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Resourcd File


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  1. 1. Tronick et al Caregiver-Infant Interactions Meltzoff and Moore Caregiver-Infant Interactions Koepke et al Caregiver-Infant Interactions Deyong et al Caregiver-Infant Interactions Condor and Sander Caregiver-Infant Interactions Schaffer and Emerson Schaffer Stages of Attachment Sagi et al Schaffer Stages of Attachment Carpenter Schaffer Stages of Attachment Schaffer Stages of Attachment Schaffer Stages of Attachment Lamb Role of Father White et al Role of Father Varissimo Role of Father Lamb Role of Father Hrdy Role of Father
  2. 2. analysed infant video recordings to find they did co-ordinate their behaviour in sequence with the adults s p e e c h a l m o s t a s i f w e r e a conversation involving taking turns. observed infants when they interacted with two objects. One simulated tongue movements while the other simulated the opening and closing of the mouth. They found infants within the median age of 5 to 12 weeks made little interactional synchrony or response to the objects. This suggests infants do display specific s o c i a l r e s p o n s e s t o h u m a n interactions as reciprocity and interactional synchrony suggests as they do not simply imitate everything. was unable to recreate the same findings although one weakness claimed by Meltzoff and Moore was their study lacked control and thus had validity. demonstrated that interactional synchrony occurred with infants imitating facial expressions, tongue protrusions and mouth openings from an adult model when only three days old. This suggests the behaviour was innate rather than learned. Tronick et al. (1979) found that when mothers who had been engaged in dialogue with their babies were asked to stop moving and remain static, the babies would become puzzled and distressed when their smiles were unable to provoke a reciprocal response. This highlights how babies engage and anticipate reciprocal responses to their own behaviour. Weakens Schaffer & Emersons 4 stage model which assumes initially babies will interact with all objects and people between birth and two months. Carpenter found that when two week old infants were presented with familiar and unfamiliar voices and faces, they stared at their mothers face for longer when it was accompanied by her voice. They also showed themselves to become stressed when their face was accompanied by an unfamiliar voice showing babies are attracted to and recognise their mothers contrary to what the initial stage of Schaffers 4 stage model suggests Comparing attachments between the communal settings of an Israeli kibbutzim and infants within a family based setting, attachment with mothers was almost twice as likely in the family based setting. This suggests attachment may not be universal and the 4 stage model has limited external validity to collectivist cultures and may apply only to western individualistic cultures. Studied 60 infants with most coming from working class backgrounds in Glasgow. The infants ranged in age between 5 weeks to 23 weeks and were studied until the age of 1 year. Mothers were visited every 4 weeks with them reporting their child’s response to separation in various everyday situations. The intensity of their separation anxiety was also recorded on a 4 point scale. The findings led to the development of Schaffers 4 stages of attachment. Found supporting evidence which suggested fathers were less able than mothers to detect low levels of emotional distress supporting the explanation that fathers are less suitable as primary attachment figures. However evidence from Lamb (1987) found fathers who became the main care providers as able to adapt quickly to develop greater sensitivity to the child’s needs. found children preferred interacting with their fathers but only when in a positive state themselves and wanting to be stimulated. Mothers were sought primarily for comfort when distressed supporting the idea of fathers being preferred playmates while mothers provided emotional support. found that the quality of the relationship between father and toddler significantly correlated with the number of friends they had at preschool and this was more important than the attachment between mother and child. The possible link here is the fathers role may encourage social skills and connections through them being a playmate themselves. Research suggests the fathers role has also been seen more as a playmate to encourage physical activity, challenging situations and thus encourage problem solving through placing cognitive demands on the child reported there was little connection between the amount of time spent with the child and attachment suggesting it may be the interaction itself. Gender stereotypes in some cultures and pockets of society also continue to affect the role of the father as it is seen as feminine to be sensitive to the needs of children and a g a i n e n c o u r a g e m a s c u l i n e behaviour.
  3. 3. Lorenz Animal Studies Guiton (1966) Animal Studies Harlow Animal Studies Harlow Animal Studies Guiton Animal Studies Vespo et al Learning Theory Emerson et al Learning Theory Harlow Learning Theory Learning Theory Learning Theory Genie Bowlby’s Theory Kulchova Twins Bowlby’s Theory Bowlby’s Theory Bowlby’s Theory Bowlby’s Theory
  4. 4. Found that chickens who had imprinted themselves to yellow rubber gloves and tried to mate with them would later begin mating with other chickens provided they spent enough time with them. This suggests imprinting may have a learned element too and it may not be completely biological in nature. Also found that as the monkeys grew up they would later be seen to have some abnormal traits in behaviour. Motherless monkeys were socially abnormal and scared of other monkeys as well as display abnormal sexual behaviour or comfort their own babies. Harlow found there was a critical period as Bowlby suggested and as Lorenz found in his imprinting study. If motherless monkeys spent time with their peers they showed recovery but this was provided it was before the age of 3 months. Monkeys who spent more than six months with a wire mother did not appear to recover which demonstrated the long lasting effects on behaviour. Rhesus monkeys were separated from their mothers and raised in isolation cages and exposed to two mother figures. One was a wire mother while the other a cloth covered mother for comfort. Four of the monkeys were exposed to the cloth mother having a milk bottle while another four were exposed to the wire mother with the milk bottle. Measurements were made through observations on the amount of time the monkeys spent with each mother as well as their responses when frightened for example by a mechanical bear. The findings were that all the monkeys, despite who fed the milk to them, spent the majority of their time with the cloth mother. The study also found that when frightened all of the monkeys would cling to the cloth mother for reassurance as well as remain touching them with their feet when playing with new objects. These findings demonstrated how infant monkeys do not necessarily develop an attachment with only the person that feeds them (feeding bond) but rather the person offering contact comfort. Showed how leghorn chicks would become attached to yellow rubber gloves when used to feed them. This highlights that imprinting is designed to occur with not only living objects but any objects that are moving within the time critical period of 2 days Conducted a study into attachment and demonstrated how imprinting occurred within the animal world. Lorenz split a batch of gosling eggs into two groups. One group remained with the mother while the other batch were incubated until hatched and Lorenz was the first living object they encountered. The goslings that hatched with Lorenz were found to imprint themselves on him and start following him around whether he went. Behaviorists would predict the monkeys should spend more time with the wire mother as it provided food and a means to remove hunger in line with learning explanations. Observations however found the monkeys preferred the cloth mother e s p e c i a l l y w h e n d i s t r e s s e d highlighting attachment is not merely about food but also contact comfort. Found evidence to support learning theory as an explanation for how attachment forms through studying 60 babies over 18 months. At 3 months old they showed no preference however after 4 months preferences started to develop with a special attachment from 7 months onwards with separation anxiety displayed on separation from their primary caregivers. This study found attachment was most likely to form with those who were most sensitive and responsive to the child’s need (through feeding and attention) as this would be most rewarding for them. Vespo et al (1988) suggesting that infants observe their parents affectionate behaviour and simply imitate this back. Parents would also be teaching appropriate behaviour within relationships and rewarding this accordingly encouraging it further. Contradict Bowlbys theory of a time sensitive period to form attachments and supports learning explanations. The two boys were raised in isolation beyond this sensitive period and once rescued, through the efforts of their adoptive mothers, showed no signs of abnormal behaviour at age 14 when re- examined. In fact they had close attachments to their mothers and went on to live normal lives into adulthood with stable relationships a young girl raised in total isolation up until the age of 13 and abused by her father adds weight to the problems that can follow without attachment aiding development. Even after rescue her cognitive development was limited and she struggled learning language skills beyond the very basics. Behavioral problems were also evident and she was never seen to recover
  5. 5. Ainsworth Ainsworth Strange Situation Ainsworth Ainsworth Strange Situation Main et al Ainsworth Strange Situation Main and Solomon Ainsworth Strange Situation Ainsworth Strange Situation Van Ijzendoorn Cultural Variations in Attachment Grossman et al Cultural Variations in Attachment Tronick et al Cultural Variations in Attachment Takahashi Cultural Variations in Attachment Fox et al Cultural Variations in Attachment Bowlby Maternal Deprivation Kagan et al Maternal Deprivation Marian Radke-Yarrow et al Maternal Deprivation Bifulco et al Maternal Deprivation Rutter Maternal Deprivation
  6. 6. Found a forth attachment type may exist known as insecure-disorganised. Observing over 200 strange situation recordings they found this attachment type was characterized by a lack of any consistent patterns of social behaviour with infants not displaying any consistent attachment type. Assessed children's attachment types in Ainsworths strange situation before the age of 18 months with both parents and retested at 6 years old. R e s u l t s f o u n d c o n s i d e r a b l e consistency in attachment with 100% of those classed secure as infants re- classified the same again and 75% of avoidant babies re-classified the same again at age 6. Secure attachment see’s infants show some anxiety when the caregiver leaves but they are easily soothed and happy when reunited with their caregiver. Such children can play independently but return to the caregiver for reassurance using them as a safe base from which to explore their environment. They are seen to be comfortable with social interaction and intimacy (closeness). Insecure Avoidants children show indifference at their caregiver leaving the room and do not show anxiety. They may show frustration and anger at their attachment needs not being met. When the caregiver returns they may actively avoid contact with them. Such children may explore the room even without the caregiver present and play independently. The Insecure-resistant attachment style (also known as ambivalent) see’s infants become distressed as the caregiver leaves and rush to them when they return however their behaviour is characterized by seeking and rejecting social interaction and intimacy at the same time. They may not be consoled so easily and explore the environment less than other children. 1.The caregiver enters a room and places the child on the floor and sits on a chair. The caregiver does not interact with the child unless the infant seeks attention. 
 2.The stranger enters the room, talks to the caregiver and then approaches the child with a toy. 
 3.The caregiver exits the room. If the infant plays, the stranger observes without interruption. If the child is passive the stranger attempts to interest them in the toy. If they show distress the stranger attempts to comfort them. 
 4.The caregiver returns while the stranger then leaves. 
 5.Once the infant begins to play again, the caregiver may leave the room, leaving the child alone briefly. 
 6.The stranger enters the room again and repeats behaviours mentioned in step 3 (observing, engaging and comforting as needed). 
 7.The stranger leaves and the caregiver returns. 
 Examined infants raised on Israeli kibbutzim who were mostly cared for in communal children's homes by nurses. The strange situation was used to test attachment styles to study how their relationships differed between the nurses and their actual mothers with similar behaviour expressed by children towards both. The only difference was found in reunion behaviour towards their mothers whom they showed a greater attachment towards. One major difference however was that the Japanese infants s h o w e d h i g h r a t e s o f insecure-resistant attachment (32%) and no evidence of insecure-avoidant attachment. Another interesting finding was Japanese infants showed extreme anxiety at being alone and for 90% of the infants in the study the experiment had to be stopped. Studied the Efe, an African tribe who lived Zaire and within extended family groups. Infants were looked after and breastfed by various different women but would on most occasions sleep with their mother at night. At 6 months of age, despite such differences in child-rearing practices they still showed a preference towards one primary attachment figure suggesting it may be an innate biological process as Bowlby suggested. Found German children tended to be classified as insecurely attached which went against the majority of other cultures which were classed as secure. Child- r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s w e r e believed to have influenced this as German culture promotes interpersonal space between children and parents. Within Ainsworth’s strange situation children would therefore not display proximity Over 2000 strange situation classifications were examined from 8 different countries which examined the differences of attachment behaviour between cultures as well as differences and findings within the same culture. They found little differences between cultures with the most common attachment type being “secure” followed by insecure-avoidant which was evident in most countries except Israel and Japan. They found the variation and differences within cultures was 1.5 times higher than variations between cultures. This study demonstrated how secure attachment was a global pattern and not limited to just western cultures such as the US. Argued a distinction needed to be made as he believed a lack of attachment bond and privation would have far more of a negative impact on the child’s mental development than deprivation and an attachment bond being broken. Therefore in Bowlby’s study it may be that the children who displayed the greatest signs of “emotionless psychopathy” had experienced privation rather than deprivation which would undermine Bowlby’s theory. Studying women who had been separated from their mothers either due to death or temporary separation of more than a year, Bifulco found that 25% of these women later experienced depression or an anxiety disorder. A control group who had experienced no separation found only 15% suffered from such mental disorders. Of importance was the fact that for those who suffered the greatest of these problems, their loss had occurred before the age of 6 years old which supports Bowlby’s MDT and this notion of a critical period. Studied mothers who were severely depressed and unable to provide emotional c a r e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Consequently the results found that 55% of the “ d e p r e s s e d s a m p l e ” o f mothers had children with i n s e c u r e a t t a c h m e n t s compared to only 29% of a c o n t r o l g r o u p o f n o n - depressed mothers. Found no direct causal link between separation and later emotional and behavioural difficulties which undermines Bowlby’s MDT. He analysed the case history of children attending the child guidance clinic. 44 had been identified as having been caught for theft and persistent offending while another 44 were a control group. Bowlby identified a subgroup (32%) which he labelled “affectional psychopaths” who lacked the normal signs of affection, any sense of responsibility or shame for their offending behaviour. Through interviews with the children he identified this group had experienced early periods of prolonged separation from their mothers, often due to hospitalization or being in foster care
  7. 7. Rutter Romanian Orphanage Studies Rutter Romanian Orphanage Studies Mare and Audet (2006) Romanian Orphanage Studies Quinton et al Romanian Orphanage Studies Singer et al Romanian Orphanage Studies Wippman (1979), Willie (1986) and Lieberman (1977) et al Influence of Early Attachments Alpern et al Influence of Early Attachments Belsky Influence of Early Attachments Quinton et al Influence of Early Attachments Hazan ands Shaver Influence of Early Attachments Simpson et al Influence of Early Attachments Wood et al Influence of Early Attachments Steel at al Influence of Early Attachments
  8. 8. Consequently shown that adopted children are just as securely attached as children who are not adopted highlighting how this research has improved care for children. Found women who had been raised in institutional care tended to be poorer parents themselves and report extreme difficulty in parenthood when compared to a control group reared within the family setting. 36 orphans were adopted by Canadian families with the dependent variable being physical health and physical growth. At the age of 4 they were found to be physically smaller than a control group of children. This difference disappeared by the age of 10 however and their physical health also improved in line with the control group. Conducted a followup study and found that problems in attachment, hyperactivity and cognitive impairment could be linked to institutionalisation. This was most apparent on children who endured long periods of institutional care although about 20% showed normal functioning. Other apparent problems such as emotional problems, peer relationship problems and behavioural problems were concluded not to be linked to institutionalisation. 165 Romanian children who spent their early lives in an orphanage were observed to see how institutionalisation would affect them. 111 were adopted prior to the age of 2 and another 54 by the age of 4 years old. at the initial assessment were that 50% of the Romanian orphans were retarded in cognitive functioning and most were underweight. The control group of British orphans did not display these deficits. At the age of 4 years old the Romanian orphans showed great improvements with some catching up with their British counterparts and this was most evident in children adopted before the age of 6 months. Those adopted after the age of 6 months showed disinhibited attachment types and displayed social problems with peer relationships. A “love quiz” was placed in a local newspaper and respondents were asked which of the three descriptions best described their feelings about romantic relationships. The results found that attachment styles in adulthood were closely matched with what people reported during infancy with 56% classified as secure, 25% as avoidant and 19% as r e s i s t a n t . S e c u r e l y a t t a c h e d individuals had a positive Internal working model and conception of love and trust within relationships. Found mothers raised in institutional care (which negatively affected their attachment styles) were more likely to struggle as parents themselves. It is believed that this lack of an internal working model (due to no parental figure within institutions) provides no template to subsequently base their own parenting on for their own children. Found securely attached children aged 3-5 were more curious, competent and self- confident than children not securely attached. They also got along better in their peer relationships with other children and were more likely to form close friendships too. Alpern et al (1993) conducted a longitudinal study and found the attachment types of children at 18 months was the best predictor of problematic relationships at the age of 5 y e a r s a g a i n s h o w i n g consistency between early a t t a c h m e n t a n d l a t e r childhood relationships. All support this with secure attachment styles being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l o s e r friendships and greater e m o t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l competence into adolescence. Found only a small correlation of 0.17 between a secure attachment type in early childhood and into early adulthood. This is further supported by Zimmerman et al’s (2000) study which found that a childs attachment type at 12-18 months was unable to predict the quality of their later relationships. He believed that the quality of the relationship is dependent on the attachment styles of both individuals. He proposed insecurely attached people can have secure relationships if they were to find themselves with partners who were securely attached themselves. This may in-turn influence their own attachment style to become secure and this is something which hasn't been investigated; how one partner’s attachment type can influence the other. Infants assessed as securely attached at the age of one were rated as having higher social competence as children when aged 16. They were also more expressive and emotionally attached to their partners and this supports the notion that early attachment type does predict later adult relationships.