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  1. 1. GCSE Psychology Unit 1: Making sense of other people Topic 1 – Personality Name: Teacher:
  2. 2. Specification Checklist : Personality Topics Tick/ date when Achieved Definition of personality and temperament Description and evaluation of studies of temperament Thomas 1977 Buss and Plomin 1984 Kagan 1991 Eysenck’s type theory 1952 – extraversion, introversion, neuroticism, including evaluation Personality scales EPI 1964 and EPQ 1975 Anti-social personality disorder (APD) Characteristics Causes – Biological and the role of the amdygala– Raine 2000 Situational – Farrington 1995 and Elander 2000 Description and evaluation of studies of the causes of APD Implications of research into APD Assessment Log– My Learning Record of Personality Unit 1 Topics (Year 10) Unit 2 Topics (Year 11) Personality Non-verbal Communication Research methods Memory Stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination Learning Social influence Sex and gender Aggression Further research methods Assessment  End of unit test at the end of each topic  End of Year 10 test which will be a full Unit 1 Exam  Year 11 Unit 2 Exam  Formal Examinations will be at the end of Year 11 and you will sit both a Unit 1 and a Unit 2 paper (usually on different days)
  3. 3. Date Work set/topic Grade/ mark Type of assessment Actions to improve Self Peer Teacher Task – make a collage of your own personality here.
  4. 4. 1 - What is Personality? Our personality is who we are as a person. It is made up of thoughts, feelings and behaviours. It is unique; it makes us individual and distinguishes us from other people. Personality can develop throughout our lifetime and can be shaped by experience. Temperament refers to inherited aspects of personality. It describes the different ways that a person responds to their environment. Understanding temperament can be important in helping people to deal with situations that they may find difficult. Timed pair share - Kevin is quiet and shy, how do you think he will deal with facing new people, new places, and new experiences? How will he become comfortable? Key Study How would you describe your personality? Can personality change or is it fixed? Are you still the same as you were when you were 10 years old? ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________ ______ ____________________________________________ ______ ____________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________ ______ ____________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________ ______ LO: Date:
  5. 5. Thomas (1977) Aim: To conduct a longitudinal study into personality and temperament. (Define longitudinal in your glossary at the end of this booklet) Method: The study began in 1956 using a sample of 133 babies between the ages of two and three months. They were observed during different stages of their development from infancy to early adulthood. Their parents were interviewed about their child's development on several occasions. Nine categories of behaviour were assessed including quality of mood and attention span. Results: It was found that the children fell into three types of temperament. These were ‘easy’, ‘difficult’ and ‘slow to warm up’. Look on p39 of your course textbook and fill in the descriptions about the three types of temperament. 1. Easy temperament - ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 2. Difficult temperament - ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Slow to warm up temperament - _____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Conclusion: These ways of responding to their environment stayed with the children as they developed. Therefore, Thomas concluded that temperament is innate. Evaluation points Personality tests - Are you loving and kind-hearted? Or maybe funny and inspiring? Find out your temperament style at: Do you agree with your results? Briefly explain why: ______ ____________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________ ______ ____________________________________________ _______ LO: Date:
  6. 6. Further research studies Another study into temperament was conducted by Arnold Buss and Robert Plomin in 1984. They defined temperament as ‘traits observable by two years of age that are genetic in origin’. Key study Buss and Plomin (1984) Aim: To test the idea that temperament is innate. Method: They studies 228 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) and 172 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins. Temperament was rated when they were five years old. They looked at three dimensions of behaviour Emotionality – Activity – Sociability – Results: What do you think they would find? Which sets of twins would be more similar? Conclusion: Temperament has a genetic basis. Evaluation: Consider the following statements, are they strengths or weaknesses of this research? Does this research support the fact that temperament is innate? Could other factors, e.g. the environment, explain why twins behave the way that they do? Can we generalise the results to the general population? Key study
  7. 7. Kagan and Snidman (1991) Aim: To investigate whether temperament is due to biological differences. Method: They studied the reactions of four month old babies to new situations and compared the behaviours of the emotionally reserved (shy) children with the sociable (non- shy) children. For the first minute the baby was placed in a seat with the caregiver nearby. For the nest three minutes the caregiver moved out of the baby’s view whilst the baby was shown different toys by the researcher. Results: ✦ Twenty percent of the babies showed high levels of motor activity, for example they cried, their muscles tightened and their pupils became dilated. They were known as high reactive. ✦ Forty per cent of the babies showed little movement or emotion - they were emotionally shy and reserved. They were known as low reactive. ✦ These reactions remained the same as the babies developed. The high reactives were shy and the low reactives were calm. This was shown when they were tested again at fourteen months of age. ✦In a follow up study, 11 years later, there was still a difference in the way the two groups reacted to new situations. Conclusion: Kagan and Snidman concluded that these two temperaments are due to inherited differences. Evaluation: Kagan and Snidman studied 500 babies. What is the advantage of having a large sample? The study was carried out in an experimental setting. Give ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of carrying out research in an experimental setting. The reactions of the babies were observed and recorded. Can you think of a disadvantage of observing behaviour? Check your understanding
  8. 8. Define what is meant by personality (2 marks) Define what is meant by temperament (2 marks) Describe one study of temperament. In your answer include the aim, method, results and conclusion. (4 marks) Evaluate the study you have described in the previous question (3 marks) Total /11 Grade equivalent How do you rate your understanding of ‘What is personality?’ Remember – complete your assessment log at the front of this booklet Extension – have a go at the exam papers at the back of this booklet LO: Date:
  9. 9. 2 – How is personality measured? Eysenck’s Type Theory Over the years many theories have been proposed to try to explain personality. One of the most well-known theories is the ‘type theory’ proposed by Hans Eysenck in 1952. Eysenck believed that personality consisted of permanent traits or characteristics. His research led him to three personality types. These are extroversion, introversion and neuroticism. Eysenck believed that these different personality types were caused by the nervous system an individual inherits. Complete the table below: Under each of the personality types write the traits that you think go with each. An example has been done for you. Add definitions to the glossary in the back of this booklet. Extrovert Introvert Neurotic lively serious irritable Key Study (summarise this using p43 of your textbook) Eysenck (1947) Aim: Method: Results: Conclusion: Evaluation: Was the sample size big enough? Are questionnaires a reliable way to test personality? Does the assumption that personality is genetic mean that other factors are ignored? Personality Scales LO: Date:
  10. 10. How do we measure personality? One way is to complete a personality scale. We are going to explore two types of personality scale. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) was developed in 1964. This scale was to measure introversion- extroversion and neuroticism- stability. This was done by asking a series of yes/no questions. Have a look at the diagram below and have a go at creating one question to assess each area of personality, as proposed by Eysenck. 1.Introvert - 2. Extrovert - 3.Stable - 4.Unstable Bullet point what you have learnt about the EPI • • • • The second personality scale is the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) (1975). This scale, like the previous, was to measure extroversion, introversion and neuroticism. Furthermore, psychoticism was measured. Add a definition of psychoticism to your glossary. Can you think of someone who may be described as Psychotic? What characteristics would someone have? How is the EPQ different to the EPI? Personality tests – We have carried out Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) but you can also have a go online here - Have a go! Are the results the same? Check your understanding
  11. 11. Lisa does not like to be alone. She is sociable, makes friends easily and loves going to parties. Identify which personality type Lisa has (1 mark) Luke is easily frightened and upset. He worries about things which have happened or are going to happen. Identify which personality Luke has. (1 mark) Evaluate Eysenck’s type theory of personality (3 marks) Describe the EPQ personality scale (3 marks) Total /8 Grade equivalent How do you rate your understanding of ‘Measuring personality?’ Remember – complete your assessment log at the front of this booklet Extension – have a go at the exam papers at the back of this booklet 3 – What is Antisocial Personality Disorder? Feedback from your home learning task LO: Date:
  12. 12. Types of anti-social behaviour you have researched today Reasons why people may behave in this way In recent years there has been a great deal of research into antisocial personality disorder (APD). Characteristics, as stated by the DSM IV (the official manual of the diagnostics of mental disorders) include the following criteria: ✦ Not following social norms and the laws of society ✦ Being deceitful and lying ✦ Not planning ahead and being impulsive ✦ Being irritable and aggressive ✦ Being careless with regards to the safety of themselves and others ✦ Showing a lack of remorse with regards to stealing and hurting others ✦ Affects 3% of males and 1% of females ✦ Approximately 75% of the prison population suffer from APD Furthermore, APD cannot be diagnosed until the age if eighteen although these patterns of behaviour will have been present since the age of fifteen. Case Study - Helen is 30 years old. When she was a teenager she was often in trouble both at school and at home. As an adult she has been unable to hold down a job. She has little empathy for the feelings of others and often steals from her mother. She has difficulty making friends but is able to manipulate others into getting what she wants. She was arrested for shoplifting but managed to persuade the police officer that she had not been stealing the item but had forgotten to pay for it. . Highlight the reasons why Helen may be diagnosed with APD. Are there any other reasons why she may be behaving this way?
  13. 13. What causes Antisocial Personality Disorder? Biological Explanations The biological perspective suggests that our behaviour is a result of bodily (biological) functions such as hormones, brain structure and genetics. Some researchers believe that brain abnormalities are the main cause of APD. They suggest that the amygdala may play a role. The amygdala is responsible for us learning from the negative consequences of our actions and it responds to negative and fearful facial expressions in others. We therefore learn to avoid activities that we can see cause distress in others. It has been shown in cases of APD that the amygdala is smaller than it is in non-APD people. As a result, people with APD do not learn to avoid behaviour that harms other people. This is because they are not affected in the same way by the suffering or distress of another person. Do you think that a serial killer is born with Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) or do you think that is a result of their upbringing? Discuss. ______________________________________ ____________________________________ ______________________________________ ____________________________________ ______________________________________ ____________________________________ ______________________________________ ____________________________________ ______________________________________ ____________________________________ ______________________________________ _____________ LO: Date:
  14. 14. Task – find out the functions of the following parts of your brain. You can use p48 of your textbook to help you. Function Link to APD Amygdala Prefrontal cortex Grey matter (cerebral cortex) Key study Raine (2000) Aim: To find out if criminals brains were any different than non-criminals brains. Method: There was a sample of 41 criminals, and a control group that was used as a comparison to the criminal (experimental) group. A PET scan (type of brain scan) was used to compare the level and location of brain activity in the left and right hemispheres (sides) of the brain. Results: Look on p49 of the course textbook and complete the results section. LO: Date:
  15. 15. Conclusion: What does this research mean? Evaluation: Does this study support the biological explanation? Raine only studied males, are these findings applicable to women? As the participants were volunteers, will this affect the results in anyway? Are the causes of APD really this simplistic? What about other areas of the brain? Video lesson – You’re not splitting up my family Whilst watching the video, complete the table below. Characteristics of APD which are shown by the boys Possible biological cases Situational factors (eg their environment which may have had an influence) LO: Date:
  16. 16. Your conclusion – do you think the boys had APD? If so why? If not why not? Situational explanations of Antisocial Personality Disorder As we have learnt, Raine (2000) suggests that personality is a result of our biology. Another perspective is that the situation that we are brought up in plays a role in who we are and therefore APD may be a result of our childhood and/or upbringing. Farrington (1995) conducted longitudinal research to see whether adult APD could be predicted by psychosocial factors present during childhood. Psychosocial means a mixture of psychological and social factors. Psychosocial factors include: ✦ Low family income and/or poor housing ✦ Quality of life at home which may include poor parenting ✦ Educational factors such as poor schooling or poor attendance at school LO: Date:
  17. 17. Key study Farrington (1995) Aim: To conduct a longitudinal study to investigate whether adult APD could be predicted from psychosocial factors present during childhood. Method: A sample of 411 male participants aged between eight and 10 years old were studied until the age of 50 to assess the development of antisocial behaviour. This was done by interviewing the participants, as well as their families, and contacting the Criminal Records Office. All of the participants lived in a deprived, inner-city area of London. Results: Nearly half of the boys with antisocial parents at the age of 10 were antisocial in later life. 41% of the boys were convicted of at least one criminal offense by the ages of 10 and 50. Conclusion: This research supports the idea that antisocial behaviour is a result of our environment, situation and psychosocial factors. Evaluation - Turn to p50 of your course textbook and note down some evaluations of this research. Key study Elander (2000) Aim: To investigate if childhood risk factors can be used to predict antisocial behaviour in adulthood. Method: The histories of 13 individuals who had all committed crimes after the age of 22 were analysed. Results: It was found that there was evidence of minor juvenile delinquency in 12 of the 13 participants. Their childhood had also included some antisocial behaviour as well as mental illness. Conclusion: What can you conclude from these results?
  18. 18. Evaluation: Implications of the research into Antisocial Personality Disorder The practical implications of this research are extremely important. This is because, as we have learnt, there may be a number of reasons why a person commits a crime. If a person is psychologically ill then isn’t treatment a better answer than punishment? Here are some more implications for you to think about: ✦ Researchers cannot decide on the cause of APD, therefore it is difficult to know how to successfully prevent and treat it ✦ If APD has a biological cause (e.g. role of the amygdala) then it cannot be prevented ✦ If APD has a situational cause (related to psychosocial development) then reducing childhood problems should lower the risk of APD developing ✦ Children who have had a stable upbringing can still develop APD. What does this say about the research that suggests that a poor upbringing causes APD? ✦ APD is very difficult to treat. Discuss with your partner why you think this might be and make a list below. Check your understanding Define APD (2 marks) Outline two characteristics of APD (4 marks) Describe one study to support the biological explanation of APD. In your answer, include the reason why the study was carried out, the method, the results obtained and the conclusion drawn. (4 marks) LO: Date:
  19. 19. Outline the situational explanation of APD (2 marks) Outline one implication of research into APD (2 marks) Total /14 Grade equivalent How do you rate your understanding of ‘APD?’ Remember – complete your assessment log at the front of this booklet Extension – have a go at the exam papers at the back of this booklet. Key words: Development of personality Key Word Definition R A G Personality Temperament Longitudinal study Monozygotic twins Dizygotic twins
  20. 20. Type theory Extroversion Introversion Neuroticism Personality scales Psychoticism Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) DSM-IV TR Amygdala Grey matter (cerebral cortex) Prefrontal cortex Socioeconomic factors
  21. 21. Key studies of Personality / Temperament and APD – Crib sheet  Aim Method Results Conclusion Evaluation Thomas, Chess and Birch Buss and Plomin Kagan and Snidman Eysenck Raine Farrington Elander
  22. 22. Some useful websites and other resources: Personality testing Eysenks personality test The big book of personality tests By Salvatore V. Didato. ISBN: 1-57912-281-7 What makes people tick? By Susan Quilliam ISBN: 0-7225-3990-8 The Developing Child by Helen Bee (Chapter 9) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology List evidence here of what you have done to learn more about Personality. Have you found something of interest for the rest of the class?
  23. 23. Add all the past papers for personality here!!!