If the earth was a single state,


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If the earth was a single state,

  1. 1. ‘If the Earth was a single state, Istanbul would be its capital ’ Napoleon Bonaparte Reyhan Tornacı
  2. 2. History It has been the capital of three great empires, the Roman,Byzantine and Ottoman empires, and for more than 1,600 years over 120 emperors and sultans ruled the world from here. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  3. 3. History Constantinople was officially conquered by the Ottomans, led by Sultan Mehmed II on May 29, 1453 after a 53-day siege. During the siege, the last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI, died whiledefending his city. Almost immediately, Constantinople was namedas the capital of the Ottoman Empire and its name was changed to Istanbul. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  4. 4. Geography Istanbul, Turkey, the largest city in Turkey and the industrial, commercial, and cultural center of the nation. Istanbul lies partly in Europe and partly in Asia on the traditional land route between Europe and Asia Minor. It commands the sea route connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The citys site has been of great commercial and military significance for centuries. Istanbul has highly variable weather, with chilly to cold winters and warm to hot summers. Precipitation, including snow, is about 30 inches (760 mm) a year and falls mostly during winter. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  5. 5. Geography The summer months in Istanbul are generally hot and quite humid. Thewinters can be cold and wet, although not as extreme as other areas of the country. The sea temperature is creep up to 30 degrees in June, July and August, with very little rain. Spring and autumn are popular times to visit because of the comfortable climate, good for lots of walking and sightseeing, with highs between 15 – 25 degrees C, in April, May, September and October Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  6. 6. Art, Culture and Entertainment Kumkapı, with its many taverns, bars and fish restaurants, is another attractive district. People have been meeting for years at Çiçek Pasajı in the district of Beyoğlu for snacks and seafood specialties.Also in the area near Çiçek Pasajı is the narrow Nevizade Street, which isthe best place in İstanbul for eating Turkish specialties and drinking rakı, the special Turkish drink. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  7. 7. Art, Culture and Entertainment The International Arts and Cultural Festival is held each year inJune and July with famous artists coming from all over the world. Operas, operettas, ballets, film, concerts, exhibitions and conferences all share the cultural palette of the city. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  8. 8. How to Get (by Air) You can travel to Istanbul by air, land, or sea from all around the world. Istanbul has two international airports; one on the Asian side(Ataturk Airport) and the other one on the European side (SabihaGokcen Airport). From Istanbul you can fly to many other cities of Turkey as there are frequent daily flights of different airline Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  9. 9. How to Get (By land)Istanbul is well connected to many European cities by highways. Some private Turkish bus companies run scheduled buses to Istanbul from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, Greece, Bulgaria, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iran, Jordan, Russia, Georgia, and Romania. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  10. 10. How to Get (By rail) Turkish Railways Authority (TCDD) has regular train schedules fromIstanbul to Budapest - Hungary, Bucarest - Romania, Kishinev - Moldova, Salonica - Greece and Sofia - Bulgaria in Europe, or to Damascus - Syria and Tehran - Iran in the Middle East. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  11. 11. How to Get (by Sea)There are several maritime companies that run car and passengerferries from Greece or from Italy to Turkey. Most of these arrive atÇesme near Izmir, but some to Istanbul as well, especially during the summer. There is also a regular ferry line between Odessa (Ukraine) and Istanbul which takes about 35 hours. Many cruise ships dock at Istanbul too for daily excursions. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  12. 12. Where to Visit (Dolmabahçe) Dolmabahce Palace is placed near by Bosphorus and it has a great view of Marmara Sea and Asian Side of Istanbul. Dolmabahce Palace was the firstEuropean-style palaceon the European coast Istanbul and was builtby Sultan Abdulmecid between 1842 and 1853,in Besiktas, at a cost of five million. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  13. 13. Where to Visit (Topkapı)Topkapi Palace overlooking Marmara Sea and Bosphorus.The mainentrance Bab-i Humayun is situated next to Hagia Sophia,in Hippodrome. Topkapi Palace constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, (the Conqueror of Istanbul) in 1478 has been the official residence of the Otoman Sultans and center of State Administration around 380 years until the construction of Dolmabahce Palace(in Besiktas) by Sultan Abdulmecid. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  14. 14. Where to Visit (Yıldız Place) This is a complex of pavilions and gardens scattered over a large area of hills and valleys overlooking the Bosphorus and surrounded by high walls.It is located on the European side of Bosphorusin Besiktas. This second largest palace in Istanbul is now separated into various sections, each serving a different purpose. The 500,000 sq. m grove had always been reserved for the court, and the first mansion built here in the early 19th century was quickly followed by others. When SultanAbdulhamid II, who was an overly suspicious person, decided that this palace offered better security, the complex soon developed into its present form Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  15. 15. Where to Visit (Beylerbeyi) The Beylerbeyi Palace (Turkish: Beylerbeyi Sarayı, Beylerbeyi meaning"Lord of Lords") is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Istanbul,Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus. An Imperial Ottoman summer residence built in the 1860s, it is now situated immediately north of the 1973 Bosphorus Bridge.. . Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  16. 16. Where to Visit (Binbirdirek Cistern)The cistern is located in Sultanahmet to the west of the Hippodrome.It is the second biggest cistern of Istanbul after Bassilica Cistern,which isalso situated in Sultanahmet and that used to provide water from Belgrat forest in Sariyer. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  17. 17. Where to Visit (Çırağan Palace) Çırağan Palace (Turkish: Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel of the Kempinski Hotels chain. It is located on the European shore of the Bosporus between Beşiktaş and Ortaköy in Istanbul, Turkey.Çırağan Palace is situated on the European shores of the Bosphorus in a very convenient location between the districts of Besiktas and Ortakoy and 10 minutes drive to Taksim. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  18. 18. Where to Visit (Kücuksu Pavilion)Kücuksu Pavilion was commissioned by Sultan Abdülmecid I (1823-1861) and was designed and constructed by the Armenian-Turkish architect, Sarkis Balyan, in Baroque style in 1856. Kucuksu Pavilion is a nice one located nearby the Anadolu Fort in Istanbul. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  19. 19. Where to Visit (Bassilica Cistern)The Basilica Cistern, located in the crowded Eminönü district of Istanbul next to the Hagia Sophia, was built to provide water for the city of Istanbul during the reign of Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE. This cistern is an underground chamber of 138 x 64.6 metres.. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  20. 20. Where to Visit (Grand Bazaar)The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı) in Istanbul is one of the largest covered markets in the world with 60 streets and 5,000 shops, and attracts between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily. It is well known for its jewellery, hand-painted ceramics, carpets, embroideries, spices and antique shops. Many of the stalls in the bazaar are grouped by type of goods, with special areas for leather, gold jewellery and the like... Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  21. 21. Where to Visit (Spice Bazaar)A short walk from the Grand Bazaar, the 17th-century Eminönü Egyptian Spice Bazaar, open seven days a week, is another favourite of the camera-wielding, souvenir-seeking tourist. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  22. 22. Where to Visit (Grand Bazaar) The Arasta Bazaar,also known as Sipahi Carsisi ,in Istanbul,in Sultanahmet is a small market close to the Sultan Ahmed Mosque. It isknown for its jewelry, pottery, spice, textiles, and carpet shops. There are about 40 shops lined on both sides of a street, selling traditional items. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  23. 23. Where to Visit (The Blue Mosque ) The Blue Mosque (Called Sultanahmet Camii in Turkish) is an historical mosque in Istanbul. The mosque is known as the Blue Mosque because of blue tiles surrounding the walls of interior design.Mosque was built between 1609 and 1616 years, during the rule of Ahmed I. just like manyother mosques, it also comprises a tomb of the founder, a madrasa and a hospice.Besides still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction in Istanbul. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  24. 24. Where to Visit (Süleymaniye Mosque )The Süleymaniye Mosque was commissioned by Sultan Süleyman I, also known as Süleyman the Magnificent, the greatest and richest of all Ottoman sultans. The construction began in 1550, and the 3.500 craftsmen that worked on it finished the job seven years later. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  25. 25. Where to Visit (Ortakoy Mosque ) The Ortakoy Mosque is situated on the waterside of the Ortaköy pier square in the Beşiktaş District, one of the most popular locations on the Bosphorus. The mosque was built on the order of Abdulmecid (1839- 1861), the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, and was constructed by the Nigoğos Balyan in 1853. It was during the same century that the mosquerose to a higher level of importance on the European side of Istanbul. It isalso known as “Great Mecidiye Mosque” and is one of the most beautiful samples of the Baroque architecture in Istanbul. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  26. 26. Where to Visit (Hagia Irini)The Hagia Irini church which comes from the Byzantine period stands in the courtyard of Topkapi Palace in Sultanahmet. This church is thesecond biggest Byzantine church after Hagia Sophia that survived until the present day. The church was built by the Byzantine Emperor Lustiniaus I by early IVth Century (360) AD in Istanbul. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  27. 27. Where to Visit (Gulhane Park) Gulhane Park (Turkish: Gulhane Parki or Sarayburnu Parki) is ahistorical, urban park in Eminonu district of Istanbul. It is the oldest and one of the largest public parks in Istanbul. It is located between theTopkapi Palace and Sarayburnu.It has a large view of Marmara Sea. Theentrance of the park has one of the larger gates of Topkapi Palace. The park is spread over a very large area and has very interesting and rare kinds of trees and bushes.. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  28. 28. Where to Visit (Hagia Sophia )Hagia Sophia is a great architectural beauty and an important monument both for Byzantine and for Ottoman Empires. Once a church, later amosque, and now a museum at the Turkish Republic, Hagia Sophia has always been the precious of its time. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  29. 29. Where to Visit (Büyükada) Büyükada (Turkish, meaning "Big Island") is the largest islandamong the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea. It covers an area of 5.4 km², and the distance of the island to the nearest Maltepeshore is 2.3 km. As of 2000, it has a population of approximately 7,335 including Sedef Island. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  30. 30. Where to Visit (Heybeliada) Heybeliada is the second largest of the Princes Islands in the MarmaraSea near Istanbul. It has a lenghth of 2.7 km from northto south and a width of 1.2 km from east to west. Heybeliada was known as “Demonisos” or “Chalki” in the past. It takes its present name of Heybeliada from the shape of a bag that it resembles when looked upon from a distance. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  31. 31. Where to Visit (Atatürk Museum ) Atatürk Museum is located in Halaskargazi Street walking towards the direction from the start of Şişli to Osmanbey, it will be on the left side. The building used as Atatürk Museum is the three- story and pink. The museum draws a nostalgic imageamong other structures in the street and it gives people a chance to meet many personal goods of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  32. 32. Where to Visit (Galata Bridge) It has been known as the Cisr-i Cedid, or the New Bridge, and wasconstructed in 1845 by Valide Sultan, the mother of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I (1823-1861). Admiral Hasan Ahmet Paşa renovated the bridge, putting it back into service in 1863 since it had been damanged in short span of time. At the end of 19th century, Aziziye Karakolu (Police Station) adorned it with eclectic accents built in the fore part of the bridge in the Galata district in order to increase pedestrian traffic and to quell the emerging (rising) discontent of the public. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  33. 33. Do not go without doing these Take a fish feast in Anadolu Kavagi and taste Lokma afterwards. Take a photograph of the glimmering scenery of the blue and green colors of the Bosphorus in Rumeli Kavagı. Watch the sunset while sitting in the very end of Silivri Mendirek. Ride horse in Kemerburgaz. Have a romantic stroll along the long beach of Kumburgaz. Play Golf in Kemerburgaz. Have a grill feast in one of the countryside restaurants in Kilyos. Go to a night party in one of the beach clubs in Kilyos. Buy a homemade marmalade from Polonezkoy. Hire a canoe, sea bicycle or boat in Agva. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  34. 34. Do not go without doing these Have a delicate breakfast in Polonezkoy. Stay in one of the guest houses in the coast of the river in Agva and enjoy the silence and scenery. Visit caves in Agva. Buy clothes made from linen fabric in Sile. Visit Sile lighthouse and the castle. Enjoy fish at Burgazada. Taste the well kebab in Burgazada. Have a Sunday breakfast accompanied by Classical Music in Buyukada Culture house. Taste the lemonade and ice cream in Buyukada. Have a pleasure phaeton carriage in Islands. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  35. 35. Do not go without doing these Tour Buyukada by riding bicycle. Go up to aya yorgi church by donkeys. Listen Ezan in Bluemosque Smoke nargile (waterpipe) in Sultanahmet. Drink Turkish apple tea and black tea. Buy cheap but quality clothes from Bazaars. Take a ride to Taksim square. Go to Egyptian Bazaar and smell the taste of various spices. Copyright © by Reyhan Tornacı
  36. 36. Thank You!