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Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Social Influence Key Studies1 : Asch (1956), Zimbardo (1973) and Milgram (1963) Whenplanninga12-mark answeraskingto describe and evaluate a study, you should always give 4 procedure points and 2 findings points as your A01 knowledge. Practice this below with the Key Studies into social influence 1 Remember that Key Studies arestated in your spec and you can be directly examined on these Generalisability - Can we generalisethe results of this study to the target population? How bigwas the sample,was it representative? Reliability - Can this study be replicated? Would we get the same results again? Howgood are the controls? Application - Do the findings of this study suggest any practical applications? Is itrelevantto real-lifesituations? Validity - Is this study measuring what it says itis measuring? Are the tasks required of the participantsnatural? Is the setting natural or artificial? Ethics- Has this study adhered to ethical guidelines? Can Do Can’t Do With Participants Asch (1956) Procedure (A01): 1. 2. 3. 4. Findings(A01): 1. 2. A03 Evaluations
  2. 2. Generalisability - Can we generalisethe results of this study to the target population? How big was the sample, was it representative? Reliability - Can this study be replicated? Would we get the same results again? How good are the controls? Application - Do the findings of this study suggest any practical applications? Is itrelevantto real- lifesituations? Validity - Is this study measuring what it says itis measuring? Are the tasks required of the participantsnatural? Is thesetting natural or artificial? Ethics- Has this study adhered to ethical guidelines? Can Do Can’t Do With Participants Zimbardo (1973) Procedure (A01): 1. 2. 3. 4. Findings(A01): 1. 2. A03 Evaluations Challenge One of the biggestcriticismsof the SPEisthe ethical issuesthatarose fromZimbardo’sdual role inthe study.Usingthe PEE structure constructan evaluationof thisstudybasedonthis. P = E= E=
  3. 3. Generalisability - Can we generalisethe results of this study to the target population? How bigwas the sample,was it representative? Reliability - Can this study be replicated? Would we get the same results again? Howgood are the controls? Application - Do the findings of this study suggest any practical applications? Is itrelevantto real-lifesituations? Validity - Is this study measuring what it says itis measuring? Are the tasks required of the participantsnatural? Is the setting natural or artificial? Ethics- Has this study adhered to ethical guidelines? Can Do Can’t Do With Participants Milgram (1963) Procedure (A01): 1. 2. 3. 4. Findings(A01): 1. 2. A03 Evaluations Challenge Wheninterviewedafterthe experiment,participant’ssaidthattheywere gladthattheyhadtakenpart inthe studydespite the psychological distresscaused.Usingacost/benefitanalysis,writeaPEE evaluationparagraph. P = E= E=
  4. 4. Describe and evaluate two studies of social influence. [12 marks] Asch(1956) lookedat the effectof variableslike taskdifficulty,unanimityandgroupsize on conformity.People inagroupof 7/8 tookturnsto say whichline (of 3) was the same as a targetline X. All exceptone of the groupwere confederatesof the researcherprimedtogive the wronganswer on some trials(knownasthe critical trials).Aschrecordedhow manytimesparticipantsconformed to an obviouslywronganswergivenbythe majorityandfoundconformityoccurred32% of the time. Milgram’s(1963) mocklearningexperimentonobedience involvedanaive participantadministering increasinglysevereshockstoa stranger.The shockswere fake andthe strangerwasan actor. When the actor, sittingbehindascreen,made mistakesinatest,the real participantshadto pressa shockerlever.Ata certainvoltage the actorprotestedandthenhe fell quiet.If the participants objectedtothe shockingtheywere promptedbythe researcherwithverbalpromptslike‘youmust go on’.65% of people whostartedtogive shockswentupto the maximum‘lethal’voltage of 450 voltsand100% wentto300 volts. In evaluation,both studies lacktemporalvalidity,thatisitmay be difficulttogeneralise the results beyondthe time periodinwhichtheywere conducted.Thisisbecause boththese studieswere conductedinthe lightof World War 2 and therefore the social attitudesmayhave beendifferent thento the social attitudestoday.Peoplehadbeenusedtoworkingcollectivelyduringthe wartime and so were inclinedtoconformandobeyauthority.Nowadaysthe same level of social influence mightnot occur because individualismandindependentthoughtismore valued. Whichbringsinto questionthe relevance of these findingsastheymaybe appliedtothe world today. Both studiescouldalsobe criticisedforbeingunethical.Aschdeceivedparticipantswithhisuse of confederates andputthemina stressful,embarrassingsituation –physiological measuresindicated increasedanxietyjustbefore theygave theirresponse.Milgramcausedevengreaterstressas people believedtheywere administeringelectricshockstoanotherperson. Inbothstudies participantswere deceived –theywere laterdebriefedhowever there are still concernsaboutthe psychological harmcausedtoparticipants. It shouldbe acknowledgedthatatthe timesof both of these experimentsethical boards,like the BritishPsychologicalSociety,didnotexistandtherefore theseexperimentsdidnotbreakthe ethical guidelineswe have.Infact,itwasbecause of studieslike the above thatwe now have the ethical guidelineswe have today. AfterMilgram’sstudy participantssaidthattheywere happytohave takenpart, as theybelieved that the knowledge gainedfromthe researchwasimportant.If Milgram’sstudyhadnotbeen carriedout we wouldnotunderstandwhyreal people carryouthorrendousactslike we saw in WorldWar 2, whentheyare in an ‘agentic state’,thatis,whentheydonot feel responsible fortheir actions.

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