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Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Evolutionary Explanations for Partner Preferences Nettle and Clegg (06) Evolutionary Explanations for Partner Preferences Buss (89) Evolutionary Explanations for Partner Preferences Kasser and Sharma (99) Evolutionary Explanations for Partner Preferences Buller (05) Evolutionary Explanations for Partner Preferences Penton-Voak (99) Physical Attractiveness Eastwick and Finkel (08) Physical Attractiveness Sprecher and Hatfield (09) Physical Attractiveness Taylor (11) Physical Attractiveness Meltzer (14) Physical Attractiveness Pasch and Bradbury (98) Self-Disclosure Collins and Miller (94) Self-Disclosure Cooper and Sportolari (97) Self-Disclosure Tal-Or and Hershman-Shitrit Self-Disclosure Knop (16) Self-Disclosure Chen (95)
  2. 2. Women chose slightly more feminised male faces as ‘most attractive’ for a long-term r’ship (implies kindness and cooperation). However, for a short term r’ship, they chose a more masculine face. Testosterone makes the immune system highly effective, which is a desirable trait for offspring. The majority of studies into female mate preferences have been carried out on female undergraduateswhohave high educational status and expectationsof highoutcomes. Their preference for high- status men may simply reflect their own interests and prospects. 37 cultures, found that in cultureswhere women’sstatus and educational opportunities were limited more value was placedon any potential mate’s access to resources. Actual marriagesin29 cultures, finding men choose younger women. Compared British poets and artists to a control group of non-creative professions. Creative males tended to have significantly more sexual partners, and the amount of creative output was was positively correlated with the number of sexual partners. Both sexesalsodesire partners who are supportive, trustworthy and warm, so those with partners who display these qualities tend to be more satisfied. Wives’ attractiveness was positively correlated to husbands’ satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. In contrast, wives’ martial satisfaction as not related to husbands’ attractiveness rating. This suggests that women place less importance on physical attractiveness in a long-term partner. No evidencethatonline daters’ decisions were driven by similarities in physical attractiveness. Instead, daters preferred attractive partners, suggesting that they did not take into account their own attractiveness. However, daters who targeted similarly attractive others were more likely to receive responses to their messages. People may compensate for a lack of physical attractiveness with other desirable qualities (e.g. charming personality, kindness, money, status), referred to as ‘complex matching’. This might be why research often fails to find evidence of matching in terms of physical appearance. Before a speed dating event, ppts showed traditional sex differences: men emphasised the importance of physical attractiveness, women mentioned earning prospects. However, during the speed dating and follow-ups 30 days later, judgements of appearance and resources did not influence romantic interest. Western people typically engage in more intimate self- disclosure, e.g. Americans disclose more than Chinese or Japanese. Members of a social group disclosed more intimate personal information, and more often, in face-to-face interactions.Thissuggeststhat, contrary to popular belief, people do not use the internet to disclose personal details. This may be because when disclosing information, people value non-verbal cues like eye contact and attentive silence. Contestants on reality TV shows tend to engage in rapid self-disclosure of intimate details. They discovered that while viewers liked characters who early on disclosed personal information,they still preferreddisclosuresto evolve gradually and become more intimate, as occurs in real relationships. ‘Boom and Bust phenomenon’ of internet communication. People may engage in higher levels of self-disclosure than they would in face-to-face relationships. leading to relationshipsbecomingintense very quickly (boom). But, the lack of underlyingtrustneeded to support such disclosures makesitdifficult to sustain the relationship (bust). Meta analysisfound that those who reveal intimate information tend to be liked more than those who disclose less,andpeople likeothersasa result of having disclosed to them. They also found liking was stronger if the recipient belied the information was shared only with them.
  3. 3. Filter Theory Duck (73) Filter Theory Levinger (70) Filter Theory Tidwell (13) Filter Theory Dijkstra and Barelds (08) Filter Theory Thornton and Young-DeMarco (01) Social Exchange Theory Sprecher (01) Social Exchange Theory Littlejohn (89) Social Exchange Theory Gottman and Levenson (92) Social Exchange Theory Christensen (04) Social Exchange Theory Nakonezny and Denton (08) Equity Theory Huseman (87) Equity Theory DeMaris (10), Sprecher (92) Equity Theory Bronson and de Waal (03) Equity Theory Clark (84) Equity Theory Aumer-Ryan (06)
  4. 4. Attitudestowardsrelationships in young US adults changed overa periodof a fewdecades. Thisincludedaweakenedneed to marry, to stay married and to have children, a more relaxed attitude towards cohabitation and more egalitarian attitudes to gender roles in marriage. 760 college-ed singles on a dating site looking for a long- term mate. Each ppt’s own personality was measured as well as noting the personality characteristics desired in a mate. Although ppts initially indicated they wanted a complementary partner than a similar one, there was a strong correlation between the individual’s personality and their ideal partner’s personality. In a speed-datingevent,where decisions about attraction are made overa shortertime span, it wasfoundthat perceivedbut not actual similarity predicted romantic liking. Replicated Kerckhoff and Davis’sstudywith 330 ‘steadily attached’ couples, but found no evidence of similarity of valuesinfluencing relationship progression, and no link between length of the relationship and the influence of these different filters. Filteringallowspeople tomake predictions about their future interactions to avoid investing in a relationship that ‘won’t work’. Individuals must have some wayof quantifyingthe value of costs andbenefitsif theyare to assess whether benefits outweigh costs. Of over 60 distressed couples treated using IBCT, 2/3 reported significant improvementsinthe quality of their relationships. 5:1 ratio of positive tonegative exchanges in successful relationships, compared with 1:1 or less in unsuccessful marriages. IBCT helps partners break the negative patterns of behaviourthatcause problems, so the amount of positive exchanges increases and negative exchanges decrease. It is difficult to classify events in such simple terms as ‘costs’ and ‘benefits’. For example, what may be rewarding to one person may be punishing to another. Also, what is seen to be a benefit at one stage may become a cost at another stage. Longitudinal study of 101 dating couples at a US universityfoundthat,while the CLA was high, commitment to and satisfaction with the current relationships was low. Also suggests those who lack alternativesare likelytoremain committed (and satisfied). Those who are satisfied and committed are more likely to devalue alternatives. Equality in marriage is felt to be important across cultures but people differed in how equitable theyconsideredtheir relationships to be. US men and womenclaimedtobe most equitable, but men and (especially) women in Jamaica claimed to be least equitable. Only when a marriage is in trouble do couples start to think in terms of rewards and benefits. Chimpanzeeswere more upset by injustice in casual relationships than in close, intimate relationships. Women tend to perceive themselves are more under- benefited and less over- benefited. Women are also more disturbed by being under-benefited than men. Women feel more guilt in response to being over benefited. Women’s greater relationship focus may make them more sensitive to injustices 3 categories of individuals: benevolent, equality, and entitled. Therefore, some individuals prefer equity, supporting the theory, while some prefer to be under or over rewarded.
  5. 5. Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment Le (10) Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment Rusbult and Martz (95) Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment Goodfriend and Andrew (08) Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment Rusbult and Martz (95) Rusbult’s Investment Model of Commitment Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown Duck and Rollie (06) Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown Tashiro and Frazier (03) Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown Dickson (95) Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown Monroe (99) Duck’s Phase Model of Relationship Breakdown Tashiro and Frazier (03) Virtual Relationships in Social Media Rosenfeld and Thomas (12) Virtual Relationships in Social Media Putnam (00), Rosenfeld and Thomas (12) Virtual Relationships in Social Media Tamir and Mitchell (12) Virtual Relationships in Social Media Baker and Oswald (10) Virtual Relationships in Social Media Zhao (08)
  6. 6. Alternatives and investments were a strong indication of whether abused women at a shelter remained committed to, and returned to, their partner. In ending a relationship, the individual would not only lose investmentsalreadymade, but planned ones too. This means that some relationships may persist, not because of current investments, but a desire to see future, important plans take place. Therefore, this should also be included in the model. InvestmentModel Scale is very reliable and valid, overcoming the difficulty of measuring satisfaction, investment and quality of alternatives. However, it relies on self- report. 38,000 ppts in 137 studiesover 33 years. Commitment was a strong predictor of whether a relationship would end. Satisfaction, quality of alternatives and investments were modest predictors of the likelihood of staying in a relationship or ending it. Focusing on how the situation, rather thanpersonal flaws,was responsible for the break helpedindividualscope better. Students whose relationship had broken down the previous year had a greater risk of developing a major depressive disorder for the first time. Teenager and young adults have more unstable relationships. There is more sympathy but no support, and focus on how there are still more relationship opportunitiesoutthere.Adults have longer-termrelationships, have lower expectations of finding a new one, and so the consequences of breakdown are more significant. Found that 92 undergraduates who had recently broken up with a romantic partner reported experiences of emotional distress and personal growth. This supports the ‘resurrection processes’ stage. Added the final phase ‘resurrection processes’ in which people move beyond any distressfelt,and engage in personal growth. Offline andonline worldshould not be thought of as separate. The development of virtual relationships allows some individuals to bypass gating obstacles and create an identity they are unable to establish in the real world. 207 students about their shyness, Facebook usage and quality of friendships. Facebook usage associated with higher perceptions of friendship quality among shy people. Facebook usage not associated with perception of friendship quality fort hose scoring low on shyness. Increased MRI activity inthenucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area: both associated with reward. These were strongly activated when peoplespoke about themselves, and showed less activation when about someone else. Found greater sense of pleasure when sharing their thoughts than when they were told to keep them private.This suggests tendency to shareinformation over social media may arise from the rewardingnatureof self-disclosure. Internetrelationshipsare often seentobe of lower quality and more temporary. HOWEVER, nodifference found between the quality of online and offline relationships, nor did they find that online relationshipswere more fragile than those formed offline. US, 4,000 adults, found 71.8% of those with home internet access were in a relationship, compared to only 35.9% of those without.Individualswere 2x as likely to find a romantic partner with internet access than those who don’t. Internet may be displacing, rather than complementing, traditional ways of meeting a romantic partner.
  7. 7. Parasocial Relationships Schiappa (07) Parasocial Relationships Eyal and Cohen (06) Parasocial Relationships Maltby (03) Parasocial Relationships Cohen (04) Parasocial Relationships Schmid and Klimmt (11)
  8. 8. Online surveys of fans from both Germany (individualist) and Mexico (collectivist) showed similar patterns of PSRs with Harry Potter and other characters in the franchise. Fans admired Harry Potter and found similarities between their own lives and those portrayed in the books and films. This demonstrates the universal influence of mainstream media cultures. 381 Israeli adults completed questionnaires. Viewers expectedtofeel sadness,anger and lonelinessif theirfavourite character was no longer on TV. These reactions were related to both PSR intensity and the viewer’sattachmentstyle,with anxious-ambivalently attached ppts anticipating the most negative reactions. Entertainment-social level was associated with extraversion, while the intense-personal level was associated with neuroticism. Neuroticism is related to anxiety and depression, so provides a clear explanation of why higher levels of PSRs are associated with poorer mental health. - What about borderline- pathological level and psychoticism? 279 studentswho were fans of ‘Friends’foundthe intensity of their PSR with their favourite character was the strongest predictor of feelings of loneliness after the final episode was broadcast. This suggests the loss of PSR can create feelings of loneliness. Meta analysis found people with higher PSR levels also watchedmore TV.Alsoshowed a positive relationshipbetween the degree to which a person perceivedTV characters as real and their tendency to form PSRs. Found that likelihood of forming a PRS with TV characters was linked to characters seen as attractive and similarity to the viewer.

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