Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. What is Abnormal?
  2. 2. 1. List (at least) two behaviours that YOU consider to be a sign of psychological abnormality 2. Write down why you think each of these behaviours is abnormal
  3. 3. Activity: Sort the behaviours into normal & abnormal
  4. 4. Abnormality is defined as... 1. Deviation from statistical norms (most people don’t behave that way) 2. Deviation from social norms (most people don’t like that behaviour) 3. Failure to function adequately (unable to carry out day-to-day activities properly)
  5. 5. Do your examples fall into these categories? 1. Deviation from statistical norms (most people don’t behave that way) 2. Deviation from social norms (most people don’t like that behaviour) 3. Failure to function adequately (unable to carry out day-to-day activities properly)
  6. 6. • Must be able to describe (A01) Rosenhan’s study. • Must be able to evaluate (A02) Rosenhan’s research. Lesson Objectives By the end of the lesson you …
  7. 7. Do the characteristics of abnormality reside in the patients… or… in the environments in which those characteristics are observed?
  8. 8. Is insanity in the eye of the beholder?
  9. 9. “To investigate whether clinicians can tell the sane from the insane in the context of a mental institution” Aim
  10. 10. Pseudo-patients
  11. 11. Procedure
  12. 12. Participants Staff in the 12 hospitals (nurses & psychiatrists)
  13. 13. Procedure
  14. 14. Procedure =
  15. 15. Note: Simulated Existential Crisis… Not a classified disorder
  16. 16. Results
  17. 17. Procedure
  18. 18. Procedure
  19. 19. Procedure
  20. 20. Procedure
  21. 21. Results
  22. 22. Results out of
  23. 23. ‘Abnormal Behaviours’ “Orally-acquisitive behaviour”
  24. 24. Lack of human rights
  25. 25. Invisible to staff... Response Percentage making contact with patient Psychiatrists Nurses Moves on with head averted 71 88 Makes eye contact 23 10 Pauses and chats 2 4 Stops and talks 4 0.5
  26. 26. Results
  27. 27. Stickiness of the psychodiagnostic label. Stickiness of the psychodiagnostic label.
  28. 28. Study 2
  29. 29. Study 2 Results Number of patients judged 193 Number of patients confidently judged as pseudo patients by at least one staff member 41 Number of patients suspected by one psychiatrist 23 Number of patients suspected by one psychiatrist AND one other staff member 19 Table 2: Judgement of all admissions patients as to the likelihood that they are pseudo- patients
  30. 30. Conclusion
  31. 31. Conclusion
  32. 32. Starter: Rosenhan Dominoes
  33. 33. Type I and Type II Errors Perception / Diagnosis Pregnant Not Pregnant Reality Pregnant Not Pregnant
  34. 34. Type I and Type II Errors Perception / Diagnosis Cancer Not Cancer Reality Cancer Not Cancer
  35. 35. Type I and Type II Errors Type I Error = calling a healthy person sick. Type II Error = calling an ill person healthy. Perception / Diagnosis Insane Sane Reality Insane Correct Type II Error False Negative Sane Type I Error False Positive Correct
  36. 36. Task: Identify as many factors as possible that... 1. Led to the pseudopatients feeling powerless 2. Led to the pseudopatients feeling depersonalised
  37. 37. Activity: Rosenhan Questions 1. How many hospital admissions were there and what were the diagnoses? 2. Why did the pseudopatients lie about their names (and some about their professions)? 3. How was the note-taking by pseudopatients viewed by the staff and genuine patients? 4. How did interactions between staff and pseudopatients and genuine patients and pseudopatients differ? 5. WHY did interactions between staff and pseudopatients and genuine patients and pseudopatients differ? 6. Identify 3 reasons Rosenhan gives for why it was difficult to tell the normal from the abnormal. 7. Give TWO explanations as to why the hospitals made mistakes in diagnosis. 8. Explain why they may have been right to do so. 9. Give an example of how a pseudopatient’s history was viewed as a cause of his abnormality and why this was clearly incorrect.
  38. 38. Activity: What do these numbers represent in Rosenhan’s study?
  39. 39. Evaluate Rosenhan’s Study using the following terms Internal validity ++ Historical (temporal) validity Ecological validity Internal validity - - Generalisability Reliability
  40. 40. Activity: Ethics Card Sort Biggest issue Smallest issue
  41. 41. Plenary: Rosenhan Questions 1. What was the aim of Rosenhan’s study? 2. Give 4 details from the study showing patient powerlessness & depersonalisation. 3. What did Rosenhan conclude from his study?

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