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  1. 1. A2 SOCIOLOGY: MASS MEDIA Ownership & Control: Key Developments
  2. 2. By the end of the session:.... a. To know and understand the differences between vertical and horizontal integration. b. To know and understand monopoly and pluralism c. To have studied Murdoch’s role in media ownership d. Outcomes: To have researched case studies on ownership and the Sutton trust
  3. 3. What does virgin own and control? This is known as ‘Diversification’. Companies such as Virgin maintain a monopoly over many forms of media – spreading the risk of loss and profit. What could be lost in sales through their airlines can be gained through virgin broadband as an example.
  4. 4. KEY DEVELOPMENTS • There has been an increased concentration of ownership into a few giant media corporations.
  5. 5. Media Companies have... • ...become more transnational – exist in a number of different countries
  6. 6. • ..become more diverse – have an interest in many different forms of media
  7. 7. Ownership and control • Some sociologists have expressed concern about recent trends in ownership and control. On the surface the number of media outlets available to the general public has increased dramatically. • In the 1980s there were only four main terrestrial channels. • Can you name as many tv channels as possible? Fill in the squared chart on your table and see if you can complete all the squares with tv channels that you know.
  8. 8. Choice??? • This increase indicates that there is more choice now than ever. In your groups discuss whether you believe this to be the case. • Once you have decided on either YES (there is more choice) OR NO (the choice isn’t as great as you would think) try to come up with evidence to support your groups view. i.e. YES because... OR NO because..... Read through the handout on media concentration in Europe and the USA. Highlight key points on ownership and think about reasons why companies wish to have a monopoly over media
  9. 9. Choice? Yes No
  10. 10. Place your explanation under the yes or no category – for example: Yes No There are a wider variety of channels that cater for wider audiences. Services such as sky plus enables you to subscribe to channels and record shows The quality of shows has declined. In 1983, 46 corporations controlled the vast majority of all media in the USA. However, in 1992, 22 companies owned and operated 90% of the media. The UK magazine market is dominated by a major company. Marie Claire, Woman, Nuts, Country Life, What’s on TV, Elle, FHM – all owned by IPC – part of Time Warner
  11. 11. NEWS CORPS Horizontal integration
  12. 12. Warner Bros Movies Time Warner Film Production and Distribution Vertical integration
  13. 13. MTV: now in UK, USA, China, India, Spain, Italy etc...
  14. 14. Spiderman: The Movie At cinemas soon! Buy Spiderman for your Play Station Spiderman: The soundtrack Synergy – media companies have packaged their products in other ways
  15. 15. Main changes: Define these terms Now read page 140-141 and make notes on the broadcasting of media and why we should study media ownership and control
  16. 16. Discussio n Why is it important that media is owned by many companies, rather than just one? Monopoly Pluralism From a Marxist point of view, do these companies promote capitalist interests? What is the pluralist theory of media ownership?
  17. 17. Private ownership • Global Murdoch empire PLURALISM
  18. 18. Does it matter who owns the media? Rupert Murdoch Australian American business magnate. Murdoch became managing director of Australia's News Limited, inherited from his father, in 1952. He is the founder, Chairman and CEO of global media holding company News Corporation, the world's second-largest media conglomerate. In the 1950s and '60s, he acquired various newspapers in Australia and New Zealand, before expanding into the United Kingdom in 1969, taking over the News of the World followed closely by The Sun. He owns the Times, the Sun the News of the World and the Sunday Times Murdoch faced allegations that his companies, including the News of the World, owned by News Corporation, had been regularly hacking the phones of celebrities, royalty and public citizens. He faces police and government investigations into bribery and corruption by the British government and FBI investigations in the
  19. 19. Research: case study • Using the ipads and the links on your handouts, research the case study over growing concerns over the power and influence of media ownership and explain issues that the CPBF are concerned about the level of ownership and control of the media. • Then research the Sutton trust – find out the educational background of leading journalists and how this affects powerful groups in society and the way media is controlled.
  20. 20. Links you can use for research • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12062176 • http://www.herinst.org/envcrisis/media/ownership/influenc e.html • http://www.cpbf.org.uk/body.php?subject=media %20ownership&id=2815&f=1 • http://www.cpbf.org.uk/body.php?id=3114 • http://www.suttontrust.com/wp- content/uploads/2006/06/Journalists-backgrounds-final- report.pdf
  21. 21. Home learning: Wednesday 17th • Explain the differences between vertical and horizontal integration (4 marks) • Explain what sociologists mean by pluralism in mass media (4 marks) • Explain what sociologists mean by monopoly in mass media (4 marks). Learn the key words we have covered today –revise notes on ownership and censorship

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