Use 2 highlighters to sort these into evidence for or against the monoamine
hypothesis of unipolar depression:
Thase et al. (2002) found that depressed patients (especially those with
severe depression) had increased levels of noradrenaline.
By-product compounds of the enzymes that act upon noradrenaline and
serotonin were lower than normal in the urine of people with
depression(Teuting, Rosen, & Hirschfeld, 1981
SSRIs inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin and the resulting increase in the
level of serotonin is linked to improved mood.
Post-mortem studies of patients who committed suicide show reduced
levels of serotonin and an increased number of serotonin receptor sites.
Antidepressant drugs do not work for all patients. (about 60%)
Abnormalities in serotonin function continue after recovery from
The drugs increase the levels of the biochemicals immediately but can
take weeks before they alleviate the depression.
Antidepressant drugs such as the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
increase the levels of noradrenaline and serotonin and alleviate the
symptoms of depression
Rampello, Nicoletti, and Nicoletti (2000) found that patients with major
depressive disorder had an imbalance in several neurotransmitters,
including noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and acetylcholine.