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The Paper 16 Tenses English

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Faculty of teacher training and education English language
University Riau Kepulauan (UNRIKA) semester 2nd

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The Paper 16 Tenses English

  1. 1. FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINIG AND EDUCATION ENGLISH LANGUAGE UNIVERSITY RIAU KEPULAUAN (UNRIKA) 2014-2015 THE PAPER READING II Compiled By : Complete name : Ririn Febriyanti N.P.M : 14.06.0.047 Topic : 16 Tenses in English
  2. 2. PROLOGUE The author praises and thanksgiving pray Allah SWT for all His mercy and grace so that authors can complete a paper for English course work, entitled "16 ENGLISH tenses" just in time. The author would like to thank all those who have helped to motivate and give useful suggestions that authors can make this paper as well. In particular, authors thank for the lecturer Reading II in English who has been given the task of this paper. There by increasing knowledge about the author that there are 16 tenses in English. In this paper I will discuss about the various and use of tenses in English. Tenses is the syntax. As we know, tenses are important in learning English, or the use of English in all respects. Therefore I would like to discuss about the tenses so that we better understand about the tenses, so we did not err in applying the English language. Like the Indonesian language, we must consider the use of tenses in a sentence. What should we say if you make a sentence which we do, we're doing, and we will do. In English, the pattern of negative and positive sentences are different, there is the addition of the words in the pattern of negative sentences. Not much different from Indonesian, English only more specific in the use of the word. Okay, let's start discussing about the tenses. The author realized that the paper is still far from perfect, for that author expects criticism and constructive suggestions for the perfection of this paper. Hopefully this paper is particularly useful to readers and fellow students in general. Batam, April 8th , 2015 Ririn Febriyanti 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS PROLOGUE.......................................................................................................................................... 2 CHAPTER I ................................................................................................................................................................................4 ENGLISH TENSE SYSTEM................................................................................................................. 4 I.1 English Tense System.........................................................................................................................4 I.2 What is Tense?...................................................................................................................................5 TENSE (NOUN) IS A FORM OF A VERB USED TO INDICATE THE TIME, AND SOMETIMES THE CONTINUATION OR COMPLETENESS, OF AN ACTION IN RELATION TO THE TIME OF SPEAKING. (FROM LATIN TEMPUS = TIME). TENSE IS A METHOD THAT WE USE IN ENGLISH TO REFER TO TIME - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. MANY LANGUAGES USE TENSES TO TALK ABOUT TIME. OTHER LANGUAGES HAVE NO TENSES, BUT OF COURSE THEY CAN STILL TALK ABOUT TIME, USING DIFFERENT METHODS..................................................................................................................... 5 I.3 Tense and Time..................................................................................................................................6 I.4 Basic Tenses.......................................................................................................................................7 I.5 Basic Tenses: Regular Verb.................................................................................................................8 I.6 Basic Tenses: Irregular Verb................................................................................................................9 THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF TENSES FOR REGULAR VERBS AND IRREGULAR VERBS IS EXACTLY THE SAME (EXCEPT TO BE). THE ONLY DIFFERENCE IS THAT WITH REGULAR VERBS THE PAST AND PAST PARTICIPLE ARE ALWAYS THE SAME (WORKED, WORKED), WHILE WITH IRREGULAR VERBS THE PAST AND PAST PARTICIPLE ARE NOT ALWAYS THE SAME (SANG, SUNG). BUT THE STRUCTURE IS THE SAME! IT WILL HELP YOU A GREAT DEAL TO REALLY UNDERSTAND THAT.....10 I.7 Basic Tenses: Be...............................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER II ..............................................................................................................................................................................13 ENGLISH TENSES TIMELINE...................................................................................................................13 a. Simple Present Tenses.......................................................................................................................13 b. Present Continuous /Progressive Tenses ...........................................................................................14 c. Present Perpect Tense.......................................................................................................................14 d. Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive............................................................................................15 e. Simple Past tense .............................................................................................................................16 f. Countinuous or Progressive Tense......................................................................................................16 g. Past Perfect Tenses............................................................................................................................17 h. Past Perfect Continuous/Progessive Tense........................................................................................17 i. Future tense ......................................................................................................................................18 j. Future Continuous/Progressive Tense................................................................................................18 18 k. Future perfect Tense.........................................................................................................................19 l. Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense ..................................................................................20 m. Past Future Tense.............................................................................................................................20 The Pattern of Past Future Tense...........................................................................................................21 n. Past Future Continuous Tense...........................................................................................................21 The Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense.......................................................................................21 3
  4. 4. o. Past Future Perfect Tense..................................................................................................................22 The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense..............................................................................................22 p. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense...............................................................................................23 The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense...........................................................................23 CHAPTER III.......................................................................................................................................... 24 EXAMPLE OF 16 TENSES........................................................................................................................24 a. Present Tenses .................................................................................................................................24 b. Present Continuous/Progressive Tenses............................................................................................26 c. Present Perpect Tense.......................................................................................................................27 d. Present Continuous/Progressive Tense ............................................................................................28 e. Simple Past Tenses............................................................................................................................29 f. Past Countinuous/Progressive Tense..................................................................................................30 g. Past perfect Tenses ...........................................................................................................................30 h. Past Perfect Countinuous/Progressive Tense ....................................................................................31 i. Future Tense......................................................................................................................................31 j. Future Continuous/Progressive Tense................................................................................................32 k. Future Perfect Tense.........................................................................................................................33 l. Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense ....................................................................................33 m. Past Future Tense.............................................................................................................................34 The Pattern of Past Future Tense..........................................................................................................34 n. Past Future Continuous Tense...........................................................................................................34 The Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense......................................................................................34 o. Past Future Perfect Tense..................................................................................................................35 The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense..............................................................................................35 p. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense...............................................................................................35 The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense...........................................................................35 CHAPTER IV.........................................................................................................................................36 REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................... 37 A HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR (TATA BAHASA INGGRIS LENGKAP)- OLEH SLAMET RIYANTO, EMILIA NH, LEILA NH...............................................................................37 HTTP://WWW.ENGLISHCLUB.COM/GRAMMAR/VERB-TENSES_SYS-WHAT.HTM....37 HTTP://WWW.EGO4U.COM/EN/CRAM-UP/GRAMMAR/TENSES...................................37 HTTP://WWW.ENGLISHPAGE.COM/IRREGULARVERBS/IRREGULARVERBS.HTML37 HTTPS://WWW.ENGLISHCLUB.COM/VOCABULARY/REGULAR-VERBS-LIST.HTM..37 CHAPTER I ENGLISH TENSE SYSTEM I.1 English Tense System In some languages, verb tenses are not very important or do not even exist. In English, the concept of tense is very important. 4
  5. 5. In this lesson we look at the idea behind tense, how to avoid confusing tense with time, and the structure of the basic tenses, with examples using a regular verb, an irregular verb and the verb be. 1. What is Tense? 2. Tense & Time 3. Basic Tenses 4. Regular Verbs 5. Irregular Verbs 6. Be I.2 What is Tense? Tense (noun) is a form of a verb used to indicate the time, and sometimes the continuation or completeness, of an action in relation to the time of speaking. (From Latin tempus = time). Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time - past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods. So, we talk about time in English with tenses. But, and this is a very big but: • we can also talk about time without using tenses (for example, going to is a special construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense) • one tense does not always talk about one time (see Tense & Time for more about this) Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses : a. Mood Indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact, which can be positive (affirmative) or negative. • I like coffee. • I do not like coffee. Interrogative mood expresses a question • Why do you like coffee? Imperative mood expresses a command • Sit down! Subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible • The President ordered that he attend the meeting. b. Voice 5
  6. 6. Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action (mice are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help us change the focus of attention. c. Aspect Aspect expresses a feature of the action related to time, such as completion or duration. Present simple and past simple tenses have no aspect, but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that : • The action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant), For example : I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report) (This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.) • The action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is, uncompleted), For example : We are eating. (This is called progressive aspect, using progressive [continuous] tenses.) I.3 Tense and Time It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time. For example : a present tense does not always refer to present time: • I hope it rains tomorrow. "rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time (tomorrow). Or a past tense does not always refer to past time: • If I had some money now, I could buy it. "had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now). The following examples show how different tenses can be used to talk about different times. Tense TIME 6
  7. 7. Past Present Future Present Simple I want a coffee. I leave tomorrow. She likes coffee Present Continuous I am having dinner. I am taking my exam next month. She likes coffee Present Perfect Simple I have seen ET. I have finished. Present Perfect Continuous I have been playing tennis. We have been working for four hours. Past Simple I finished one hour ago. If she loved you now, she would marry you. If you came tomorrow, you would see her. Past Continuous I was working at 2 am this morning. Past Perfect Simple I had not eaten for 24 hours. Past Perfect Continuous We had been working for 3 hours. If I had been working now, I would have missed you. If I had been working tomorrow, I could not have agreed. Future Simple Hold on. I'll do it now. I'll see you tomorrow. Future Continuous I will be working at 9 pm tonight. Future Perfect Simple I will have finished by 9pm tonight. We will have been married for ten years next month. Future Perfect Continuous They may be tired when you arrive because they will have been working. In 30 minutes, we will have been working for four hours. I.4 Basic Tenses For past and present, there are 2 simple tenses + 6 complex tenses (using auxiliary verbs). To these, we can add 4 "modal tenses" for the future (using modal auxiliary verbs will/shall). This makes a total of 12 tenses in the active voice. Another 12 tenses are available in the passive voice. So now we have 24 tenses. 24 Tenses past present future* ACTIVE simple tenses past present future complex tenses formed with auxiliary verbs past perfect present perfect future perfect past continuous present continuous future continuous past perfect continuous present perfect continuous future perfect continuous 7
  8. 8. PASSIVE past present future past perfect present perfect future perfect past continuous present continuous future continuous past perfect continuous present perfect continuous future perfect continuous Some grammar books use the word progressive instead of continuous. They are exactly the same. The use of tenses in English may be quite complicated, but the structure of English tenses is actually very simple. The basic structure for a positive sentence is: subject + auxiliary verb + main verb An auxiliary verb is used in all tenses. (In the simple present and simple past tenses, the auxiliary verb is usually suppressed for the affirmative, but it does exist for intensification.) The following table shows the 12 tenses for the verb to work in the active voice. structure Past present future*auxiliar y main verb simple normal I worked I work I will work intensive do base I did work I do work perfect have past participle I had worked I have worked I will have worked continuous be present participle -ing I was working I am working I will be working continuous perfect have been present participle -ing I had been working I have been working I will have been working * Technically, there are no future tenses in English. The word will is a modal auxiliary verb and future tenses are sometimes called "modal tenses". The examples are included here for convenience and comparison. I.5 Basic Tenses: Regular Verb This page shows the basic tenses with the regular verb work. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). The basic structure is: positive: + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb negative: - subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb question: ? auxiliary verb + subject + main verb These are the forms of the main verb that we use to construct the tenses: base verb past past participle present participle -ing 8
  9. 9. work worke d worked working past present future SIMPLE do + base verb (except future: will + base verb) + I did work I worked I do work I work I will work - I did not work I do not work I will not work ? Did I work? Do I work? Will I work? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle + I had worked I have worked I will have worked - I had not worked I have not worked I will not have worked ? Had I worked? Have I worked? Will I have worked? CONTINUOUS be + ing + I was working I am working I will be working - I was not working I am not working I will not be working ? Was I working? Am I working? Will I be working? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + ing + I had been working I have been working I will have been working - I had not been working I have not been working I will not have been working ? Had I been working? Have I been working? Will I have been working? I.6 Basic Tenses: Irregular Verb This page shows the basic tenses with the irregular verb sing. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). The basic structure is: positive: + subject + auxiliary verb + main verb negative: - subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb question: ? auxiliary verb + subject + main verb These are the forms of the main verb that we use to construct the tenses: base verb past past participle present participle -ing Sing sang sung singing past present future SIMPLE do + base + I did sing I sang I do sing I sing I will sing - I did not sing I do not sing I will not sing 9
  10. 10. verb (except future: will + base verb) ? Did I sing? Do I sing? Will I sing? SIMPLE PERFECT have + past participle + I had sung I have sung I will have sung - I had not sung I have not sung I will not have sung ? Had I sung? Have I sung? Will I have sung? CONTINUOU S be + -ing + I was singing I am singing I will be singing - I was not singing I am not singing I will not be singing ? Was I singing? Am I singing? Will I be singing? CONTINUOU S PERFECT have been + -ing + I had been singing I have been singing I will have been singing - I had not been singing I have not been singing I will not have beensinging ? Had I been singing? Have I been singing? Will I have been singing? The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is exactly the same (except to be). The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same (worked, worked), while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same (sang, sung). But the structure is the same! It will help you a great deal to really understand that. 10
  11. 11. I.7 Basic Tenses: Be This page shows the basic tenses with the verb be. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?). The basic structure is: positive (+): subject + auxiliary verb + main verb negative (-): subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb question (?): auxiliary verb + subject + main verb But for simple past and simple present tenses, the structure is not the same. In fact, it's even easier. There is no auxiliary verb. Here is the structure: positive (+) : subject + main verb negative (-) : subject + main verb + not question (?) : main verb + subject These are the forms of the main verb be that we use to construct the tenses: base past simple past participle present participle present simple be was, were been being am, are, is In the following table, we see be conjugated for 12 basic tenses. 11 past present future SIMPLE present simple or past simple (except future: will + be) + I was I am I will be - I was not I am not I will not be ? Was I? Am I? Will I be? SIMPLE PERFECT have + been + I had been I have been I will have been - I had not been I have not been I will not have been ? Had I been? Have I been? Will I have been? CONTINUOUS be + being + I was being I am being I will be being - I was not being I am not being I will not be being ? Was I being? Am I being? Will I be being? CONTINUOUS PERFECT have been + being + I had been being I have been being I will have been being - I had not beenbeing I have not beenbeing I will not have beenbeing ? Had I been being? Have I been being? Will I have been being?
  12. 12. SIMPLE past present future singular I was am will be you were are will be he/she/it was is will be plural we were are will be you were are will be they were are will be PERFECT past present future singular I had been have been will have been you had been have been will have been he/she/it had been has been will have been plural we had been have been will have been you had been have been will have been they had been have been will have been CONTINUOUS past present future singular I was being am being will be being you were being are being will be being he/she/it was being is being will be being plural we were being are being will be being you were being are being will be being they were being are being will be being CONTINUOUS PERFECT past present future singular I had been being have been being will have been being you had been being have been being will have been being he/she/it had been being has been being will have been being plural we had been being have been being will have been being you had been being have been being will have been being they had been being have been being will have been being 12
  13. 13. CHAPTER II ENGLISH TENSES TIMELINE a. Simple Present Tenses This is the form of the Simple Present of “To Be”: Subject Be (is, am, are) + Complement I Am ………………. We / You / They Are ………………. He / She / It Is …………….... • We use am with I. • We use are with we, you, they, and with all plural subjects • We use is with he, she, it, and all singular subjects in the third person. I am a teacher I am Indonesian you are a student She Is diligent He Is not a TV repoter Samsul Is 17 years They (example : James and Jane) are film starts We are happy You and I (= We) are on Holiday Ice Is cold It Is not sunday Running every week Is healthy To study hard Is Very good What he wants to buy is a new car This is the form of the Simpe Present Tenses of “ Read, Learn, Stop, Speak, Go”, etc : Subject Present Tenses or Verb-1 I/We/You/They Read learn Stop speak Go He/She/It reads Learns stops speaks goes 13
  14. 14. • We use read, learn, stop, speak and go with I, we, you, they. • We use reads, learns, stop, speaks and goes with he, she, it, and all singular subjects in the third person. The students Speak English on Wednesdays They Learn Mathematics everday I finish My job They bus Stops At the bus stop They Earth Revolves around The Sun The Sun Rises In the east Smoking Damages Your lungs That this food contains poison Surprises All of us To love him brings Her to Europe b. Present Continuous /Progressive Tenses This is the form of the Present Continuous /Progressive Tenses of “Practice, Watch, Discuss, Leave”,etc : 1A Subject Be (is/am/are) +Verb-1+ing… I Am practising Am watching Am discussing Am leaving We/You/They Are practising Are watching Are discussing Are leaving He/She/It Is practising Is watching Is discussing Are leaving • We use am practising, am watching, am discussing, am leaving with I. • We use are practising, are watching, are discussing, are leaving with we, you they, and with all plural subjects. • We use is practising, is watching, is discussing, is leaving with he, she, it and all singular subjects in the third person. Examples : They Are practicing English now I Am watching TV at the moment We Are discussing a problem tomorrow Anita Is writing a letter now We Are leaving For Sumatra next week c. Present Perpect Tense This is the form of the Present Perpect Tense of “ read, Returned, Lived, Written”, etc: Subject have/has + Verb Past Participle or Verb3 +........................................... I have read have returned have lived have written 14
  15. 15. We/You/They have read have returned have lived have written He/She/It has read has returned has lived has written We use have read, have returned, have lived, have written with I, we, you, they, and with all plural subjects We use has read, has returned, has lived, has written with he, she, it and all singular subjects in the third person. Examples: Rita has read the letter I have turned on the letter Rina have just returned the light Those people have lived in Java for 25 years Irwansyah has worked for PT. Astra Internasional In Jakarta Mr. Simon has written three books this month That old man has smoked ten cigarettes today The worker has painted the wall We have eaten up all apple d. Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive This is the form of the Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense of “ Learn, Travel, Visit, Do “, etc: Subject have/has + Verb Past Participle or Verb-3 + .................... I have been learning have been traveling have been visiting have been doing We/You/They have been learning have been traveling have been visiting have been doing He/She/It has been learning has been traveling has been visiting has been doing • We use have been learning, have been traveling, have been visiting, have been doing with I, we, they, and with all plural subjects. • We use has been learning, has been traveling, has been visiting, has been doing with he, she, it, and all singular subjects in the third person. Examples : She has been learning English since she was in Elementary School I have been traveling to Australia since 10 o’clock I have been visiting Bogor Palace They have been doing a TOEFL test preparation Greg has been playing tennis for five hours The mechanic has been repairing his car 15
  16. 16. e. Simple Past tense This is the form of the Simple Past tense of “TO BE”: Subject was/were +.................................................... I was ...................................................... We/You/They were ...................................................... He/She/It was ....................................................... • We use was with I • We use were with we, you, they, and with all plural subjects • We use was with he, she, it, and all singular subjects in the third person. Example : I was a student at that time Farida was a teacher in 1975 He was a TV reporter You were an actor then We were there yesterday Rose was busy last night It was a nice day Her daughter was in Japan for 5 years They were at the beach last Saturday Mr. Simon and Mrs. Grace were in Semarang a week ago This is the form of the Simple Past Tenseof “Visit, Meat, Busy, Build”, etc: Subject Verb-2 +....................................................... I/We/You?They visited met bought built went He/She/It visited met bought built went We use visited, met, bought, built, went, with: I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. Examples : I visited Bali Last year Rini met her old friend Mr. Hasan bought a new car two day ago They went to China yesterday Thomas A Edison invented Electricity This hotel was build in 1975 Amanda worked for TV7 for ten years f. Countinuous or Progressive Tense 16
  17. 17. This is the of the Past Countinuous or Progressive Tense of “Watch, Attend, Do, Ask”, etc: Subject + was/were + Verb-1 + ing WHEN or WHILE Subject + Verb-2 Subject + Verb-2 Subject + was/were + Verb-1 + ing I was watching was attending was doing was asking We/You/They ware watching was attending was doing ware asking He/She/It was watching was attending was doing was asking • We use was wathching, was attending, was doing, was working with I, he, she it, and all singular subjects in the third person. • We use were watching, were attending, were doing, were asking with we, you, they, and with all plural subjects. Examples: Someone knocked the door when I was watching TV Adam was talking to the policeman while his wife was crying I met Lenny when she was attending a party She was having lunch while a beggar was asking for money They were doing their jobs when the bomb exploded g. Past Perfect Tenses This is the form of the Past Perfect Tenses of “Arrive, Finish, Get, Wait”, etc: Subject + had + verb Past participle or Verb-3 + …………………….. I Had arrived Had finished Had got Had waited We/You/They Had arrived Had finished Had got Had waited He/She/It Had arrived Had finished Had got Had waited We use had arrived, had finished, had got, had waited with I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. Examples: All ministers had arrived at the Presidential Palace before Mr. President came Before Mr. President came All ministers had arrived at the Presidential Palace I went to Galeria Mall after I had finished my homework Hundreds of passengers had waited for two hours when The plane came Tanaka had got his university degree Before He became a mananger of PT. Suzi. h. Past Perfect Continuous/Progessive Tense This is the form of the Past Perfect Continuous/Progessive Tense of “Work, Live, Travel”, etc: 17
  18. 18. Subject + Had + been + Verb-1 + ing Before / after + Subject + past Participle/Verb-3 I Had been working Had been living Had been traveling We/You/They Had been living Had been living Had been traveling He/She/It Had been traveling Had been living Had been traveling We use had been working, had been living, had been traveling with I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. Examples: Samson had been working at the PT. Gobel for twenty years before He died I had been living in this town for ten years before I moved Henny had been traveling to Sumatra for a week before She went back to Semarang i. Future tense This is the form of The Future tense of “Will take , Will Go, Will Stay, Will Be”, etc: Subject Will + Verb-1 I/We/You/They Wil take Will stay Will reach He/She/It Wil go Will be Will consider We use will take, will go, will be, will stay, will reach, will consider with: I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. Examples: I Will take An examination tomorrow They Will go To Aceh next Sunday The soldiers Will be Home tonight We Will reach Kintamani soon The government Will consider Your proposal You Will be Safer when you drive carefully Mr. Simon Will stay Her ten years from now j. Future Continuous/Progressive Tense This is the form of The Future Continuous/Progressive Tense of “Will be arriving, Will be shining, Will be coming”, etc: Subject Will be + ing + …………….. I/We/You/They Will be coming Wil be arriving Will be shining He/She/It Will be coming Wil be arriving Will be shining We use will be coming, will be arriving, Will be shining with: I,We,You,They, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. 18
  19. 19. Examples: I Will be coming Tomorrow The guests Will be arriving At this time tomorrow The sun Will be shining brightly The Future Continuous/Progressive Tense is a verb form that is used to express: An activity that will be in progress at a time in the future, for example: • I will be coming tomorrow • The guests will be arriving at this tomorrow • The sun will be shining brightly Time Markers that are usually used: • At this time tomorrow • Next week • Next month • Next year • Until + S + Verb-1 • When, etc. k. Future perfect Tense This is the form of the Future perfect Tense of “ Pass, Marry, and Check”, etc: Subject Will + have + Verb in Past Participle/Verb-3 + …. I/We/You/They He/She/It Will have passed Will have married Will have checked By + a phrase atau Before/when + Subject + Verb-1Will have passed Will have married Will have checked Will have passed Will have married Will have checked We use will have passed, will have married, will have checked, with I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects Examples: I Will have passed My examination by the end of this moth Dessy Will have got married To Robby when you come back The Mechanic Will have checked The engine before the pilot flies the plane The Future Perfect Tense is a verb form that is used to express: 1. An action that will be completed before another event or a certain time in the future, for example: • I will have graduated from Bandung Institute of Technology Bandung 19
  20. 20. • Dessy will have left for Jakarta when you come back • The mechanic will have checked the car before I drive it. l. Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense This is the form of the Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense of “Sleep, Work, Fight, etc” Subject Will have + been + Verb-1 + ing + ………………. I/We/You/They He/She/It Will have been sleeping Will have been working Will have been fighting For………..Will have been sleeping Will have been working Will have been fighting Will have been sleeping Will have been working Will have been fighting We use will sleeping, Will have been working, Will have been fighting, with I, we, you, they, and he, she, it, and all singular and plural subjects. Examples: I Will have been sleeping For two hours before my wife gets home The firefighters Will have been fighting Against the fire for five hours We Will have been working For the supermarket The Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is a verb that is used to express: 1) An action that will be in progress before another time or event in the future, for example: • I will have been sleeping for two hours before my wife gets home. • The firefighters will have been putting the fire out for five hours. • We will have been working for the supermarket for two years. 2) An action that emphasizes the continuity of future achievement, for example: • I will have been teaching here for fifteen years this year • My daughters will have been sleeping for three hours by the time I get home m. Past Future Tense This tense is also basically the same with simple future tense. It explains an activity which will happen after the conversation happened. The tense is normally used to describe plan or to explain an estimation. Normally Past Future tense is used as a conditional sentence type 2. • I would come if you invited me 20
  21. 21. • Tom would travel if he had more money The characteristic of this tense is the use of the word ‘will’. Adverbs which are usually used in future tense are TOMORROW, NEXT… etc. The Pattern of Past Future Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Tense Verbal sentence: S + would + Verb1 Nominal sentence: S + would be + … Examples: • Ann would play in the final match tonight if she could recover faster. • Andrea would be at home next week if he finished his exam. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Tense Verbal sentence: S + wouldn’t + Verb1 Nominal sentence: S + wouldn’t + … Examples: • Joko wouldn’t come to the ceremony next Friday if he got sick. • The students would not be absent tomorrow the teacher came to the school. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Tense Verbal sentence: Would + S + Verb1 Nominal sentence: Would + S + be + …. Examples: • Would Emma accompany me to the party tonight if I brought a girlfriend? • Would they be able to come to the class on time if an accident happened? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Tense Verbal sentence: QW + would + S + Verb1 Nominal sentence: QW + Would + S + be + … Examples: • What would you wear for the party tonight if you did not have one? • When would the room be available if we did not book one? n. Past Future Continuous Tense Past Future Continuous Tense is used to explain an event or activity that will be happening in the future in a specific time that is predicted during the conversation takes place. This tense is almost the same like Present Future Tense but it is commonly used in conditional sentence. The difference is only in the specification of the time. Present Future Continuous Tense has more specific time. The adverbs used in this tense are almost the same with the ones used in Present Future Tense. In Present Future Continuous Tense, the use of specific time is often found. The Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense 21
  22. 22. S + would + be+ Ving Examples: • I would be studying math tonight at 8 pm if I had no other schedule. • The teachers will be holding an annual teacher meeting at 9 o’clock if they wanted to. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense S + would + not + be + Ving Examples: • The employees would not be working tomorrow if boss did not pay them. • The national soccer players would be performing a charity match at 22nd of June if they won the PPD competition. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense Would + S + be + Ving Examples: • Would Nami be going to Paris next 22nd of July if she graduated now? • Would he be playing for our volley team tomorrow night if we asked him? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense QW + would + S + be + Ving Examples: • What would you be doing tomorrow at 8 pm at your house if I came? • Where would the teachers be sitting if we occupied all of them? By using Past Future Continuous Tense Pattern, we can explains an event or activity that will be happening in the future in a specific time that is predicted during the conversation takes place. If you like to find other tenses, you should go to “Learn English Category”. o. Past Future Perfect Tense Past Future Tense is actually similar with Present Perfect Tense in the sense of time and meaning. This tense is normally used as conditional sentence type 3. It has contradictory meaning with the conditional sentence which is used. He would have become a rider if his team had won in the previous race. The adverbs used in Past Future Perfect tense are almost the same with the ones used in Present Future Perfect Tense. The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Verbal sentence: S + Would + have + V3 Nominal sentence: S + Would + have + been + … Examples: • Jim would have finished his job in the next month if he had not watched the movie. • Mia would have been a good pianist if she had practiced a lot. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense 22
  23. 23. Verbal sentence: S + Wouldn’t + have + V3 Nominal sentence: S + Wouldn’t + have + been + … Examples: • Kai wouldn’t have passed the exam if he had not studied sincerely. • The students would have not been in the suspension if they did not play in the class. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Verbal sentence: S + Would + have + S + V3 Nominal sentence: Would + have + S + been + … Examples: • Would have Emma accompanied her friends to the party tonight? • Would have they been able to come by the time class starts? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Verbal sentence: QW + Will/shall + have + S + Verb1 Nominal sentence: QW + will/shall have + S + be + … Examples: • What would have you done by the time I arrived there? • Why would have the room been available if I ask the janitor first? p. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense is basically the same with Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Similar with Past Future Perfect Tense, this tense is also used in conditional sentence type 3 normally for its positive and negative pattern. The race would have been starting since this morning if all riders had come on time. The adverbs used in this tense are almost the same with the ones used in Present Future Perfect Continuous Tense. The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been Ving Examples: • Clevany would have been sleeping if she did not drink much coffee. • Rose will have been studying for two hours if she did not watch a serial drama. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + wouldn’t + have + been Ving Examples: • Ika wouldn’t have been filling the requirement if she had come late. • The students would have not been watching a movie if the school had ended faster. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Would + have + S + been + Ving Examples: • Would have Mina been listening to her favorite song if the electricity had downed? • Would have they been playing soccer if the principle had come? 23
  24. 24. D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense QW + would + have + S + been + Ving Examples: • What would have you been doing if I had fractured your leg? • Where would have the students been studying if the teacher had not come? CHAPTER III EXAMPLE OF 16 TENSES a. Present Tenses Simple Present Tenses is a verb form that is used to express: 1) An action that happens all the time or habits. It happens: everyday, every week, every month, every year, on Sundays, Mondays, etc, for example: • Rose always comes on time. 24
  25. 25. • James goes to school by car • Hassan and I are classmates. • We often meet each other. • The students speak on Wednesdays. • I learn English everyday. 2) A thing that is true in general, for example: • I am Indonesian • Ice is cold • I am a student • You are a nurse • Chriseye is a singer • Bruce Lee and Jet Lee are film stars • Jimmy is a hard worker • The Sun rises in the east • Smoking damages your lungs 3) A schedule/timetable or a plan , example: • The bus arrives at 5:30 a.m • The bank opens at 8:30 and closes a 4:00 • Festival on Javanese Culture starts tomorrow 4) A description and definition, for example: • A doctor works in a hospital. He examines the sick people. He gives medicine too. • Teachers teach in schools. They explain and give homework and correct students worksheet • An architect is a person who plans a new building. Note: Adjunct can be placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence, for example: • I learn English everyday or Everyday I learn English. Time Markers that are usually used for example: • Always • Every day • Every month • Every week • Everyday • Never • Often • On Sunday • Rarely • Seldom • Sometime 25
  26. 26. • Usually RULES OF THE ENGLISH SPELLING When a verb ending in : ch, sh, ss and _x, o add es to the stem of the verb, for example: watch = watches pass = passes finish = finishes fix = fixes go = goes When a verb end in : y after a consonant, y changes into ie. Then s is added to the stem of the verb, for example: carry = carries study = studies cry = cries When a verb ends in : y after a vowal, y does not change. Then s is added to the stemof the verb, for example: play = plays buy = buys b. Present Continuous/Progressive Tenses The Present Continuous/Progressive Tenses is a verb form that is used to express: 1. An action which is happening now or at the moment of speaking, for example: • They are speaking English now • We are discussing a problem at the moment • Anita is writing a letter now • I am watching a boxing champion on TV 2. A future time, for example: • We are leaving for Sumatra tomorrow • I am leaving for Lombok next week • I am listening to BBC radio tonight Time Markers that are usually used : • now • at the moment • at present • tonight • tomorrow Note : 26
  27. 27. The following verb may not be formed in The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense: 1. Verb of Perceptions See,look, hear, feel, taste, smell, seem, recognize, appear. 2. Verbs of Emotion or Wishing Verbs Want, prefer, inted, don’t mind, refuse, forgive, hope, wish, care for, can’t bear, love, hate. 3. Verb of Thingking Agree, believe, expect, forget, guess, have, having a party, having dinner, imagine, know, mean, need, note, own, realize, remember, sound, suppose, suspect, taste, think, understand, wonder. RULERS OF THE ENGLISH SPELLING 1. Verb ending in e drop it when ing is added to them, for example : • come+ing = coming • blame+ing = blaming • hope+ing = hoping BUT • dye+ing = dyeing • flee+ing = fleeing • see+ing = seeing 2. when ing is added to a verb ending in y, its y does not charge to i, for example : • carry + ing = carrying • marry + ing = marrying • obey + ing = obeying • cry + ing = cryin 3. when ing is added to verb ending in ie, it changes into y, for example: • die + ing = dying • lie + ing = lying c. Present Perpect Tense Present Perpect Tense is a verb form that is used to express: 1. An action that has completed before the present time , for example: • Rina has just returned from school • Sella has played tennis • I has lost my chance to study abroad 2. An action that has an effect on the present situation, for example: • I have read this letter. 27
  28. 28. • He has turned on the light. • The worker has painted the wall. • Tommy has seen that film twice • She has eaten up all apples 3. An activity or a state that has continued for a period of time from a point in the past until the present. This action is not completed; it is still going on up to present, for example: • They have lived in Jakarta for twenty years. • Betty has got married to Rico since 1990. • He has worked for PT. Free Port Indonesia. Time Markers that are usually used : • Already • Just • Not yet • Since, for example : since 1997, since I was a child. • For, for example: for three hour, for five years, for the last two years, etc. Note : • We use The Present Perfect Tense when we are interested in the action that has been completed or finished. We are interested in the result of the action, Not the action itself. • We use The Present Perfect Tense when we wish to say how much we have done, or how many times we have done something. d. Present Continuous/Progressive Tense The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is a verb form that is used to express: An action ( quite a long action ) which began in the past and has continued to the present. The action or state has not stopped at the present time; IT IS STILL HAPPENING OR GOING ON, for example: • I have been learning English since 1997. • Mr. Smith has been painthing the ceiling of the house since 9:00a.m. • Miranda has been traveling to Australia. • Greg has been playing tennis since 10 o’clock. • The mechanic has been repairing his car for five hours. Time Markers that are usually used: • Since : since 1997, since I was at Senior High School, since I was a child. • For : for tho hours, for five years, for the last two years, etc. 28
  29. 29. e. Simple Past Tenses The Simple Past Tenses is a verb form that is used to express: 1. One action which happened or took place at a particular time in the past, for example: • I was a student at that time • She was a teacher in 1975. • He was a TV reporter then. • You were there yesterday. • I was busy last night • He was in Japan last month. • They were at the beach a weak ago. • You and I were in Tegal last year • Rini met her old friend yesterday • Mr. Hassan bought a new car two days ago. • They went to China last night. • Thomas A Edison invented electricity. • This hotel was built in 1975 • Hessa worked for Trans TV for ten years. 2. Repeated, habitual action in the past, for example: • He used to have five goats and two cows. • I always went to mosque at night. • Colt used to be the only means of transportation then Time Markers that are usually used: • Yesterday, for example: yesterday afternoon, yesterday morning, ect. • Last, for example: last week, last month, last year, etc. • Ago, for example: two days ago, a week ago, a month ago, a year ago, etc. • In, for example: in 1975, in 1999, in 2010, ect. • At , for example: at 7:00, at 8:30, at 10:15, etc • For, for example: for 25 years, for ten years, etc. • From …. to, for example: from 5 years to 50, from 1975 to 1985. • When, for example: whwn I was young, ……. , etc. Note : Sometimes , always, never, often, each year,year after year can be used here to describe repeated habitual actions. RULERS OF THE ENGLISH SPELLING 1. When a word ends in y after a consonant, y changed into ie when d is added to the word. For example: 29
  30. 30. Carry  carried Try  tried Copy  copied 2. When a suffix is added to a short word ending in a consonant after a vowal, its consonant is doubled, for example: Beg  begged Stop  stopped Plan  planned f. Past Countinuous/Progressive Tense The Past Countinuous/Progressive Tense is a verb form that is used to express: 1. An action that was taking place simultaneously when it was interrupted by another activity in the past. This tenses is rarely used by itself, example: • Shanty was watching TV when someone knocked the door. • Adam was talking to the policeman while his wife was crying. • I met Tom when he was attending a party. • I was having lunch when the robbery happened. 2. An action which was occurring at some specific time in the past, for example: • What were you doing at 9:50? At 9:50 I was doing my assignment. • Gita was watching TV at 7:00p.m. last night Time Markers that are usually used: • When • While • At, for example: 9 o’clock g. Past perfect Tenses The Past perfect Tenses is a verb form that is that is used to express: 1. An action that had happened or was completed in the past before another action in the past, for example: • All ministers had arrived at the Presidential Palace before Mr. President came. • Before Mr. President came, all ministers had arrived at the Presidential palace. • She went to Galeria Mall after she had finished her homework. • Hunderds of passengers had waited for two hours when the plane landed. 30
  31. 31. • Tanaka had got his Master Degree from a reputable university before he became a manager of PT. Suzuki. • Before I traveled to spain, I had visited London. • Tania went home after she had bought a plane tiket. • Lorenza had gone to the supermarket before she went home. • The policeman came after the robber had shot dead the security staff of the bank. • After he had won the grand prize from PT. Nezo, he went for a tour to Europe. Time Markers that are usually used: • After, before, and when h. Past Perfect Countinuous/Progressive Tense The Past Perfect Countinuous/Progressive Tense is a verb from that is used to express: 1. A longer action that had happened and continued up to the time in the past, and ended or stopped just before something else in the past, for example: • James had been working at the Pluit Hospital for fifteen years before he died. • I had been living in this city for ten years before I moved to Malang, East Java. • Henny had been traveling to Kalimantan for a week before she went back to Yogyakarta. 2. An activity which is in progress in the past. • Her hair was dirty because she had been sweeping the yard. • When he got home, he was very tired because he had been working all day. Time Markers that are usually used: • When • Before • For i. Future Tense The Future Tense is averb from that is used to express: 1. An action that is going to happen in the future, for example: • I will take an examination tomorrow • They will go to Aceh next Sunday. • The soldiers will be home tonight. • We will reach Kintamani soon. • Mr. Simon will stay here for 2 years from now. 31
  32. 32. • The government will consider your proposal. • You will be safer when you drive carefully. Note: • We can also use be going to + Verb-1, for example: • I am going to invite a lot of guests. • I am going to visit her tomorrow • I feel I am going to be better. Time Markers that are usually used: • Tonight • Tomorrow • Next week • Next year • In the future • In ten days • From now • Ten years from now • This weekend • Until + S + Verb-1 • when j. Future Continuous/Progressive Tense The Future Continuous/Progressive Tense is a verb from that is used to express: An activity that will be in progress at a time in the future, for example: • I will be coming tomorrow. • The guests will be arriving at this time tomorrow. • The Sun will be shining brightly. Time Markers that usually used: • At this time tomorrow • Next week • Next month • Next year • Until + S + Verb-1 • When, etc. 32
  33. 33. k. Future Perfect Tense The future Perfect Tense is a verb from that is used to express: 1. An action that will be completed before another event or a certain time in the future, for example: • I will have graduated from Bandung Institute of Technology by the end of June. • Dessy will have left for Jakarta when you came back. • The mechanic will have checked the car before I drive it. Time Markers that are usually used: • By this time next week • By June, by September, etc. • By next month • By next year • By 2025 • When + S + Verb-1 • Before Note : Adjunct can be put in front of or behind the sentence, for example: • By the end of this month, I will have graduated from Gadjahmada University • I will have graduated from Gadjahmada University by the end of this month. l. Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense The Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense is a verb from that is used to express: A. An action that will be in progress before another time or event in the future, for example: • I will have been sleeping for two hours before my wife gets home. • The firefighters will have been putting the fire out for two years. B. An action that emphasizes the continuity of a future achievement, for example: • I will have teaching here for fifteen years this year. • My daughters will have been sleeping for three hours by the time I get home. Time Markers that are usually used: • For three hours at that time. • Two hours by six o’clock. • The whole time. 33
  34. 34. • Too long by that time. m. Past Future Tense The Pattern of Past Future Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Tense Examples: • Ann would play in the final match tonight if she could recover faster. • Andrea would be at home next week if he finished his exam. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Tense Examples: • Joko wouldn’t come to the ceremony next Friday if he got sick. • The students would not be absent tomorrow the teacher came to the school. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Tense Examples: • Would Emma accompany me to the party tonight if I brought a girlfriend? • Would they be able to come to the class on time if an accident happened? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Tense Examples: • What would you wear for the party tonight if you did not have one? • When would the room be available if we did not book one? n. Past Future Continuous Tense The Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense Examples: • I would be studying math tonight at 8 pm if I had no other schedule. • The teachers will be holding an annual teacher meeting at 9 o’clock if they wanted to. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense Examples: • The employees would not be working tomorrow if boss did not pay them. • The national soccer players would be performing a charity match at 22nd of June if they won the PPD competition. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense Examples: • Would Nami be going to Paris next 22nd of July if she graduated now? • Would he be playing for our volley team tomorrow night if we asked him? 34
  35. 35. D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Continuous Tense Examples: • What would you be doing tomorrow at 8 pm at your house if I came? • Where would the teachers be sitting if we occupied all of them? By using Past Future Continuous Tense Pattern, we can explains an event or activity that will be happening in the future in a specific time that is predicted during the conversation takes place. o. Past Future Perfect Tense The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Examples: • Jim would have finished his job in the next month if he had not watched the movie. • Mia would have been a good pianist if she had practiced a lot. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Examples: • Kai wouldn’t have passed the exam if he had not studied sincerely. • The students would have not been in the suspension if they did not play in the class. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Examples: • Would have Emma accompanied her friends to the party tonight? • Would have they been able to come by the time class starts? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Perfect Tense Examples: • What would have you done by the time I arrived there? • Why would have the room been available if I ask the janitor first? p. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense The Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense A. The Positive Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Examples: • Clevany would have been sleeping if she did not drink much coffee. • Rose will have been studying for two hours if she did not watch a serial drama. B. The Negative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Examples: • Ika wouldn’t have been filling the requirement if she had come late. • The students would have not been watching a movie if the school had ended faster. C. The Interrogative Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense 35
  36. 36. Examples: • Would have Mina been listening to her favorite song if the electricity had downed? • Would have they been playing soccer if the principle had come? D. The Question-word Pattern of Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense Examples: • What would have you been doing if I had fractured your leg? • Where would have the students been studying if the teacher had not come? CHAPTER IV THE CONCLUDING Conclusion Tense general formula is as follows: No. tenses Formula 1.Present Simple Tense S + V1. 2. Present Continuous Tense S + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing. 3. Present Perfect Tense S + have / has + V3. 4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + have / has + been + V-ing. 36
  37. 37. 5. Simple Past Tense S + V2. 6. Past Continuous Tense S + was / were + V-ing. 7. Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3. 8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had + been + V-ing. 9. Future Simple Tense S + will + V1. 10. Future Continuous Tense S + will + be + V-ing. 11. Future Perfect Tense S + will + have + V3. 12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + will + have + been + V-ing. 13. Past Simple Future Tense S + would + V1. 14. Future Past Continuous Tense S + would + be + V-ing. 15. Past Perfect Future Tense S + would + have + V3. 16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been + V-ing. REFERENCES A Handbook of English Grammar (Tata Bahasa Inggris Lengkap)- Oleh Slamet Riyanto, Emilia NH, Leila NH. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_sys-what.htm http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/tenses http://www.englishpage.com/irregularverbs/irregularverbs.html https://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/regular-verbs-list.htm 37

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