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  1. 1. UNIT 3: GENDER
  2. 2. What to expect from this topic: SPECIFICATION SPECFICATION CONTENT SPECIFICATION EXPLAINED COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY, INCLUDING KOHLBERG, AND GENDER SCHEMA THEORY •Describe Cognitive developmental theories of gender development including both Kohlberg’s gender consistency theory, and gender schema theory EXPLANATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY AND GENDER DYSPHORIA INCLUDING RELEVANT RESEARCH • Describe two or more explanations of psychological androgyny and gender dysphoria including relevant research •Evaluate two or more explanations of psychological androgyny and gender dysphoria including relevant research THE ROLE OF HORMONES AND GENES IN GENDER DEVELOPMENT •Describe the role of both hormones and genes in gender development •Evaluate the role of both hormones and genes in gender development EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER ROLES •Describe two or more aspects of gender role from an evolutionary perspective •Evaluate explanations of two or more aspects of gender role from an evolutionary perspective THE BIOSOCIAL APPROACH TO GENDER DEVELOPMENT •Describe the biosocial approach to gender development •Evaluate the biosocial approach to gender development SOCIAL INFLUENCE ON GENDER ROLE: E.G. INFLUENCE OF PARENTS, PEERS, SCHOOL , MEDIA •Describe cognitive developmental theories of gender development including Kohlberg's gender consistency theory and gender schema theory •Evaluate cognitive developmental theories of gender including both Kohlberg’s theory and gender schema theory CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF GENDER ROLE •Describe and evaluate two or more cross-cultural studies of gender
  3. 3. BOY OR GIRL?
  4. 4. BOY or GIRL?
  5. 5. Boy or girl?
  6. 6. Boy or Girl? • Most children develop ideas, known as schemas, as to what behaviours, games and clothes are appropriate for males and females • They are able to develop these as gender role behaviours
  7. 7. PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF GENDER DEVELOPMENT • COGNITVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY – KOHLBERG AND GENDER SCHEMA THEORY • EXPLANATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ADROGYNY AND GENDER DYSPHORIA INCLUDING RELEVANT RESEARCH
  8. 8. At what age do you think a child knows they are a boy or girl? Do you think a child will always think that their gender is fixed?
  9. 9. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY: KOHLBERG’S GENDER CONSISTENCY THEORY (1966) • Children need to understand gender identity before they imitate same-sex models • Develops through three stages – linked to age across early childhood Gender identity 2- 3 years Gender Stability 3- 7 years Gender Consistency 7-12 years Child starts to use the label boy or girl to refer to themselves and others BUT: limited understanding of what it means to be a girl/boy and doesn’t understand gender is stable Awareness that gender is fixed! BUT: misled by superficial changes in appearance, e.g. If a women shaves her head they may believe she has become a he!! Recognise that gender is constant and that gender stays the same despite superficial changes
  10. 10. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY: KOHLBERG’S GENDER CONSISTENCY THEORY (1966) • Influenced by Piaget – 6-7 years capable of conservation – know that things remain constant even with change • Once understood that gender is constant - motivated to behave in way that is expected of them as boy or girl • Theory predicts children should pay attention to same-sex role models and show gender role behaviours only when they have full understanding of their gender and that it remains constant
  11. 11. Kohlberg’s (1966) gender consistency theory: RESEARCH • Slaby and Frey (1975) ‘investigated the development of children’s understanding of gender in relation to the attention they give to the same-sex models • Children between age of 2-5 , divided into high and low gender constancy groups, shown a silent film. • 2 adult models, one male and one female carrying out stereotyped gender role activity (baking/changing a wheel), screen was split • Children watched both films and eye movement and direction of gaze were recorded to assess which film they looked at most. • Found that the child that had reached high levels of gender constancy spent more time watching same sex models than those with low levels of gender constancy. • Supporting Kohlberg's claims that children pay attention to same sex models after stage of constancy has been reached. PREDICTIONS?
  12. 12. Kohlberg’s (1966) gender consistency theory: RESEARCH • McConaghy (1979) found that children aged 3 and half up to 4 tended to use hair length and clothes to decide upon the sex of a doll rather than its genitals • Ruble (1981) considered the r’ship between gender constancy and the child’s responsiveness to TV adverts for girl and boy toys. • Children who had reached gender constancy were sensitive to the implicit message of the advert that certain toys were right or wrong for boys or girls. • Their willingness to play with the toy was depended on how gender suitable they felt the toy was
  13. 13. Evaluations of Kohlberg’s theory • Support from evidence! • Theory combines social learning and biological developmental factors to explain how gender development occurs • Cross-cultural research- Munroe et al (1984) sequence of gender concept is similar in other cultures, E.G. Kenya, Nepal, Samoa
  14. 14. Evaluations of Kohlberg’s theory • Kohlberg may have underestimated the age at which gender cognition occurs- Martin and Halverston (1981) children begin to construct gender schemas by the age of two. • Child will demonstrate gender appropriate behaviour and reward gender appropriate behaviours before they have reached gender constancy, casting some doubt onto Kohlberg’s idea of universal stages of development • Reductionist? overlooks important cultural and social influences, such as parents and friends
  15. 15. Evaluations of Kohlberg’s theory • Bem (1989) argues that it is genital knowledge rather than gender constancy which lies at the root of gender development. • Showed children three pictures; toddler in nude, child dressed appropriately or inappropriately to it’s gender. • 40% of 3-5yr olds could conserve gender. • 77% who failed, also failed genitalia test!!! • Children go for cues in society- gender is determined through clothing and hair style rather than physical sex characteristics?!
  16. 16. GENDER SCHEMA THEORY: Martin and Halverson (1987) • Agree with Kohlberg that the child’s thinking is at the basis of their development of gender role behaviours • BUT argue that the process starts much earlier, Children learn pre- programmed gender schema between age 2-3 • Have a simple gender schema, consisting of 2 groups, boys and girls • view own group as ‘in-group’ and opposite as ‘out-group’ • Boys pay close attention to boy’s toys, pay minimal attention to anything ‘girly’ • Girls focus actively on girly things and avoid anything perceived to be ‘boy’ • Look to the environment to build gender schemas. i.e. Toys, games, sports go from being neutral to categorised as boys or girls.
  17. 17. Over to you... • In pairs you will each learn and become an expert in a key study into Gender schema theory • Campbell et al (2000, 2004) • Tenenbaum and Leaper (2002) • You will then teach your study to your partner • As a pair, compare and contrast Cognitive development theory and Gender schema theory
  18. 18. GENDER SCHEMA: EVALUATIONS • See the child as active, seeking out information about gender and trying to make sense of gendered world that they live in • Campbell and Poulin-Dubois et al have shown that children pay attention to same-sex role models much earlier than Kohlberg thought. Young children turn into gender before they can speak
  19. 19. GENDER SCHEMA: EVALUATIONS • Helps us to understand why children's beliefs and attitudes about sex roles are so rigid. • Children ignore behaviours which go against gender schemas, e.g. Female mechanics • Studies support this, e.g. when young children watch films which depict contradicting gender role behaviours, they tune them out
  20. 20. GENDER SCHEMA: EVALUATIONS • Emphasises how schemas develop but not where originate. Overlooks impact of parents, surrounding culture (i.e. School and media) • However, Tenenbaum has shown importance of parent’s belief on gender schema developed by children.
  21. 21. Lets Play Pairs • How much have you remembered from today’s lesson on Cognitive theories of gender development??
  22. 22. Knowledge and understanding: • 1. outline Kohlberg’s three stages of gender understanding • 2. Explain one criticism of the cognitive development theory • 3. Explain what is meant by the term ‘gender schema’ • 4. How do children develop Gender schemas? • 5. Which theory do you find more convincing and why?
  23. 23. Gender Identity • Look at the following pictures and decide whether they are masculine or feminine?!
  24. 24. ANDROGYNY • = co-existence of masculine and feminine qualities within the same person. E.g. Man gentle and adventurous. Woman brave and gentle
  25. 25. EXPLANATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: • Males and females having both characteristics • Generally regarded positively, allows individual to choose more appropriate behaviour i.e. Act masculine in some situations and feminine in others, blend together both elements • Bem (1975) developed ‘androgynous hypothesis’ – saw androgyny as positive and desirable. No longer need to stick to gender stereotypes!! • Olds (1981) androgyny is a developmental stage reached only by some people.
  26. 26. Is it all about how you think?
  27. 27. Or is it behaviour?
  28. 28. EXPLANATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: • Behavioural models argue it is a form of behaviour or action demonstrated by what people do rather than what they think. • Views it as a way of life in which the individual gains competence in a wide range of skills associated with both masculine and feminine qualities such as leadership. • It is seen as lifestyle choice
  29. 29. Bems Sex Role Inventory • Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) developed by Bem(1974) to measure individual’s gender type. • Androgynous individuals score high on both femininity and masculinity and typically accept traditional gender stereotypes. • Sex typed individuals score high on either masculinity or femininity • Those scoring low both on masculinity and femininity classified as undifferentiated. • Sex-typed people favoured stereotypical activity and uncomfortable in performing non-stereotypical activities. • Androgynous types were found to have the greatest flexibility when faced with different situations- psychologically healthy
  30. 30. Bem’s Sex Role Inventory Have a go... Are you Androgynous?
  31. 31. Androgyny: Evidence • Flaherty and Dusek (1980) androgynous individuals have higher self-esteem and better emotional being • Peters and Cantrell (1993) androgynous females had best quality of r’ships supporting idea of androgyny being a positive condition • Kurdek and Siesky (1980) androgynous characteristics seen positively in the workplace
  32. 32. Evaluation • Is Androgyny always a positive thing? • Not always a positive trait; an individual may exhibit negative masculine and/or feminine behaviours in a given situation • Are you psychologically healthier if you are androgynous? • Whitley (1988) found having traditional masculine identity led to higher self-esteem than being androgynous. • Zeldow et al (1985) found that both men and women who scored high on masculinity were better adjusted individuals
  33. 33. Evaluation of BEM scale • The BEM scale uses items consistently judged as being either masculine or feminine, however the ratings for these were done by students and may not reflect those of the general population • Gender Biased- Many masculine traits are seen as positive and female ones as negative. The personal Attributes Questionnaire deals with this by using only positive feminine and masculine traits. • However, study of androgyny has removed a lot of biases and has highlighted the positives of both genders. • Confirms gender identity as being complicated!!
  34. 34. Read the following article and establish what Gender Dysphoria is.....??
  35. 35. DYSPHORIA • Also know as gender identity disorder • Occurs when there is a mismatch between anatomy and gender identity, and wanting to be the opposite sex • Affects males more than females and estimated 1 in 11,000 have the condition • Indications may occur fairly early, with children unhappy wearing clothes of their biological gender/games etc. • Most extreme case is Transexualism- could result in sex change
  36. 36. Watch this clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ffHcpY7fCj U
  37. 37. DSM diagnosis of DYSPHORIA The person must experience ongoing identification with the opposite sex Feel a strong sense of discomfort with their own biological sex Experience must affect their ability to function in everyday life No biological disorder should occur at the same time
  38. 38. Discuss, with reference to relevant research explanations of Gender Dysphoria • Summarise the handout • Up to 10 key points for Biological explanation- including research and evaluation • Up to 10 key points for psychological explanations- be selective with studies here...
  39. 39. Quiz Time... • What is the difference between gender Dysphoria and Androgyny? • Dysphoria is not being happy with the gender you are and wanting to change. Androgyny is having both masculine and feminine characteristics • Identify 2 characterstics an individual must possess to be diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria
  40. 40. DSM diagnosis of DYSPHORIA The person must experience ongoing identification with the opposite sex Feel a strong sense of discomfort with their own biological sex Experience must affect their ability to function in everyday life No biological disorder should occur at the same time
  41. 41. Quiz Time • How do we measure whether someone is Androgynous? • Bems sex role inventory • Give me one evaluation point for research into androgyny • Give me one problem of using Bem’s sex role inventory to measure androgyny
  42. 42. Evaluation • Is Androgyny always a positive thing? • Not always a positive trait; an individual may exhibit negative masculine and/or feminine behaviours in a given situation • Are you psychologically healthier if you are androgynous? • Whitley (1988) found having traditional masculine identity led to higher self-esteem than being androgynous. • Zeldow et al (1985) found that both men and women who scored high on masculinity were better adjusted individuals
  43. 43. Evaluation of BEM scale • The BEM scale uses items consistently judged as being either masculine or feminine, however the ratings for these were done by students and may not reflect those of the general population • Gender Biased- Many masculine traits are seen as positive and female ones as negative. The personal Attributes Questionnaire deals with this by using only positive feminine and masculine traits. • However, study of androgyny has removed a lot of biases and has highlighted the positives of both genders. • Confirms gender identity as being complicated!!
  44. 44. Quiz time • What is the biological explanation of dysphoria? • Caused by unusual development in parts of the brain before birth, usually caused by hormones which cause parts of the brain to develop inconsistently with sex chromosomes and genitalia • According to research by Kruijiver et al (2000) what neurones are more common is transexuals? • Somatostatin
  45. 45. Quiz time • Identify two different psychological explanations for Gender Dysphoria • Over close relationship with opposite sex, absence of father figure for boys, Inability to mourn a parent or important attachment figure, parents have a strong desire for child to be opposite sex

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