schools are religious based institutions. Private schools are also used to study outside the country. For
  27. 27. example, Canadian College Italy has an Ontario curriculum, but the school is located in Italy. Private schools have historically been less common on the Canadian Prairies and were often forbidden under municipal and provincial statutes enacted to provide equality of education to students regardless of family income. This is especially true in Alberta, where successive Social Credit (or populist conservative) governments denounced the concept of private education as the main cause of denial of opportunity to the children of the working poor. These rules lasted longer than Social Credit; it was only in 1989 that private K-12 schools were allowed to operate inside the boundaries of the City of Calgary. Private Universities In the past, private universities in Canada maintained a religious history or foundation. Although since 1999, the Province of New Brunswick passed the Degree Granting Act allowing private universities to operate in the Province. The University of Fredericton is the newest University to receive designation in New Brunswick. Trinity Western University, in Langley British Columbia, was founded in 1962 as a junior college and received full accreditation in 1985. In 2002, British Columbia’s Quest University became the first privately funded liberal arts university without a denominational affiliation (although it is not the first private liberal arts university). Many provinces, including Ontario and Alberta, have passed legislation allowing private degree-granting institutions (not necessarily universities) to operate there. Many Canadians remain polarized on the issue of permitting private universities into the Canadian market. On the one hand, Canada’s top universities find it difficult to compete with the private American powerhouses because of funding, but on the other hand, the fact that the price of private universities tends to exclude those who cannot pay that much for their education could prevent a significant portion of Canada’s population from being able to attend these schools. In addition to the issue of access, Canadians are divided over the issue of special protections instituted within the Charter of Rights and Freedoms for religious organizations which enable private, religious universities in Canada to ignore basic human rights, such as rights that protect LGBT people from discrimination in employment. Christian universities have been known to fire LGBT staff and faculty strictly on the bases of sexual orientation. [37] Religious schools Each province deals differently with private religious schools. In Ontario the Catholic system continues to be fully publicly funded while other faiths are not. Ontario has several private Jewish, Muslim, and Christian schools all funded through tuition fees. Since the Catholic schools system is entrenched in the constitution, the Supreme Court
  28. 28. has ruled that this system is constitutional. However, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has ruled that Ontario's system is discriminatory, suggesting that Ontario either fund no faith-based schools, or all of them. In 2002 the government of Mike Harris introduced a controversial program to partially fund all private schools, but this was criticized for undermining the public education system and the program was eliminated after the Liberals won the 2003 provincial election. In other provinces privately operated religious schools are funded. In British Columbia the government pays independent schools that meet rigorous provincial standards up to 50% of the per-student operating cost of public schools. The province has a number of Sikh, Hindu, Christian, and Muslim schools. Alberta also has a network of charter schools, which are fully funded schools offering distinct approaches to education within the public school system. Alberta charter schools are not private and the province does not grant charters to religious schools. These schools have to follow the provincial curriculum and meet all standards, but are given considerable freedom in other areas. In all other provinces private religious schools receive some funding, but not as much as the public system. An example of how schools can be divided by religions in Toronto includes the Toronto Catholic District School Board and Toronto District School Board. Technology in Canadian Education When the second largest country in the world has only 8.3 people per square mile, it becomes easy to understand what a tremendous advantage computers have become to Canada’s educational system. Computers alone have enhanced the learning process in ways probably thought impossible just a decade or two ago but, when coupled with the internet, technology in Canadian education has revolutionized the typical classroom. Canada is home to some of the most modern and technologically advanced cities in the world but those cities are few and far between. What is in between them is usually vast expanses of wilderness, farmland, prairies, plains, and mountains. And water. Those elements make traveling very far to school just too much of an ordeal for many Canadian school children. Fortunately, putting technology in Canadian education systems to work has had the effect of erasing some of that distance, at least in theory. Students on Baffin Island cannot realistically commute to schools in Victoria or Toronto every day but they can
  29. 29. gain remote access to the classes and activities in those cities. And they can share what they know about their life at the top of the world with children in those southern cities. The use of technology in Canadian education may be best appreciated by students in the secondary and post-secondary phases of their educations. It’s these students thinking more about life after graduation and what to do for a career that may benefit the most from vocational or advanced learning opportunities that most small towns and villages simply cannot provide. Using computer technology in Canadian education brings subjects to students that might be unavailable otherwise. Today’s computer-savvy school children can learn things their parents had no access to just one short generation ago. Canada certainly isn’t getting any smaller but using technology in Canadian education has made it possible to bring students and educational opportunities closer together in ways never seen before. The Education of the New-Canadian: A Treatise on Canada’s Greatest Educational Problem IMMIGRANT COMMUNITIES [ Children parade their patriotism at Henrietta Public School, North Saskatchewan River, 1917, , Koozma Tarasoff personal collection 1215 ] Throughout the Prairie Provinces great stretches of land have been settled by immigrants from European countries. In many cases, as in the cities, they very seldom come into contact with Canadian influences. They, too, have their own churches and their own newspapers. The language of the home is German, Ruthenian, Hungarian, Bohemian, or Polish, as the case may be. In the villages where they trade they have their own merchants, speaking their own language. In these settlements there is but one force at work to Canadianize their children—the public school. Even here the teacher is very often one of their own nationality, who has an inadequate knowledge of our language, and a very vague idea of Canadian citizenship and all that it stands for. This phase of the problem will be dealt with in a later chapter. The most conspicuous, perhaps, of these settlers who have made their homes apart from English-speaking people are the Ruthenians and German Mennonites. The Doukhobors, although fewer in number, may also be mentioned, especially those known as "community" members. The principle of communism prevails among the Doukhobors who have settled in the Western Provinces. Many, however, have become independent, and no longer recognize the authority of their former leader. Some have written in eulogistic terms of the beauty of this community life, but most Canadians will fail to approve of a people who favor a mode of life which absolutely denies a public school education to the
  30. 30. children living in the community. We suspect the integrity and honor of a man who denounces the education of the young, who forbids parents to allow their children to attend the public schools, without making provision for their education elsewhere. Last year, at a night school in a Western town, there were in attendance two young Doukhobors, one a girl of fifteen and the other a boy of fourteen, who had never been a day at public school. The parents had been forbidden to send them to school, and this by the autocratic leader of the community. They were bright, but mentally-starved children, and as one witnessed their eagerness to learn to read and write English, he could not but feel that Canada has made a very serious mistake in allowing such a man to guide the destinies of so many of her future citizens. His policy, apparently, is to keep the people in ignorance, and all the while we, as Canadians, blindly turn our heads the other way and continue our dreams of nation-building. Let us have a thorough investigation of conditions among these people, and let us insist upon the state exercising its right to see that every one of these New-Canadians obtains what in free Canada should surely be one's birthright—a public school education! [...] REFERECES
  31. 31.