Requirements Quality Analyzer       www.reusecompany.com
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAContents       Introduction       Users of the tool       Supported metrics       Q...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat is The Reuse COMPANYIn the Reuse Company’s vision, knowledge reuse is fully integr...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat is the Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA        The Requirements Quality Analyze...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARQA FeaturesMetrics Metrics based model for measuring and improving quality Supports ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics       Size                                  ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 1/3       Size: expressed in paragraphs, cha...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 2/3       Implicit sentences: it must be pro...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 3/3       Number of domain nouns and verbs: ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality Functions10         (C) The Reuse COMPANY   –   http://www.reusecompany.com   S...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics    Unlike individual requirements metrics, global ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics     Inconsistent units                             ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : inconsistent units    Root problem: inconsistent...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : inconsistent units 14          (C) The Reuse COMP...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : coupling matrix    Root problem: coupled specifi...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : coupling matrix 16         (C) The Reuse COMPANY ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAFunctional Operation    QA Team (defines the reference Quality policies)        Defin...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA  User’s Roles          RQA supports a multi-role functional operation within a softwar...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA  Use Cases          RQA supports a multi-role functional operation within a software/s...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA   Quality assurance role         QQuality Assurance    20              (C) The Reuse C...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA  Project manager roleProject Manager    21            (C) The Reuse COMPANY   –   http...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA  Business analyst roleBusiness Analyst    22             (C) The Reuse COMPANY   –   h...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process: PDCA    Valid and invalid thresholds can be established i...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process: PDCA • Take initial                                       ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process                                                    Differen...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA   Quality improvement process                                                      Qua...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA RQA Semantics                                                                         ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application    The more semantics we wa...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application    In built Ontology in RQA...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application    In built Ontology in RQA...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements formal representation    Semantic graphs: an example     UR001: ….     UR...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAArchitecture and Software Environment     V1 – V2 – V3          DQA                  IQ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA    RQA operating architecture         Project based operating environment   Client:  ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARQA Architecture and Software Environment                                           Qua...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat RMS does RQA support                  DOORS                                       ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA                                Semantic Level                   ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA : V4.0    Boiler Plates full support        Requirements Edito...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQABoiler Plates SupportUR044 : The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate o...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA    Domain Coverage Degree / Non explicit domain terms:        ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA    Semantically related requirements        Semantically relat...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe far future of RQA : V4.1    New business message:        System Knowledge Model (...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe System Knowledge Repository (SKR)NL Reqs.      T1:                                 ...
Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements Quality Analyzer    Further information about Requirements Quality Analyz...
Margarita Salas, 16 2nd FloorInnovation Center               http://www.reusecompany.comLEGATEC Technology Park28919 Legan...
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RQA - Requirements Quality Analyzer

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RQA allows to improve the quality of a requirements specification by helping in the authoring of the requirements.

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RQA - Requirements Quality Analyzer

  1. 1. Requirements Quality Analyzer www.reusecompany.com
  2. 2. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAContents Introduction Users of the tool Supported metrics Quality improvement process Global metrics Architecture and Software environment The near future of RQA The far future of RQA 2 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  3. 3. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat is The Reuse COMPANYIn the Reuse Company’s vision, knowledge reuse is fully integrated in everyorganization’s productivity chain.Our mission is to promote Systems/Software (S/S) and knowledge reuse withinan organization, by offering processes, methods, tools and services that make itpossible.Our main efforts are oriented to Systems/Software Reuse, Traceability andQualityWe are a small European IT company, that have operatedonly in Europe until 2010.2011’s goal is the complete internationalization. 3 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  4. 4. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat is the Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA The Requirements Quality Analyzer is a software tool that aids quality assessment and improvement within requirements oriented software and systems projects.RQA allows to define, measure, improve and manage the quality of requirements specifications in systems and software projects. The assessment is modeled by evaluating metrics. Measures single requirements quality Measures requirements sets quality4 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  5. 5. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARQA FeaturesMetrics Metrics based model for measuring and improving quality Supports text based and NON text based measures Supports metrics for individual requirements and sets of requirements Customizable measures calculation engineFunctional Operation Multi roles operability (Engineer, Project Manager, QA Manager) Calculations can be performed on-line (on demand) or planned. Fully integrated with RMSSemantics Formal semantic requirements meta-model Fully supports the customer’s Domain representation (ontology) Domain Specific Language can be incorporated to the ontology 5 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  6. 6. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics  Size  Number of domain nouns and verbs  Readability  Acronyms  Conditional vs. imperative sentences  Hierarchical levels  Optional sentences  Volatility  Ambiguous sentences  Number of dependences  Subjective sentences  Implicit sentences  Abuse of connectors  Negations  Speculative sentences  Design terms  Flow terms6 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  7. 7. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 1/3  Size: expressed in paragraphs, chars, nouns or verbs. Long requirements will be difficult to understand  Readability: number of letters between punctuation marks and some other formulas than indicate whether the requirement will be easy to read. Ease to read requirements generates less problems all over the project  Conditional sentences vs. imperative sentences: avoid would and use Shall, should and will in the right way  Optional sentences: maybe… Optional requirements must be stated by an attribute, never in the body of the requirement  Ambiguous sentences: fast, user-friendly… What do the analyst, the coder and the customer understand by the same ambiguous sentence  Subjective sentences: in my opinion, I think that… Don’t show your ideas, but what the system should do7 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  8. 8. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 2/3  Implicit sentences: it must be provided by them… Too many pronouns make your requirements difficult to understand  Abuse of connectors: and, or. Many times connectors reveal different needs enclosed within the same requirement, loosing the atomic characteristic  Negations: no, never… Two or more negations in the same sentence make it difficult to understand  Speculative sentences: usually, almost always… Make the requirement imprecise  Design terms: loop, hash… Remember, avoid How, concentrate in What  Flow terms: while, if, else… Remember avoid How, concentrate in What8 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  9. 9. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAIndividual requirements supported metrics 3/3  Number of domain nouns and verbs: domain terms and verbs should be involved into the requirement specification, nevertheless, too many different terms in the same requirement many times means multiple needs  Acronyms: avoid those that don’t belong to the domain representation  Hierarchical levels: don’t complicate your specification with too many indentation levels  Volatility: if a requirement suffers many changes, you must be very careful with it  Number of dependences: the same if your requirement is the source of too many dependences9 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  10. 10. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality Functions10 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  11. 11. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics Unlike individual requirements metrics, global metrics involve a whole set of requirements (a requirement project or module) These metrics are defined to take a global understanding of some common mistakes Use of inconsistent units Coupling matrix 11 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  12. 12. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics Inconsistent units Overlapping Matrix The use of incoherent units in Measure the possibility to include different requirements must be similar or overlapped requirements checked and notified. E.g. to use in the same of different projects. meters and inches, pounds and Kg., Celsius and Fahrenheit.12 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  13. 13. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : inconsistent units Root problem: inconsistent requirements could be difficult to find, therefore, the cost of finding them in later stages of the SDLC or even in a production environment is really high Goal: try to detect, in the same Requirements project, the use of non-consistent units (e.g. two different requirements measuring something in yards and meters) Management: RQA, out-of-the-box, already includes many of the most common measurement units. The user is able to extend this list at any moment Solution:  The pairs of requirements that include these inconsistent units are automatically identified by the tool  The user can now change the textual content of the requirements 13 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  14. 14. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : inconsistent units 14 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  15. 15. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : coupling matrix Root problem: coupled specification could be the source of inconsistent specifications, therefore, the cause of many rework and poor quality projects Goal: automatically detect coupling (overlapping) inside a single module or even among different modules or projects Approach:  Generate a semantic graph out of every single requirement: using linguistic techniques together with ontologies  This graphs don’t relay on the words in the requirements, but in the real meaning (semantics) of a whole sentence  The tool compares those graphs to find out the semantic similarity among requirements Solution: once detected, the user can easily remove a requirement or add a trace relationship between both requirements 15 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  16. 16. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements sets supported metrics : coupling matrix 16 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  17. 17. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAFunctional Operation QA Team (defines the reference Quality policies)  Defines a set of quality functions for every metric  Defines the quality ranges (values) for every metric  Defines the default assignments of active metrics to engineer profiles Project Managers  Define the particular assignments of active metrics for particular projects  Define their own quality results to measure (graphs) Business Analyst  For every requirement and every metric, a numerical value is generated  Using a set of quality functions, every metric is qualified as: high, medium and low quality  An aggregated quality value is generated for every requirement 17 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  18. 18. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA User’s Roles RQA supports a multi-role functional operation within a software/systems intensive organization Quality policyQuality Improve or verify quality within the organization Quality evolution: thresholdsAssurance Process improvement: training, support Q Quality Cost Delays goalsProject Best practices fulfilling Improve project performancesManager Identify gaps: quality evolution vs teams Process improvement: training, support Requirements QualitySystem Improve work efficiency Identify critical issues: bad formulations,Engineer ambiguous terms inconsistencies Process improvement: self training 18 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  19. 19. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA Use Cases RQA supports a multi-role functional operation within a software/systems intensive organization I need to state my quality policy regarding requirements specificationsQuality I want to settle thresholds to measure the quality evolutionAssurance I need to know how quality is evolving in my organization Q Which quality aspects should we enforce by organizational training The quality of my projects meets my expectations? Are we fulfilling our best practices?Project How is project quality evolving over the time?Manager Who is performing better/worst in my team? Where should I focus team training? Are project/team requirements consistent among them? The quality of my requirements meets my expectations?System What requirements should be reviewed?Engineer What features of the requirements should I review? What terms should be avoided? What are the most frequent mistakes in my requirements? Where to start with in a peer-review? 19 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  20. 20. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA Quality assurance role QQuality Assurance 20 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  21. 21. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA Project manager roleProject Manager 21 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  22. 22. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA Business analyst roleBusiness Analyst 22 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  23. 23. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process: PDCA Valid and invalid thresholds can be established in a flexible way:  According to the company’s culture and way of working  Different threshold for every set of requirements:  Project / block / module Some metrics can be disabled if needed As we flow around the improvement cycle, the maturity level is improving How to implement an improvement cycle: 23 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  24. 24. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process: PDCA • Take initial • General training and measurements communication • Identify initial metrics • Operate the tool and thresholds • Take actual • Define Quality Goals measurements Plan Do • Perform training Act Check • How is the quality evolving? • Manage metrics • Tighten thresholds • Do we need additional training? • More communication • Evolve the Ontology • Is Ontology OK?24 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  25. 25. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAQuality improvement process Different quality functions Different types + of requirements Different improvement cycles25 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  26. 26. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA Quality improvement process Quality Plan Do High MediumUser Act Check Lowrequirement 10 20 100 Text length in chars 200 …. Quality Plan Do HighSystem requirements Medium Act Check Low Text length in chars 20 30 200 400 …. Quality Text length in chars Plan Do High Component requirements Medium Act Check Low 30 50 400 600 …. 26 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  27. 27. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA RQA Semantics SecurityRQA makes use of: Window Doors Air conditioning Vehicle  Requirements transformation structure towards formal representations Door structure  Ontologies Air flow  High level NLP techniques for Legislation enhancing transformation Vehicules Engine Conduct based Noise and vehicles vibrations Hvac system Safety and Engines health Pollution emissions Pressure loss Diesel engines Environmental Hibrid engines impact Gass Engines evaluation Emissions control Electric Engines 27 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  28. 28. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application The more semantics we want to put in a metric, the more dependence on the knowledge about the domain of application. In general, this rule is applied to whatever System Development and Management process. 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units Knowledge is packaged within a knowledge structure (from glossaries to ontologies) The selection of the structure to use depends on the interest of the organization to «understand and get use of» the possibilities each of them offers 28 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  29. 29. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application In built Ontology in RQA. OUT OF THE BOX 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units 29 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  30. 30. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAMetric´s need of knowledge about the domain of application In built Ontology in RQA. OUT OF THE BOX OPTIONAL 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Domain Terms Domain Verbs Readability Trace between Requirements Size inconsistent Coupling Modules ….. ….. units 30 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  31. 31. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements formal representation Semantic graphs: an example UR001: …. UR023: The system shall send weekly notifications to the customers including our offers URxxx: … UR842: The application shall be able to notify periodically all of our offers to our clients UR999: … <<Notify>> UR023 UR842 System Customer Offer 31 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  32. 32. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAArchitecture and Software Environment V1 – V2 – V3 DQA IQA XQA* V2- V3 Requirements metrics generator Semantic retrieval V3 Semantic indexer V3 Common Requirements Domain purpose specific specific V2 - V3 ontologies ontology ontology IN-Built Conceptual Domain Model32 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  33. 33. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQA RQA operating architecture Project based operating environment Client:  Windows XP, Vista or Windows 7  .Net Framework 3.5 sp.1 Server:  Windows 2003 Server or 2008 Server  .Net Framework 3.5 sp1  SQLServer 2005, SQLServer 2008 or MS Access 33 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  34. 34. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARQA Architecture and Software Environment Quality DB RMS RQA RQA Server Server Client RQA Syncrhonizer RMS Server Side RQA Server Side RQA Client Side34 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  35. 35. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAWhat RMS does RQA support DOORS DQA Product IRQA IQA Product MICROSOFT EXCEL EQA Product35 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  36. 36. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA Semantic Level RQA V4 RQA V3.2 RQA DQR V2.1 V1.2 V1 Sintactic V2 Metrics V3 Semantic V4 Boiler Plates36 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  37. 37. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA : V4.0 Boiler Plates full support  Requirements Editor  Boiler Plates Metric  Negative Boiler Plates Domain Coverage degree Semantically Related requirements 37 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  38. 38. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQABoiler Plates SupportUR044 : The Radar shall be able to detect hits at a minimum rate of 10 units per secondFulfills Detection Pattern 1 Detection Pattern 1 THE <OBJECT DETECTION> SHALL <DETECT> <ITEMS> AT <MINIMUM> <RATE VALUE> <<Minimum <<Detect>> Value>> Radar Hits 10 units second 38 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  39. 39. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA Domain Coverage Degree / Non explicit domain terms:  Those terms that appear in our domain, but not in our specification  % of specification terms covered by the domain model family  Are we missing something in our specification? 39 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  40. 40. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe near future of RQA Semantically related requirements  Semantically related requirements given a particular one 40 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  41. 41. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe far future of RQA : V4.1 New business message:  System Knowledge Model (SKM) and System Knowledge Repository (SKR) Traceability metrics among the Requirements and the Design Requirements Retreival and Reuse 44 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  42. 42. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQAThe System Knowledge Repository (SKR)NL Reqs. T1: T2: Semantic Information Trace metrics Knowledge Retrieval and Coupling metrics Harvesting Reqs Metrics calculation Inconsistent units Formal Representation Other… System Knwoledge Repository System artifacts SKM Representation 45 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  43. 43. Requirements Quality Analyzer - RQARequirements Quality Analyzer Further information about Requirements Quality Analyzer:  contact@reusecompany.com  http://www.reusecompany.com 46 (C) The Reuse COMPANY – http://www.reusecompany.com September 20, 2011
  44. 44. Margarita Salas, 16 2nd FloorInnovation Center http://www.reusecompany.comLEGATEC Technology Park28919 Leganés – MadridSPAIN – EUTel: (+34) 91 146 00 30Fax: (+34) 91 680 98 26 contact@reusecompany.com

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