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Resourcd File


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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Stress Management
  2. 2. There are various methods • Cognitive-behavioural approaches • Drugs • Biofeedback • Meditation & muscle relaxation • Physical exercise • Social Support
  3. 3. Emotion focused coping • Emotion focused coping focuses on the emotion caused by stress, either by denial, distraction, diverting energy into something else or seeking emotional support. • Drug therapy can be seen as emotion focused coping as it focuses on the arousal caused by stress not the problem.
  4. 4. Problem focused coping • This will focus on the stressor itself trying to devise ways to deal with it, for instance planning behavioural strategies such as time management or gaining practical support from your social network.
  5. 5. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Stress Inoculation Therapy – Michenbaum. • Identify and analyse sources of stress • Analyse previous copying attempts – successes and failures • Skills acquisition and rehearsal • Application in the real world • Continuous review of success and failure
  6. 6. Increasing Hardiness • Focusing: be aware of physical signs of stress, identify stressful situations • Reconstruction: think about stressful situations, how could they have turned out better? Or worse? Helps feel more positive. • Self improvement: take on challenges that can be coped with, increases sense of being able to cope – self efficacy.
  7. 7. Drugs • Benzodiazipines or Beta Blockers – both deal with the physical effects of stress to reduce the bodily arousal. • Side effects • Physical dependence –BZs only • Treat symptoms only • BUT can be effective quickly against life threatening conditions • Useful in conjunction with psychological therapies.
  8. 8. Biofeedback • Combines physiological & psychological techniques to develop control of the symptoms of stress. • Equipment dependant • Needs training and practice • May not be superior to relaxation etc. alone • May be effective for some groups e.g. children. • Harmless and no side effects
  9. 9. Meditation • Reduces physiological arousal • Improves mood and sense of control • Easy to learn • Effects disappear rapidly unless used regularly • Does not target the source of stress • Useful in combination with problem focused methods
  10. 10. Progressive muscle relaxation • Helps reduce general arousal • Gives the individual an increased sense of control • Does not target the source of stress • May be useful in cojunction with problem focused coping
  11. 11. Physical Exercise • May use up energy reserves produced by the stress response – however evidence of this is mixed • Increases cardiovascular fitness • Raises mood • Improves self-esteem • Gives sense of control • Time consuming • Some health risks… joint and muscle injuries etc.
  12. 12. Social Support • This can be both emotion focused and problem focused • Emotional support • Practical support • Informational support • Raises self esteem • More used by women than men