SIRGUpdate #3 (November)


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This is the Social Innovation Research Group's (SIRG) third newsletter with content by Wendy Pan, Reza Mirza, Remi Kanji and Melinda Jacobs. Design by Reza Mirza.

SIRG is mapping social innovation entities in Taiwan by interviewing organizations, entrepreneurs and thought leaders to identify factors for success and to create models for innovation.

Our work is funded by the University of Toronto and The Munk School of Global Affairs. We work closely with the Canadian Trade Office in Taipei and The Global Innovation Group at The University of Toronto, a partnership among top researchers in health, business and politics to change the world.

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SIRGUpdate #3 (November)

  1. 1. UPDATESIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 Taiwan is famous for its night markets. Pictured to the right is Shilin Night Market, considered one of the largest and most famous night markets i n Ta i w a n . T h e shimmering glitz belies this 1000 year old tradition. Social Innovation Research Group Newsletter Contents Nov. Highlights 1. Implications of the Financial Flow - Wendy Pan 1. Interviewed the founder of iHealth, a 2. Fair Trade 2.0 - Remi Kanji social enterprise by a UToronto Alum 3. Novel Method for Ecosystem Analysis - Reza Mirza 2. Attended the Social Enterprise 4. Resolving the Tension Between Marketing and Discussion Forum Social Impact - Remi Kanji 3. Interviewed serial SE entrepreneur 5. Realigning Incentives - Melinda Jacobs and Remi Kanji and founder of 6 Doctors 5 Patients (a preventative healthcare SE) 6. Inside and Out: Prioritizing Local and International Causes in a Global World - Melinda Jacobs 4. Attended the Social Enterprise 7. Social Enterprise Spotlight: Guang Yuan Social Development Round Table Enterprise - Wendy Pan 5. Listened to a talk by the founder of Rainforest Cafe. a fair trade SE 1
  2. 2. SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 Implications of the Financial Flow By Wendy Pan In the last newsletter, I briefly introduced the financial flow model for categorizing social enterprises. After recently meeting a few social entrepreneurs in Taiwan, I would like to add on how the model could be used to measure the impact of a social enterprise and how profit division strategy differentiates social enterprises from traditional NPOs. Multiple fits are better than single fits In order to maximize its impact in the targeted community, a social enterprise needs to fit in multiple categories defined by the financial flow model. For instance, a social enterprise sells a product to a marginalized group in a developing country. If the product is produced by a large factory owned by a multi-national corporation elsewhere, the social enterprise is less integrated with the marginalized group than if it were to produce the products in the community. Since the priority for social enterprises that serve the poor as their customers is cost cutting, by training people in the same community to provide the service or to There are two major types of social enterprises falling produce the product, these social enterprises within the “marginalized group as employee” effectively cut costs, such as labor costs, category – social enterprises that hire people with transportation costs and import taxes. disabilities or social enterprises that hire people in developing countries who live in extreme poverty Producer model is more flexible than (without exploiting them, of course). Social employee model enterprises that hire people with disabilities bear a It is important to clarify that “marginalized particular type of risk – a reduction in market group as producer” and “marginalized group as demand could lead to a decrease in revenue. At that employee” are two distinct categories in the model. time, they will face the dilemma to either keep “Producers” are business owners who have the themselves afloat or let some employees go. In ability to make decisions independently, while addition, these enterprises have to pay extra for “employees” do not have nearly as much flexibility. employee insurance and health benefits, which could become burdens in times of The former are usually more sustainable financially financial difficulty. This could be why most of these social enterprises register as than the latter. If a “marginalized group as foundations or NPOs. In this way, they can receive funding from government agencies, producer” social enterprise closes down, its private donors or other NPOs serving the same group. producers can still sell products and participate in the market, with all the knowledge gained by Flexible profit division is crucial for success. working with the social enterprise. However, if a Profit division methodology plays an important role. A social enterprise could “marginalized group as employee” social enterprise allocate parts of its profits to the marginalized group it serves in the form of donations, becomes insolvent, its employees will lose their jobs allowing it to scale its impact beyond business. A local example in Taiwan is Guang and face unemployment. Yuan Social Enterprise. For example, Guang Yuan Social Enterprise donates 3% of its revenue back to Ma Na, the partnering NPO it works with, to provide technical training Two of the most common organizational to aboriginal farmers in the Ali Mountain area. structures for “marginalized group as producers” One of the most prominent features of social enterprises is the “efficiency social enterprises are farmers’ cooperatives and fair- premium”, which most traditional non-for-profit organizations (NPOs) do not have. If trade enterprises. These social enterprises often act an NPO is well-managed and spends only 9 dollar out of its 10 dollar budget to as links between the producers and wholesalers or accomplish its mission, what happens to this NPO? There are two possibilities. 1) It consumers. Sometimes, the enterprises will provide saves the dollar for the next fiscal year. 2) It will receive only 9 dollars next year. In order producers technical training or market information to prevent option 2 from happening, that NPO could try to spend that extra dollar so it to effectively bridge them with the market. In does not get penalized. What would happen to a social enterprise in the same scenario? return, the social enterprise distributes the products It would have many options. A social enterprise can allocate its efficiency premium to its on the producers’ behalf and takes the gross margin, managers, shareholders, designated charities, employees, or some or all of the above. calculated as the difference between the prices it sells Since it is an enterprise, its managers and employees are eligible to receive bonuses as the products and the prices it purchases them. incentives and have extra financial drives to outperform. This is a luxury that managers Guang Yuan Social Enterprise, Da Wang’s Food and employees from traditional NPOs do not have. This can also partially explain why Stand, and Thai Craft Association are all examples social enterprises are general more effective than traditional NPOs in attracting top of this type of social enterprises. talents. 2
  3. 3. Fair Trade 2.0SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 By Remi Kanji The idea of a What makes Smateria and ‘living wage’ has Motherhouse like Fair Trade? First, they offer a pay inspired recent package and benefits better than living wage. Both controversy in the Lion and Yamaguchi offer above market salary – United Kingdom. Yamaguchi gives twice the amount usually paid in the W h i t e h a l l local market. They are able to be selective about who cleaners – the they hire, ensuring that quality of work produced d e d i c at e d a n d improves. Workers know that Smateria and p a t r i o t i c Motherhouse are some of the best available employers janitorial staff and are likely more willing to stay on with the dedicated to organization, learn, and work hard to keep their jobs. cleaning up after Smateria is different from mainstream fair trade in its the UK government –have been fighting for a wage benefits package – it is particularly geared towards that would sufficiently cover their basic living costs. women. Mothers are given an unusually long What does that mean? Enough money for rent on maternity leave as well as access to free childcare en their subsidized apartments outside of London, food site. All workers are given one month of annual leave for their families and transportation to and from work. and the organization takes pains to ensure that all A fair wage. And such a wage increase even has International Labor Organization standards are met economic benefits. The University of Staffordshire in day-to-day operations. calculates that for every £1 contributed to a living But what makes Smateria and wage, a benefit of £1.63 is created in the wider Motherhouse better than Fair Trade? What makes the economy. Both the Living Wage efforts and the Fair two organizations the second, improved iteration? Trade Movement share a parallel morality – namely, They both offer opportunity for advancement. Both that those who must rely on low-income work should Lion and Yamaguchi spend time on the factory floor be paid enough through that work to meet their basic with workers, finding out who is flexible, creative, and needs. Fair trade consumers pay a premium on a a leader. These individuals are then given the product, a higher price for their coffee for example, in opportunity to undergo further leadership training the hopes that the farmer makes enough for rent, and become managers. The promise of upward food, and transportation. mobility inspires workers to be better. Education and While the moral oblig ations training further develops an individual, allowing them interwoven with fair trade and living wage movements access to work that is more creatively and financially ensure that low-income workers have access to the rewarding. Upward mobility allows workers and their basic necessities, Fair Trade 2.0 provides them with families to meet their needs beyond rent, food, and class mobility, in addition to unlocking their creative transportation. talents for use in the wider economy. While at two For those who are not necessarily conferences in Singapore and Taiwan, SIRG members enamored with fair trade and living wage morality, it is met Elisa Lion and Eriko Yamaguchi, two interesting to note that neither Smateria nor entrepreneurs running enterprises forming the basis of Motherhouse rely on the ethical component of their the Fair Trade 2.0 Model. Smateria is owned and businesses for marketing. Instead, they market their operated by Lion and her business partner Jennifer products based on design and quality. And it is easier Morellato, while Eriko Yamaguchi founded and to demand good quality product from engaged and operates Motherhouse. Both companies manufacture happy workers. In addition to illustrating ways in designer handbags that I love, but cannot afford which fair trade should improve, they also showcase because of my student budget. that fashion does not need to sacrifice social good for profit and style. Right: A stylish Smarteria bag made from r e c y c l e d garbage bags using innovative manufacturing. 3
  4. 4. Novel Method for Ecosystem AnalysisSIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 Part 1: Introduction By Reza Mirza It’s clear that data is taking over: from the Obama One difficult question this campaign’s analytics team that grew five-fold from the kind of analysis can answer is 2008 election to Har vard Business Review’s where to focus our research pronouncement that ‘Data Scientist’ is the sexiest job of efforts. Though Taiwan isn’t a the 21st century. My goal is to use untapped data to large country, it’s important efficiently flesh out an ecosystem that wouldn’t be for us to be efficient and possible on foot given limited resources. minimize the amount of time spent finding social When I first came to Taiwan as part of the Taiwan Field enterprises. By drilling down School to represent the University of Toronto -- swine flu and looking at regional patterns for the term “社會企業” was breaking out around the world. In a fascinating twist, Google managed to predict flu outbreaks by region using we can find hubs of SE interest, which act as proxies for the frequency of search queries related to flu symptoms. the activity we’re searching for. Figure 2 below illustrate They validated their algorithm to be 97% accurate using this. CDC data to be 97% accurate. The paper I presented to Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs discussed how Of course Taipei is where most of the activity is located, Google’s Flu Trends could be adapted to become a but it’s fascinating to learn that Tainan and ChuNan, generalized epidemic detection tool, speaking to Taiwan’s places we have yet to investigate, have a huge interest in enterovirus epidemics. Clearly search queries can be an social enterprise. And finding unknown hubs efficiently is extremely flexible tool in doing broad analyses. just the tip of the iceberg of how such data can be used. Before using such data to make predictions or real world In Part 2, I intend to validate whether search query data is pronouncements, it’s key to first identify whether the data representative of actual activity, as measured by the is internally consistent. I did this by comparing Taiwan’s number of enterprises in the region. I expect there to be a correlation between search queries and the number of overall search frequency for “社會企業” (Chinese for strength of the community, using metrics like the number social enterprise) with the average search frequency of of existing enterprises. supporting organizations (like three Taiwanese social enterprises with an engaged web accelerators), and the amount of capital available. audience (i.e. 248農學市集, 地球樹, 吉甲地). The idea Figure 2. Regional Interest is that overall interest in the field should be correlated with the aggregated interest in three social enterprises. And indeed, if you look at Figure 1, you see a moderate correlation (49%) between the search frequencies suggesting the data is internal consistent. Figure 1. Internal Consistency 70.0 52.5 35.0 17.5 Left: Correlation (R=0.49) between the popularity of Google searches for the Chinese word for SE (社會企業) vs. average 0 2012-02-11 2012-08-11 2012-02-12 2012-08-12 searches for three Taiwanese Social Enterprises. Above: Regional breakdown of search frequency for 社會企業 Average Queries of 3 SEs in TW Queries for "社會企業" Note: The numbers in both Figure 1 and 2 are values indicating relative popularity and not actual frequency of searches. 4
  5. 5. members a subscription fee for access to a package of Realigning IncentivesSIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 services. They too address a service gap – whereas services were previously individually available and patients would By Melinda Jacobs and Remi Kanji have to seek them out for access, 5 Doctors 6 Patients (5D6P) Social impact bonds are a new social-purpose financial bundles them in a one-stop shop. Moreover, it creates a instrument, proposing a sustainable solution for the creation consistent and supportive community around holistic care, of social value. By aligning the monetary incentives of encouraging members to partake. The ‘investors’ in 5D6P’s investors with the creation of a social good, everyone wins. model are patients who pay a monthly subscription fee to the However, there are many circumstances and models in service. However, ‘interest’ is calculated based on a patient’s which the financial and social incentives are not aligned - a healthcare costs after a set number of years in the program – problematic situation for a growing sector that aims to be if these costs are reduced, then Taiwan’s National Health defined by pairing financial and social success. The New Insurance will pay patients the difference between their past York based Social Impact Bonds and the Taiwan-based and present costs of care. organization 5 Doctors 6 Patients (5D6P) provide 5D6P’s model relies on two behaviors: firstly, that people contrasting lenses to evaluate the ability of new financial believe the bundling of health promotion services (exercise, models to create and sustain social behaviors. nutrition, community, etc) together is meaningful enough Social Impact Bonds were first introduced in New York they will pay for a subscription, and secondly that people are to fund rehabilitation programs for Rikers Island prisoners. more likely to subscribe and be active users if they have a The bonds were an unusual instrument funded by an monetary interest in displaying that behavior. However, if unexpected creditor: Goldman Sachs (backed by bundling of services is compelling enough to get subscribers, Bloomberg Philanthropies). Sachs gave the government the organization would not need to give the   subscribers a USD $9.6 Million up front – without this initial investment, financial stake in the health rewards of that behaviour -- the rehabilitation programs in question would not exist. they’ll do it because they like the product, not because of They filled a service gap. In exchange, the government will financial incentives. The behavior of health promotion (a be monitoring the group of prisoners benefitting from social good, in their model) can operate based on its social impact bonds. Their recidivism rates will be comparative advantage as a service, without more financial compared to that of the general prison population. Once intervention in the form of incentives or profit sharing. On the government calculates savings from reduced recidivism the other hand, if the goal is to financially reward (if these savings do indeed exist), it will pay Goldman Sachs participation in health promotion, the organization could back its initial investment with interest. However, as with test if monetary incentives were enough to compel would-be any investment, there is a risk of limited returns, no returns, subscribers to exercise and subsequently reduce healthcare or even a loss. At the same time, Goldman Sachs found the costs. 5D6P could test using already established paying rehabilitation program to be a sound enough long term patterns at other health and wellness institutions - if you investment that it put what would for most other investors increase your use of the gym by 30% per month, refund be a substantial amount of capital into funding the your fees 50%. This would actually be easier, because program. increased fitness does not necessarily decrease costs of a per This model is exciting in that it incentivizes a patient level because 5D6P uses historical averages. (In that financially-driven organization to invest in social value way “healthy” people or those who have incurred no doctor’s creation, while also filling a service gap that the government visits are financially punished if they decide to use a doctor, cannot address. Though the ROI is slow, investing in a which could actually encourage the wrong behavior for the rehabilitation program is actually a comparatively low-risk person’s health.) undertaking. After gaining work skills, former prisoners The New York social impact bonds   facilitate a have more employment options and a vested interest in not behaviour in the consumer’s best interest to create. 5D6P is committing another crime. A survey report produced by the similar, but its consumers have a financial stake in improving Colorado Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice their health, with number of doctor’s visits and health care emphasizes rehabilitation programs that focus on use as the metric for success. Unfortunately, giving customers employment, addiction treatment, sex offender treatment, a financial interest in the creation of health promotion may mental health, and behavioral programs. Experienced incent the right behavior for the wrong reason: it could professionals who have researched comparative criminal create recidivism that would damage the group when the justice systems clearly recognize the value of rehab “consumer” starts living healthily again, either when they  programming – Goldman Sachs believes it is making a safe stop participating on their own accord, or the financial bet. incentive is not longer strong enough. An integrated value Social Impact Bonds relate to an NPO we interviewed system that clearly aligns the social and the monetary in Taiwan: 5 Doctors 6 Patients. The NPO aims to assumptions and behaviors makes it easier to see why a encourage preventative and holistic healthcare, charging model will succeed or fail. 5
  6. 6. SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 steeped in the local conditions that instead of empowering Inside and Out: Prioritizing innovation, submersion in local issues can stagnate thinking Local and International with all the reasons why things can’t or haven’t changed. These justifications for the status quo are the biggest barrier to even Causes in a Global World the most enthusiastic social entrepreneurs. By Melinda Jacobs More ironically, a similar rationale has been used in favour One simple but meaningful way of of addressing social problems outside the local sphere. Because distinguishing between social outsiders are less likely to see the reasons why a social problem organizations (non-profits and social exists, they are somehow keener to believe they can change enterprises) is by analysing where them. If we only did x, y, z we could meaningfully change x they are focused. Do they seek to problem in y society. This logic has led to many (what I believe resolve inequities or empower are half hearted) attempts to create sustainable social good, marginalized communities within a predicated on the assumption the group is equipped to do so. local environment, or in more This is my primary contention with “voluntourism”– distant, foreign environments? organizations that rely on fee-paying volunteers to fuel the creation of social value, often in the form of infrastructure and Helping someone at home or abroad is morally equitable mostly within developing economies. in the moral framework of philosopher Peter Singer. His famous example of a drowning child is meant to compel the The Taiwanese social enterprise ELIV takes Taiwanese bystander to take action to save the child, short of endangering students (who pay a fee) to do development work in Cambodia. the bystander’s life. Whether the drowning child is at home or Without getting into the intricacies of their model, I would broad has no relevance in determining the moral rationale for argue this concept benefits Taiwanese students more than intervention – Singer would find no problem with a social Cambodian communities. Even if beneficial for the economy supporting both local and international causes. But Cambodian host communities, their ability to extract value are we equally well equipped to address both sorts of problems? from ELIV is limited by the number of Taiwanese students Do social entrepreneurs have equal or greater capacity to be willing to pay into the Taiwanese organization. agents of change in their home environments as abroad? Although ELIV does aim to build local capacity in All societies leave people behind, and it can be hard for Cambodia, the brain trust it creates in its participants residents of so called “developed economies” like Canada and ultimately comes back to Taiwan. But is this the best vehicle to Taiwan to account for societal extremes. Although there is no educate young change makers? Or just the most “sexy”? There doubt that marginalization exists, social problems are less are some variations on the voluntourism model that are permeating,. Acknowledging and addressing those social creating meaningful and even sustainable social value within problems that conflict with the popular conception of what it their host communities, but their most lasting impact is within means to be from Canada or Taiwan is politically sensitive. the participants and their skills. Perhaps the same allocation of their time and economic resources within a local economy Last year’s crisis in the Attawapiskat community of would achieve more tangible results and social impacts in the northern Ontario is a prime example of Canadian reluctance short term. to publically engage in dialogue let alone sustainable action toward improving its most marginalized communities, despite The prioritization of local and international causes is on going domestic efforts toward alleviating social problems particularly salient in the Taiwanese context: youth here are elsewhere. extremely motivated and able, but because of the island’s tenuous political position Taiwan is seldom the beneficiary of If we are encouraging market based solutions to social foreign attention. Aside from missionaries and other groups problems, it is easy to see why a social entrepreneur in a association with religion, there are no formal organizations relatively thriving society might look elsewhere: the market size bringing foreigners to contribute to Taiwanese social causes. of social problems is often larger. When evaluating the The solving of Taiwan’s social problems lies firmly with the opportunity for social change, should we look at the “market Taiwanese, and should serve as a greater impetus to target size,” the nature of the social problem, or our ability to address socially minded efforts within the local economy. the problem at hand? Should social entrepreneurs care more about closing the Being a social entrepreneur is often most accessible at gap of relative wealth and privilege across countries or within home: you have the most political rights in the country of your them? Should they seek to create greater prosperity in societies nationality, and presumably benefit from proximity to personal that already enjoy high standards of living, or to increase the networks. However, the people with vested interests in social prosperity in societies with relatively less? When looking to solutions may lack access to networks or resources, despite become a social entrepreneur, the ultimate assessment should having the capacity to develop solutions. Further, it can be be one’s own ability to serve as an agent of change, regardless difficult to evangelize resident to local needs: residents are so of the location. 6
  7. 7. Social Enterprise Spotlight:SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 Guang Yuan Social Enterprise By Wendy Pan One major landmark for a social enterprise is the day it breaks even - achieving financial independence. However, not many social enterprises in Taiwan have reached the break-even stage. One social enterprise that has successfully gone beyond break- even is Guang Yuan Social Enterprise. On October 25th and 26th, SIRG visited Guang Yuan’s site in the Ali Mountain. During the visit, we participated in coffee tree trimming, grass cutting and ate a type of food we never would’ve tried. In the morning of the second day, we interviewed Mr. Wang, the chairman of Guang Yuan and Ms. Chen, the CEO. 3. SIRG: How do you build trust in the community? We’ve chosen 10 questions to ask Guang Yuan and Ms. Chen: “It took a long time to connect and convince the documented their answers below.1 farmers. I have been working with indigenous people for about 10 years. I worked in social projects. But only women and 1. SIRG: Whats your definition of a social children come. Men didnt. I asked the men in the community enterprise? why they chose not to come. They said they want economic projects. That’s why a social enterprise model works well in this Mr. Wang: “If you think of a spectrum, one side is non-for- community. I also think I need to get more people involved. Its profit organizations, the other is for-profit businesses. Social better for the house to be built by 100 people. To give you an Enterprises are anything in between. We describe it as example of our integration with the community, we funded the ‘Socialism at heart and Capitalism in mind’.” farmers children to go to Philippines to learn English. We believe that would help them improve their English skills and 2. SIRG: How did you start? From whom did you get broaden their horizon.” the first funding? 4. SIRG: What are some innovative practices you Ms. Chen: “We used our personal savings at the beginning. Later we found a good angel investor, who shared our vision. apply to the business? That person invested in us and now owns a part of the equity. Mr. Wang: “We use our group power. Our farmers have He (the investor) would go around, ask our stakeholders what they think about the business, and he evaluates us that way.” formed a group to purchase inputs. We let our farmers learn from each other. They share lots of information together so that they can further innovate. We empower our farmers as if they’re running their own businesses. They learn during this process and run their own ventures. Our hope is to have every farmer think of himself or herself as a business owner. We build trust within the group by organizing the farmers to go to the field and work collectively once or twice a month. We also grant small amounts of micro loans to our farmers. Currently, microfinance is not legal in Taiwan, only the banks can make loans.2 We got around this rule by only allowing people our members to be borrowers. Our farmers have to fill out application forms explaining exactly how he/she would spend Above: Different produce from the farmers of Guang Yuan. the money. Our payment schedule can be quite flexible. We know exactly when a farmer harvests his produce as well as his personal character, which big banks won’t know.” 1. Responses are not verbatim. 2. That’s why this portion isn’t translated into Chinese. 7
  8. 8. SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 5. SIRG: What are some of the major barriers/ their land, and the amount they loan from us (if they do). We obstacles you’ve faced? will compare different farmers, analyze their performance and communicate that to them. All data is open to all farmers in Ms. Chen: “Back in 2009, we’ve signed a contract with a the group.” counter party. The party breached the contract and left us. On the other hand, “88 Wind/Water Disaster” destroyed most land and properties in the area we were about to farm. So we would not have been able to fulfill the contract even if the other party didn’t cancel he contract. We were grateful that the farmers wanted to continue working with us. That was also the time we started internal ‘microfinance’ program.” 6. SIRG: Do you have any major competitor? Mr. Wang: “The agricultural sector is facing some big issues in Taiwan. There are many social enterprises focusing on agriculture here, but quite a lot of them only focus on social marketing. Many companies want to come in and copy Guang Yuans model, but it is very difficult to execute. For example, not many people have the persistence to travel every week here 阿里山的訪問-光原社會企業 to the Ali Mountain for years.” 達到收支平衡對於社會企業來說是一個重要的里程碑,它 7. SIRG: How do you allocate profits? 代表著一個社會企業初步實現了經濟上的獨立。目前在台 Mr. Wang: “We use our profits mainly on expanding the 灣還沒有很多達到或超越盈虧平衡的社會企業。然而,有 business instead of dividing the fund. Our shareholder didnt demand dividend. He is quite affluent and invests in other 一個社會企業已經成功地超越了盈虧平衡點,它就是光原 social enterprise as well. We also contribute 3% of our revenue 社會企業。在民國101年10月25日和26日,社會創新研究 to Ma Na, our partnering NPO.” 小組 (SIRG) 參觀了光原在阿里山的場地。訪問期間,我們 8. SIRG: What’s your scaling strategy? Have you 修剪了咖 樹,除了草,吃了一種我們可能不會主動嘗試 faced challenges with scaling? 的特別食物。第二天上午,我們採訪了光原董事長王先生 Mr. Wang: “We try to find local connections, someone we can 和執行總監陳女士。 trust and build the relationships. For example, our partnering NPO Ma Na, started in 1996 and is now already connected 我們選擇了10個問題對光原進行提問,並記錄了他們的回 with many groups across Taiwan. We designed the model from the beginning to be a twin social enterprise and NPO. The 答。 major concern with scale is there arent enough workers for us. And we have to spend time building the whole value chain. 1. SIRG:你認為社會企業的定義是什麼? Our next step is to build a store in Fujen University to sell our products as well as products from other social enterprises. We 王先生:“如果你想像一個頻譜,一邊是非營利性組織, would also like to educate more students about social 另一種是嚮往利潤的公司。社會是介於兩者之間的。我們 enterprises.” 形容它為社會主義的心臟和資本主義的頭腦。” 9. SIRG: Does being a social enterprise influence your customers? 2. SIRG:光原是如何開始的,又如何籌集第一筆資金? Mr. Wang: “We have two types of customers. One type deals 陳女士:“我們用個人 蓄開始。後來,我們找到了一個 with us because our product quality is good. The other deals 好的天使投資人,他與我們有相同的願景。 位投資人現 with us because we are a social enterprise. But actually very 在擁有我們的一部分股權。他(投資者)有時會去詢問光 few fall into the later, because we mainly sell our products to 原的其他利益相關者我們做得怎樣,並用 樣的方式來評 wholesalers.” 估我們。” 10. SIRG: How do you measure impact? 3. SIRG:你是如何建立起(與農友之間的)信任的? Ms. Chen: “We have our measurement matrices. We track how many people we have, their income for the year, their children, 陳女士:“我們花了很長的時間去連接和說服我們的農 8
  9. 9. SIRGUPDATE Nov, 2012 友。我(在建立光原前)當了10年的社工,一直在努力與 原住民溝通。舉個例子,我曾在做社工的時候發現,很多 集會只有婦女和兒童來了,村里的男子很少會出席。我問 村里的男子為什麼他們選擇了不來。他們表示,他們希望 看到的是經濟項目,不是單純的扶貧互助項目。 就是為 什麼用社會企業的模式來運作會很合適 個社區。我覺得 我們需要讓更多的人參與進來。一個由100人建起來的房 子會更好。為確保於與當地社會的相容性,我們會去資助 農友的孩子去菲律賓學習英語。我們相信 將擴大他們的 國際視野,讓他們學到更多知識。” 4. SIRG:光原在運作上有什麼創新的地方麼? 王先生:“我們充分利用我們的集體力量。我們的農友有 時會集體批購投入物資,比如肥料之類的。我們讓我們的 們合作的非營利組織瑪納。 ” 農友互相學習,互相分享信息,使他們能夠進一步創新。 我們讓我們的農友看到那是他們自己的事業,他們必須參 8. SIGR:光原的擴展戰略是什麼?你在過去建立規模時 與學習的過程,並自己去運營。我們希望每個農友都認為 是否遇到挑戰? 他或 是自己企業的老 。為了建立信任,我們會組織大 王先生說:“我們試圖找到本地連接,作為我們可以信任 家一起去某個農友那裡集體勞動,每月一次或兩次。” 的人來建立關係。例如,我們的合作NPO瑪納,創始於 1996年,現在已經與台灣各地的許多團體有合作。我們從 5. SIRG:你們在創業的過程中有遇到過什麼困難或障礙 一開始設計的模型就是一個雙胞胎類型的社會企業和 麼? NPO。拓展規模遇到的主要問題是我們有沒有足夠的合適 陳女士:“早在2009年,我們曾經簽訂了一份供給合同, 的員工。我們還必須花時間來建立整個價值鏈。我們的下 但後來對方違約。另一方面,“88風災”破壞了農場和我們 一個步驟是在輔仁大學建立一個商店,來銷售我們的一些 運營地區在的大部分土地。 其實還算幸運,因為即使對 產品,以及其他社會企業的產品。我們還要培養更多的學 方沒有違約,我們也不可能履行合同。更讓我們感謝的 生了解社會企業“。 是,農友沒有要停止,並希望繼續與我們一起工作。 也 是我們開始在內部實行“小額信貸”計劃的時候。 ” 9. SIRG:作為一個社會企業會給 的客戶帶來影響 ? 王先生:“我們的客戶有兩種類型。一類和我們打交道因 6. SIRG:光原有主要的競爭對手 ? 為他們知道我們產品的品質優良。另一類和我們交易因為 王先生:“台灣的農業正面臨一些大的考驗。 裡有很多 我們是社會企業。但實際上前者大大多於後者,因為我們 農業型社會企業,但相當一部分只專注於社會化營銷。許 主要將產品銷售給批發商。” 多公司都希望來複製光原的模型,但是 個模型執行起來 是非常困難的。例如,沒有多少人可以每星期堅持開車來 10. SIRG:光原如何測量自身的影響 ? 阿里山,一直 樣 麼多年。” 陳女士:“我們有我們的測量矩陣。我們知道在組織中有 多少農友,他們的年收入,他們的孩子怎樣,他們的土 7. SIRG:光原如何分配利潤? 地,等等。我們會比較不同的農友,分析他們的收益和效 王先生:“我們的利潤主要用於擴大業務,而不是用來發 率,再去和他們溝通。所有的數據都是對組中的所有農友 放或分紅。我們的股東沒有要求分紅。他本身比較富裕, 公開的。” 並投資一些其它的社會企業。我們貢獻3%的收入給與我 3. 其中一個圖片給出了光源與農友分享茶葉種植成果的例子 4. 其中一個圖片給出了光源與瑪納之間的關係及提供的服務 9