Building and Construction —Knowledge of materials, methods and the tools involved in the construction of all areas of the project. Mathematics —Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics and their applications. Customer and Personal Service —Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Mechanical —Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs ,uses, repair and maintenance. Public Safety and Security —Knowledge of relative equipment, policies, procedures and strategies to promote effective local, state and national security operations for protection of people, data and property.
Time Management —managing ones own time and the time of others. Coordination —adjusting actions in relation to others actions. Instruction —teaching others how to perform work related tasks. Judgment and Decision Making —considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. Critical Thinking — using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. Equipment Selection — determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job. Problem Sensitivity — the ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. Deductive Reasoning — the ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. Inductive Reasoning — the ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions.
Making Decisions and Solving Problems — analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work — Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work. Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates — providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, or in person. Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others — getting members of a group to work together to accomplish tasks. Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of the Project — Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities; or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity. Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates — Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. Inspecting Equipment and Material — Inspecting equipment and materials to identify the cause of errors or other problems or defects
Figure 1 presents four possible outcomes: Quadrant 1: The supervisor's concern for both people and production is low. The result is that both the workforce and management will be unhappy, and in all likelihood this person will not be a supervisor for very long. Quadrant 2: The supervisor's concern for people is high but low for production. The result may be a happy workforce, but an unhappy management, which will not bode well for the supervisor. Quadrant 3: The supervisor has high concern for production and low concern for the workforce. The production goals may be reached, but the workforce will be dissatisfied, requiring a lot of supervisory effort. The company may have issues with turnover, absenteeism, and other workforce issues. Maintaining production goals in this situation may prove difficult as well. Quadrant 4: This is the best situation, where the supervisor has a balanced concern in both areas. In all likelihood this supervisor will not only meet but exceed the production goals and have a cooperative and involved workforce, with a myriad of secondary benefits. Most managers will agree that the mark of a good supervisor is getting results. But to consistently meet and exceed the organization's expectations, the supervisor must understand the workers' expectations and build a good working relationship with them. So what skills does the supervisor need to achieve quadrant 4 results? Leadership is the term that comes to mind. The supervisor must lead the workforce as well as the process to get outstanding results.
This may be the time to address the difference between leadership and management. Both are necessary skills for an effective supervisor. To be a good supervisor, you have to have good management skills but to be a great supervisor you also have to have leadership skills. Managers do things right while leaders do the right things. Managers get the workforce to achieve their goals while leaders get them to exceed their goals.
Leadership is a way to focus and motivate the workforce to enable them to achieve both their and the organization's goals. There are a number of leadership styles, (Autocratic, Democratic, Participative, and Situational), and the foreman would best be served in understanding and learning more about the situational style of leadership because it provides the greatest flexibility and utility. The autocratic or directive style of leadership vests all decisions with the leader, and the workforce must obey the edicts. In the short-term they may produce results, and in certain situations, may be the style of choice (when schedules are tight, or there is an emergency, etc.) Over time, most employees will not function well in such an environment and morale issues will develop. The democratic or consultative style of leadership involves the workforce. The leader presents the problem, solicits input, allows discussion, and takes the team's input into consideration in the final decision. This style of leadership promotes involvement, gives the workforce a sense of control, and is good for morale. Though this style tends to be popular, it has its drawbacks. Decision-making takes more time, the results may require consensus, and may not be optimum from management's perspective. The participatory leadership style allows for the greatest involvement, fosters empowerment, signals trust, and allows the team to select the &quot;best&quot; solution. As a result, the team is highly motivated, and has ownership of the implementation and results. This requires a lot of highly skilled, motivated, knowledgeable, and well-informed team members who also have to have good judgment and be &quot;vested&quot; in the outcome. It also requires the supervisor as well as the organization give up some authority. The risks are that the workforce may not be able to effectively handle or willing to take on such a responsibility and not all decisions can be made at the task level. Situational leadership selects the style that is most appropriate for any given situation. This approach also mixes the styles to varying degrees so as to best meet the needs of any group or situation. This gives the supervisor the greatest flexibility in meeting any particular job condition.
THE FOREMAN: FIRSTLINE SUPERVISOR Required duties, skills and responsibilities
Tasks <ul><li>Responsible for efficient use of personnel and equipment to produce the lowest cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for quality and quantity of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Review production schedules, work progress and cost. Take corrective action to meet profit goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate and cooperate fully with the General Superintendent to successfully complete the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise employees at jobsite. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that all employees understand and comply with all company policies. </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Responsible for strict enforcement of all safety standards . Conduct “Toolbox” safety meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise judgment to avoid costly precedent setting practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the discipline, hiring and firing of field personnel under his authority, with input from the General Superintendent. </li></ul><ul><li>Select proper equipment for the job and schedule special equipment, as required. </li></ul><ul><li>Personally ensure that all equipment and tools are properly maintained, inform the Superintendent of any problems which may require a mechanic. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule work to minimize travel time. </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Direct the settlement of all complaints at the initial stages and follow through to resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The prompt and correct billing of all completed work, verify, as required, accounts payable related to his job. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for timely completion and submittal of all time sheets, daily production reports, equipment logs, soil classification reports, and safety meeting reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Notify the appropriate “CALL BEFORE YOU DIG” service to locate all underground utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe performance and capabilities of craftsmen and make recommendations for advancement. </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Train crew members required for performance of tasks in the interest of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain accurate records indentifying all conditions, changes and other items that influence the work schedule, completion date or cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure timely job closeout and punch list completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the accumulation of all delivery tickets and receiving reports, ensure that they are accurate, signed, and submitted to office weekly. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain neat and orderly jobsite and personal appearance. Keep your jobsite free of debris and restored to your work area. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate with the Area Manager to suspend any subcontractor not performing according to predetermined schedules or plans and specifications. </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Responsible for all duties pertaining to the job: Scheduling all pressure tests, BT Samples, and densities. All calculations and measurements required on the projects i.e. base, pipe and fittings etc. Scheduling work related to project i.e. Night work etc. Also scheduling all subs that will be working on your project i.e., trucking, concrete, asphalt, sod, jack and bore, HDD, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine and inspect work progress, equipment, and construction sites to verify safety and to ensure that specifications are met. </li></ul><ul><li>Read specifications such as blueprints and standard details to determine construction requirements and to plan procedures </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Estimate material and worker requirements to complete jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise, coordinate, and schedule the activities of construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Confer with managerial and technical personnel, other departments, and contractors in order to resolve problems and to coordinate activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate work activities with other construction project activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Order or requisition materials and supplies. </li></ul>
Tasks <ul><li>Locate, measure, and mark site locations and placement of structures and equipment, using measuring and marking equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Record information such as personnel, production, and operational data on specified forms and reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign work to employees, based on material and worker requirements of specific jobs. </li></ul>
Knowledge <ul><li>Building and Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Customer and Personal Service </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Public Safety and Security </li></ul>
Work Activities <ul><li>Making Decisions and Solving Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating the Work and Activities of Others </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating the Quantifiable Characteristics of the Project </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding, Directing, and Motivating Subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Inspecting Equipment and Material </li></ul>
Construction planning <ul><li>A fundamental and challenging activity in the management and execution of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. In addition to these technical aspects of construction planning, it may also be necessary to make organizational decisions about the relationships between project participants and even which organizations to include in a project. For example, the extent to which sub-contractors will be used on a project is often determined during construction planning. </li></ul>
THE SUPERVISOR (FOREMEN) <ul><li>Job Purpose : Complete construction projects by scheduling materials, equipment, and personnel; monitoring progress; enforcing code and safety regulations; supervising staff and sub-contractors . </li></ul>
THE SUPERVISOR (FOREMEN) <ul><li>Since supervisors (foremen) are the link between management and the workforce, they have to be able to successfully respond in multiple directions. The supervisor must understand and be sensitive to management, to employees, to staff specialists, and other supervisors, and possibly maintain a relationship with the union. Of all the supervisory skills, four loom the largest: </li></ul>
THE SUPERVISOR (FOREMEN) <ul><li>Meeting production or operating goals </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting prescribed quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>Being sensitive to cost and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a cooperative attitude with the employees </li></ul>
THE SUPERVISOR (FOREMEN) <ul><li>Supervisors' primary responsibility is to management, and therefore they have to understand and follow company policies and procedures and to ensure that those reporting to them do the same. Another critical responsibility of the first-line supervisor is to ensure that the production, quality, and safety goals of the organization are met. To facilitate achieving these objectives, supervisors have to ensure that the workforce has the necessary resources, tools, and equipment with which to execute. </li></ul>
THE SUPERVISOR (FOREMEN) <ul><li>To effectively lead the workforce, the supervisor must have influence and gain its trust and respect. To accomplish this, the supervisor must demonstrate integrity and treat the workforce with fairness and respect. To effectively lead, the supervisor must also be able to motivate the workforce. To effectively motivate, the supervisor must understand and be sensitive to the needs of the workforce. Understanding those needs, the supervisor must then use persuasion and influence to show the workforce how it will get what it wants by following the supervisor's lead and direction. </li></ul>