1) Teaching Research Methods through Jigsaws
(Courtesy of Jacqui Hastewell)
Appointone persontothe role of teacher. Theirrole isto guide the discussionandencourage
studentstodiscussthe strengthsandweaknessesetc.of eachmethod.
You need one volunteer.
They are going to try and complete the jigsaw in front of you.
The rest of the group are going to observe so they can describe
how the participant completed the puzzle – what strategies did
they seemto use?
You need a different volunteer.
Questionnaire: - Closed question - On a scale of 1-10 how difficult did you find the jigsaw?
Interview: - Open question – Explain to me what strategies you employed to complete the
Yet another volunteer.
Repeated measures design experiment the IV is ‘thinking aloud’ and the DV is time take to
complete the jigsaw.
In the control condition the volunteer completes the jigsaw in silence, in the experimental
condition they are instructed to verbalise all thoughts. Times are compared for each
We won’t do this one (in the interests of time), but we could study one puzzler to see how
their strategies change and develop over time, or a child to see how their jigsaw skills
What other activities could you use the jigsaw puzzle for?
2) Validity and Reliability
Lego Houses(Courtesyof JennyBaines)
1) Builda house outof Legoinpairs andtake a
2) Write detailedinstructionsof how tobuildyour
house andthenbreakyour house down.
3) Swapinstructionswithanotherpairandtry and
4) Whencomplete compare withtheirphotograph.
5) How reliable were theirstandardisedinstructions?
Do some elementsneedre-writinginordertoimprove theirreliability?
6) How validis yourlegohouse? Isit an actual house? Doesit fulfil the requirementsof a
house? What makesa house? Are there cultural variationsinthe conceptof a house?
1) In pairsmeasure eachother’sheadwiththe tape measure provided.
2) I didn’tgive youprecise instructionsandtherefore yourresultsare not reliable. Inorderto
measure heads reliablywe all needtouse the same scale,souse the centimetre side of the
tape.We all needtobe measuringinthe same way.So measure justabove the ears,
ensuringthe tape isthe same heightall the wayaround.These are standardisedinstructions
3) Thissecondmeasurementshouldbe muchmore reliable andconsistent(if we measuredin
the same way againwe shouldgetthe same measurement)
4) NowI wouldlike all of youtoarrange yourself indescendingorderfrombiggest tosmallest
5) Can I say that the personwiththe biggestheadmustbe the mostintelligent?
6) No,that wouldnotbe a validconclusion.Itisnot validbecause I didn’tmeasure intelligence.
The only valid conclusionisone person’sheadisbigger/smallerthananother’s.
3) Descriptive Statistics
How many sweets inyour bag?
Recordthe contentsof yourbag of sweetsinthe table below: -
Eggs Hearts Rings Cola bottles Bears Total
Do youhave a bigenoughsample todraw any conclusionsaboutthe average contentof a
bag of these sweets?
Combine the resultsforyourwhole groupinthe table below andworkoutthe mean
numberof sweetsperbagand the meannumberof eachtype of sweetperbag.
Eggs Hearts Rings Cola bottles Bears Total
Mean= Mean= Mean= Mean= Mean= Mean=
Do younow have a bigenoughsample todraw conclusionsfromordoyou need more
Withsamplingrememberthe Goldilocksprinciple‘Nottoobig,nottoo small,butjustright!’
Calculate the %of eachtype of sweetperbag.
Sketcha pie chart to showthe average distributionof typesof sweetsineachbag.
ExtensionActivity: - Calculate the standarddeviation.
Using Stimulus Material
The groups needtochoose one of the imagesbelow anddiscussit.Some possiblequestions
below,butthe aimisfor thisto be a completelystudentledactivity,the teachershouldjust
guide. Use the teacherthinkingguide andpromptsastartingpoint: -
How doesitrelate topsychology?
How can psychologyexplainthis?
Can we designaresearchprojectusingthisstimulus?
Anythingcanbe a stimulusmateriale.g.picture, newspaperarticle,filmclip,songetc.
5) Guided Discussion
In groupsstudentsare setthe task to readand digestsome information,itcouldbe astudy
or a researchmethod. Asyouare all experiencedteachersI’monlygivingyouasmall piece
of stimulusmaterialtocomplete the task(youcouldgive studentsjustthisbasicinformation
and thenaskthemto findthe detail outfor themselvesorthe complete journal article).
Everystudentinthe group isgivena card withtheirtaskon. If youhave fewerstudentsyou
couldleave outthe facilitatorcardand take that role yourself orgive studentsmore than
Aim:- To studythe effectof leadingquestionsonEWT
Procedure:- Lab Exp,Ps shownslide show of car crash. Verbinquestion
changed.Inthe firstexperimentthere were 5conditions(Smashed,Collided,
Bumped,Hit,Contacted) andinthe 2nd
No questionaboutspeed). Inthe 2nd
experimenttheywere invitedbacka week
laterand asked‘Didyousee anybrokenglass?’
Experiment:- 32% whoheardthe wordsmashedanswersyestobroken
glass,comparedto 14% yesfor the word hit.
Conclusions:- LeadingquestionsdoaffectEWT.Thishas implicationsfor