10. Autism Explanations Cut n Sort
Cognitive
Approach
Biological
Approach
Theory of Mind
Theory
Extreme Male
Brain Theory
...
can be traced to
cold and
unresponsive
mothers
on tasks of
empathy and
males usually
outperform
females on tasks of
system...
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  1. 1. 10. Autism Explanations Cut n Sort Cognitive Approach Biological Approach Theory of Mind Theory Extreme Male Brain Theory extreme systematiser poor empathiser two dimensions – systemising and empathising PET scans – portions of brain smaller in males, smaller still in people with autism ‘ Sally Ann Test’ (Wimmer & Perner, 1983) People with autism perform poorly for their age people with autism have a specific difference in their understanding of how other people think explains 4:1 diagnosis rates males:females other genetic disorders such as haemophilia have a rate of 4:1 males to females, indicating that this is a biological disorder Baron-Cohen & Uta Frith Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright et al. (2001) found that adults with autism were poor at inferring others’ emotional states when they could only see their eyes The Sally Anne test is a diagnostic tool for identifying individuals with autism. They seem unable to form mental representations of other people’s beliefs. This leads to difficulties in social interaction and problems like over literality whereby an individual finds it hard to understand sarcasm or idiom. Baron-Cohen poor mental representations females usually outperform males doesn’t explain 4:1 diagnosis rates
  2. 2. can be traced to cold and unresponsive mothers on tasks of empathy and males usually outperform females on tasks of systematisation males:females children who develop autism are exposed to abnormally high levels of foetal testosterone (Auyeung et al., 2009). has difficulties in explaining 'low- level' features of autism like sensory hypersensitivity, perceptual overload and imitation difficulties. interventions can be developed to improve mental representations of other people’s thoughts and feelings a genetic marker has been found for the disorder, leading to a definitive screening test. is incomplete is incomplete can explain obsessions with closed systems and islets of ability in terms of greater systemising Males are exposed to more foetal testosterone than females

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