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The Science of How We Burn Fat and Metabolism


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The Science of How We Burn Fat and Metabolism

  1. 1. Part 1
  2. 2. What Is Body Fat?
  3. 3. A more technical term for body fat is adipose tissuewith individual cells being called adipocytes ‘Adipo’ = fat; ‘cytes’ = cell In humans, the primary type of fat cell is called white adipose tissue or WAT and we do have BAT
  4. 4. In humans, fat cell can vary drastically:1. Lean individuals may have anywhere from 41 to65 billion fat cells2. Obese individual can have upwards of 200 billionfat cells.3. Fat cells can range in diameter from 70 to 120micrometres. The size of cell can also affect itsphysiology.
  5. 5. WAT in humans is composed (anywhere from 80-95%) oflipidThe remaining part of the fat cell is comprised of:1. A little bit of water2. Cellular machinery needed to produce the variousenzymes, proteins, and products that fat cells need to dotheir duty.3. As it’s turning out, fat cells produce quite a bit ofstuff, some good, some bad, that affects your overallmetabolism.
  6. 6. For the record: 1g of fat provide 9 calories so 400g of fat contains about 3600 calories of stored energy. Now that where the old axiom of 3500kcal to lose a pound of fat comes from.
  7. 7. If you create a 3,500 cal/week deficit you should lose one pound of fat, right?
  8. 8. Wrong 
  9. 9. What’s It Used For?!
  10. 10. The main role is an energy storage dump!?
  11. 11. Fat Cells are truly exceptional in their capacity to storeenergy.Putting everything into perspective: Average male weighs 72kg with 15% body fat has 24lbs of body fat which is close to 84,000kcal or so of stored energy Metabolic rate close to 2400kcal/per day 35 days without food assuming he was using 100% fat.
  12. 12. Extremely obese individuals may have upwards of50lbs -100lbs of stored fat. Which gives them 175,000 – 350,000kcal of stored energy. 7 months at least without emptying their fat stores.
  13. 13. CHO Stores in your muscles and your liver 500g at the maximum. Each 1 gram of Carbs = 4Kcal So that’s 2000Kcal or so of stored glycogen Not enough to meet a single’s days caloric requirements
  14. 14. The reason for the difference in energy storage capacityis water.Carbs are stored as glycogen in the muscles and liverEvery 1g of stored glycogen you store 3-4g of water withit.In contrast triglyceride only require about 1g of water forevery g of fat stored. Fat is a very space efficient way tostore energy .
  15. 15. On top of that:1g provide more useable energy than either a g of carbsor protein.9Kcal/g = Fat4Kcal/g = Carbs/ProteinBeing able to store more g of total FAT each of those gprovides more useable energy to the body.Body Fat = Ideal storage form of energy.
  16. 16. As Human can we make new Fat Cell? Yes / No Can we actually get rid of fat cell completely forever? Yes / No
  17. 17. When a fat cell reach a certain size: that is they are full as they physically can be. Stretching of the fat cell stimulates the release of factors such as Angiotensin II, prostacylin and othersTells the body to make new fat cell from something called preadipocytes Preadipocytes mature into normal adipocytes Volia! New FAT CELLS! Fat cell get to large YOUR BODY WILL KEEP MAKING MORE!
  18. 18. Apoptosis = Death /Removal of cell Unfortunately getting rid of fat cell is nearly (but not completely) impossible. People perception is that liposuction is the only way. Fat Cell don’t generally undergo Apoptosis with a few exception visceral fat and breast or extreme conditions.
  19. 19. 5 Different Types of Body Fat:1. Essential Body Fat2. Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)3. Visceral Fat4. Subcutaneous Fat5. Stubborn Fat
  20. 20. Referred to the fat around your organs and your nervous system and in your brainYou cant lose it and even if you could you would want to because you’d be dead. Men: Essential fat make up about 3%o of total weight. So a male with 10% Body Fat = 1/3 Essential Fat that cant be removed, that why if you hear someone claiming there body fat is below 3% you should be suspicious. Women: Slightly higher estimated at 9-12% is a big part of the difference in total body fat. 10% body fat in men is equivalent to 16-19% body fat in women Both 7% above their essential body fat levels. Female bodybuilder reporting body fat lower than 9% again be suspicious. Low Fat Diets = Bad for you
  21. 21. The main role of BAT is energy utilization, primarily toprovide heat. WAT has very few mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell). Mitochondria makes energy by burning free fatty acids. In contrast BAT has very little lipid but quite a lot of mitochondria which is why its so good at energy good at energy and heat production. Overall BAT isnt important in terms of getting rid of stubborn body fat.
  22. 22. Visceral fat is found around your internal organs and can be thoughts ofas gut fat. Its more metabolically active. Visceral fat has a better blood flow – meaning it easier to get the fat out of the fat cell Research shows that visceral fat responds differently to diets and exercise than other types of fat. APPEARS = aerobic exercise get rids of visceral fat more effectively. Males at 15% body fat can still have some but anybody much leaner than that it’s a non issue-
  23. 23. For short means: ‘Sub’ = Under ‘Cutaneous’ = Skin 40-60% of your total body weight is found under the skin. Males = On top of there visceral fat male carry more fat on their midsection and back with less on their hips and glutes Andriod/ Apple Shape Increased health risks due to visceral fat
  24. 24.  Females = Fat on Hips and Thighs less on their Abs Gynoid body fat patterns/also pear shape. Female = More protective of diseases. Females – Menopause w/out HRT – Which to a male like body pattern. This also can be ver-sa to males.
  25. 25. Sub – q fat isn’t the all the same.Hips/Thighs Fat is metabolically different thanabdominal fat.Different types of abdominal fat1. Deep Abdominal Fat2. Superficial Abdominal Fat - Upper and lower
  26. 26. StubbornHip/Thighs – is the hardest to get rid of.Breast Fat – Body Fat Some Women, Don’t Breast Fat change Regain Lost During Body fat Exercise
  27. 27. Subcutaneous body fat is my eyes can bebroken down in t different types:1. Regular fat – Easy to drop body fat2. Stubborn Fat When it comes to stubborn fat its far less aissue with diet and training its more of apatience issue (Which us men lack )
  28. 28. Stubborn is defined as a 12 site skinfold total ofunder 120mm (less than 10mm average at eachsite)with one site being 30 or higher.
  29. 29. Chin: 3.9mm The supra-iliac measureCheek: 7.2mm was elevated = insulinPecs: 3mmTriceps: 2.7mm resistance.Subscap: 15.8mmMidaxilary: 3.8mmSupra-iliac: 6.5mmAbdomen: 5.3mmKnee: 5.9mmCalf: 2.3mmQuads: 3.8mmHams: 6mm
  30. 30. In general fat will come of the body from least to themost stubborn and there is a clear hierarchy in howit does this. Hips and Visceral Fat Thighs Non Stubborn Superifcial Subcutaneous Body Fat Fat The Deep Abdominal Fat