A2 ESSAY STRUCTURE
Start by READING THE QUESTION!
The 3 most common types need you to:
1. Discuss … (this means describe a...
(AO3); these studies found lower overall concordance rates, although MZ twins
still show a much higher concordance than DZ...
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  1. 1. A2 ESSAY STRUCTURE Start by READING THE QUESTION! The 3 most common types need you to: 1. Discuss … (this means describe and evaluate)… 2. Describe … (no evaluation needed here) and evaluate … 3. Outline … (no evaluation needed here) and evaluate … ESSAY: “Discuss the biological explanation for Schizophrenia.” As there are 2 explanations for this question, your essay length should reflect this. Each explanation (genes/biochemisty) should take up half of the words in the essay – with genes having 100 A01 and 200 A02; and biochemistry having 100 A01 and 200 A02 (around 50 words per point). Next, think of an argument This should relate to the question and introduce an IDA point that will be discussed in the essay, e.g. “There are two main biological explanations for Schizophrenia – biochemical explanations and genetic explanations. However, considering this approach alone may be reductionist (IDA). This essay will discuss the evidence for a biological explanation for Schizophrenia. Then make an AO1 (describe) point/s e.g. The genetic explanation assumes that… use family studies, adoption/twin studies A01, talk about concordance Then clearly state a study and/ or an approach that supports the above AO1 e.g. THIS IS WHERE YOUR AO2/A03/IDA BEGINS AND YOU GET HIGHER MARKS. A study that supports the idea of the involvement of genetics was carried out by Joseph (2004). He found that [insert results here]. This would suggest that genes are more likely to influence the development of Schizophrenia rather than the environment a person is raised in. (AO2) These findings have been shown again in more recent studies using blind diagnoses, showing a certain level of reliability
  2. 2. (AO3); these studies found lower overall concordance rates, although MZ twins still show a much higher concordance than DZ twins (AO2). Next, state a limitation of the support or approach you have just detailed e.g. Adoption studies assume that children are not selectively placed [expand on the point], this reduces the validity of the research (IDA). Then offer an additional/ other/ better explanation for the points you have made and start again with AO1 e.g. The role of dopamine outline the A01 Next, make your AO2/ AO3/ IDA points as the first time round e.g. Key role highlighted in drugs which deplete/increase dopamine levels However, Haracz - cause or effect PET scans Are there any A03/IDAs you could pick up on here?? Then offer implications of the research, along with another possible approach. A focus on biological research into the development of schizophrenia is important as it provides possible treatments, for example, anti-psychotics [give a statistic here on their effectiveness!] (IDA). The purely biological approach is reductionist, however, as it ignores the role of psychological e.g. mood and social/cultural/religious factors (IDA). There is a lot of research which suggests that the family environment or life events may be a cause for a schizophrenic episode [brief summary of a research study here] . Conclusion – link this back to the question e.g. It is evident from research that biology does have a role in explaining schizophrenia. However, it is important to consider the role of other factors such as family environment or life events, in order to provide a fuller explanation for schizophrenia. The diathesis-stress model [explain!]

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