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computer simulation- BARD

  1. 1. Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) An Al-Quads University/Bard College partnership “ Teaching as reflective practice ” ‘presentation’New Pedagogies on teaching science with computer simulation by Reyad Ibrahim @ Ghadeer Marmash INSTRUCTOR:
  2. 2. IntroductionSome abbreviations• PCK: Pedagogical content knowledge.knowledge of pedagogy specific to certain contentareas.• TCK: Technological Content Knowledge.knowledge about domain-specific technologies andhow they can change the subject matter for the student or the kinds of representations that can be constructed by students.
  3. 3. • TPK: Technological Pedagogical Knowledge.knowledge of the existence, components, andcapabilities of various non-domain specific technologies in teaching and learning settings.• TPCK: Technological pedagogical content knowledge.It is a framework that articulates three important parts in teaching subject matter using technology.
  4. 4. PCKTCK TPK
  5. 5. • Computer Simulation:Computer program that attempts to simulate a model of a particular system.Aims of using computer simulation;1. Manipulating a model and view how it will behave under certain conditions.2. Visualize aspects of science that are too big or small.3. Provide extreme situations to support thought experiment.4. Testing of ideas
  6. 6. 5. Provide extreme situations to support what If scenarios.6. visualization of scientific phenomena have been associated with gains in conceptual understanding.
  7. 7. • Reports on teaching techniques using computer simulation are not enough.• Pedagogical approach practiced by teachers strongly affect students learning outcomes.• Most of computer simulations lack the capability to independently tutor the student on concepts, direct investigation or guide student inquiry.
  8. 8. Aims of the study• To explicate pedagogy of teaching science with computer simulations.
  9. 9. Questions of the study1. How does the teacher use computer simulations toteach science?2. What are the teaching heuristics that are central to theteacher’s pedagogy with computer simulations?a. What is the role of the teacher in a technology enhancedenvironment?b. What are the affordances of the computer simulationtechnology for teaching science and whenshould this technology be employed?c. What are the perceived limitations of usingcomputer simulation technology to teach science?3. What is the impact of teaching science with computersimulations on the learners?
  10. 10. MethodologyTwo parts of the case study1. Experienced teacher’s general pedagogical approach was examined.2. Teacher-student- computer simulation interaction was focused.• A cyclic pattern in which student generated evaluated and modified hypothesis is revealed in this study.
  11. 11. • Why case study?• It can fulfill the detailed requirements to fulfill the aims of the study.• Because of its detailed analysis• It permits more direct and frequently interplay between theory and data and closer matching of conceptual intent and empirical evidence.• the ability to reveal the properties of the class to which the instance being studied belongs, produce new typologies, provide the basis for subsequent theory-development and test and generate and generate hypotheses.
  12. 12. • It’s suitable for research in complex settings where there is little control over behavior and organization or events.• Research context• Introductory chemistry course for university students in north American public university.• The course has syllabus and electronic homework system.• The teacher was an experienced science teacher, leader in chemistry and educational technology.• Electronic classrooms with computer terminals each equipped with suites of multiple, compact, interactive modules.
  13. 13. • Data gathering• Interview with teacher and students.• Intensive classroom observation for one year.• Student survey.• Data analysis• data were analyzed using mean statisticswith Excel.• The qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparative method which is an analytical approach that supports evaluation and reevaluation of hypotheses.
  14. 14. New Pedagogies on Teaching Science with Computer SimulationsResults and Discussion:The first section of the results responds to research question :1: what is the teacher’s approach to teaching science with computer simulations? This isaccomplished through an analysis of classroom observations, student survey, andteacher interviews.2: what are the heuristics central to the teacher’s pedagogy with computer simulationsand how does the teacher utilize the affordances of the simulation technology?3: Finally, the results section concludes with data on the impact of teaching science withcomputer simulations from the students’ points of view.
  15. 15. Teacher’s Use of Computer Simulations to Support GEM Cycles:Computer simulations is not intended to replace the laboratories, but ratherrepresented the results of simulated lab experiments or the behavior of atoms ofmolecules under conditions not observable with the eye.The general instructional approach was identified as generating (G), evaluating (E),and modifying (M) (GEM) students’ models in chemistry.G, E, and M occurred in three distinguishable phases or instructional segmentswith the evaluation (E) and modification (M) instructional segments repeatingthemselves in a cyclical fashion.
  16. 16. The first is a graphic depicting the cyclical nature of GEM and its three phases :
  17. 17. In one period of class, the teacher engaged in this pedagogical approach two times , for total of 52time across 11 different topics in chemistry.-Generating ( g ) : let’s go and just look at what the boiling points are for these things { ethanol and methanol }Then students gather information from the simulation :[ S ] :so ethanol between 78 and 79 degree- its boiling point, methanol is between 64 and 65degrees. Using the computer simulation to locate the boiling points.[ S ] as molecular weight increases, the boiling point increases --- this come by simulation by thecomputer that generate a graph of molecular weight by boiling point.
  18. 18. Simulations during the Evaluation (E) and Modification (M) Phases :Three major teacher activities:1- providing disconfirming information,2- providing extremecases,3- and providing confirming information. These teacher activities can be done by:making comparisons, asking why questions, asking what’s wrong questions, makingpredictions, considering new data points, designing a new test, see if it holds true, findingmore information and adding content information.For an example of evaluation (E), the teacher stated in a lesson on intermolecular forces,‘‘We want to use this *simulation+ to see if your trend there *referring to a hypotheticalrelationship students had constructed: ‘As molecular weight increases the boiling pointincreases’+ actually works for more than say two compounds.
  19. 19. ’’ Students were encouraged by the teacher to examine a new computer simulation seton organic boiling points in order to compare previous data with new data and to gaugethe scope of their hypothetical relationships. Students viewed a graph on the simulationof selected alkanes and functional groups, by molecular weight and boiling point.The simulation also showed a spherical model of the selected compound.Based on the earlier relationship they had generated, students generally stated that theyexpected that boiling points would increase as molecular weight increased.This trend was evident in most cases, but compounds with functional groups that had thecapacity to hydrogen bond, such as hydroxyl and amine groups, had anomalously highboiling points for their molecular weights, as displayed by the computer simulation.Let student see graphs , colors, animations, why? What’s wrong?
  20. 20. Modifying ( M) :Ask student to run a new test in the simulation ,ask them to solve new case …..
  21. 21. The Teacher’s TPCK: Affordances of Computer Simulations for Teaching Science:The teacher was interviewed and asked about the affordances of computer simulations forhis approach to teaching science. His response to this set of questions were compiled, asfollowing;A lot of the kinds of things we do with computer simulation could be done with pieces ofpaper.The thing that’s better about the computer part of it is, you can do a lot more exploring, so*the computer simulation+ gives *students+ more control over what they’re going to look at,as opposed to if I give them a sheet of paper with numbers on it. It’s like I’m going to lookat this information, I’m going to come to some conclusion, I’m going to look at somemore information, and I’m going to test those conclusions…. So when I throw up anoverhead, I’m doing the exploring and they *the students+ are explaining it. And that’sokay, but when it’s a simulation and they are choosing things, then they aredoing the exploring much more. So it’s a control issue.
  22. 22. Teacher’s TPCK: When to Use Computer Simulations:To further articulate the heuristics by which the teacher made decisions aboutcomputer simulations in science, the teacher was asked about when computersimulations should be used to teach science: [T]he time to be able to do it [begin touse computer simulations+ is *when students+ know what it is they’re looking at. They need to know what the information is telling them in each data point by datapoint instance, but the thing that they should not know before they start looking at itis what the overall relationship and guiding principles are., but you would not use the simulation to get them to know what ionization energy is. they know a rough range of where it’s coming from, Then you give them the simulation, so they can look at trends in that thing …. Theycan grasp that relationship because they know what they’re looking at.The teacher did not encourage the students to read ahead on the topic, rather, heutilized simulation technology and conceptual exercises to learn about relationshipsfirst-hand within the classroom environment.
  23. 23. Teacher’s TPCK: Potential Problems with Using Computer Simulations:( it need more time and work ) : Because individual scientists, they have to do a ton of work to get 5 of these little data points,that students, in a matter of 10 min, will use 50 of. So in a class period, they can go throughpeoples’ year’s worth of work in terms of obtaining the data in the first place to then puttingthat all together and then drawing these conclusions. ‘By the way you know the experiments,to do this it would take you 3 weeks to get this data point.In examining the interview above and patterns in teacher– student–computer interaction, theteacher’s heuristics for teaching science with computer simulation technology could besummarized as: (1) ensure students know relevant definitions before using simulation technology; (2) encourage students to develop an understanding of data values before using simulations; (3) utilize simulations to elicit student ideas about a scientific phenomenon and generatetrends among variables and ascertain the scope of relationships;(4) evaluate these relationships with the simulation serving specific functions in testing;(5) have students return to their original ideas to modify them repeatedly (6) build student understanding with the computer simulations incrementally and at amolecular level first so that eventually their ideas are more successively more refined and canbe applied to a broader scope of novel situations.
  24. 24. The Impact of the Teacher’s Pedagogy:Student survey responses….
  25. 25. • 80% of student respondents agreed that, ‘‘There are more frequent opportunities for students tomake and test predictions in this class than in other most other classes.’’ (15%neutral, 5% disagreed, n = 21).• The majority of survey respondents agreed that, ‘‘I sometimes input extreme case data in thesimulations to test the boundaries of my ideas about chemistry.’’ (67% agreed, 25% neutral, n =24).• 76% of surveyed students agreed with the statement that: ‘‘Teacher guidance is necessary for theeffective use of the simulations.’’ (14% disagreed, 10% neutral, n = 21)• Out of seven possible choices in a survey ranking question, the top three student-ranked choicesfor where the greatest learning happens for them was (in order): teacher discussion with thestudents during class, simulations, and their electronic homework system (n = 21).• In a second ranking question on the survey, a majority of surveyed students (n = 24) ranked theindependent use of simulations outside of class in one of their bottom three choices out of ninechoices to ‘‘rank where the greatest learning happens for you in chemistry.’’Based on the survey findings and classroom observations, it was hypothesized that these activitieswith simulation, termed T-GEM, may have had implications for student pattern generation andhypothesis evaluation and modification, and ultimately, for student understanding of science.Student responses about the computer simulations suggested that this technology, coupled withteacher guidance, played an integral role in students’ learning.
  26. 26. Conclusions :Experienced science teachers with well developed TPACK may help us to gain a betterunderstanding’’ for how to teach with this technology,Three main findings of theresearch were:The T-GEM pedagogical approach. T-GEM is a 3 step, coordinated pedagogical .1approach with computer simulations that involves generating, evaluating, andmodifying student ideas with the full integration of computer simulation technologyin each of these three phases.2. Simulation technology has specific affordances for teaching science. Simulationtechnology appears to afford T-GEM teachers and students with the capacity to:compile information between variables in order to generate initial relationships, pushvalues to extremes or in increments to assess the scope of the relationship, and providean environment to make comparisons between data and visually draw attention topatterns and contrasts using graphs and animations.3. The teacher’s TPCK framed his approach to teaching with computer simulations. Theteacher had knowledge of: specific teaching roles to help students examine subject arearelationships using computer simulations; how conceptual classroom activities were(dis)similar to/from the nature of science, and heuristics about when and where to usesimulation technology.