1
AS Psychology – Unit Two
Social Psychology
Social Influence
Student workbook
Name: ………………………………………………………….
Target Grade:...
2
Conformity
Definition: Conformity is a type of
social influence where a person gives in
to group pressure. It is also kn...
3
Types of Conformity
There are two different types of conformity; depending on whether the person changes their view
only...
4
Jenness (1932) – Beans in a Jar Study
Jenness was the first person to study conformity. He gave a jar of beans to indivi...
5
Asch (1951) – Line Judgement Experiment
Procedure:
 Asch used 50 male American college students as naïve, real particip...
6
Results:
Conclusion:
A B C
7
Evaluate the Asch Study based on the following criteria:
Sample
Ecological
Validity
Ethical Issue(s)
Control of
Variables
8
Why People Conform (refer to research)
Normative
Influence
Informational
Influence
Group Size
9
Obedience to
authority
Definition: Obedience is a type of
social influence where a person
follows an order from another ...
10
Milgram (1963) Obedience Study
Milgram selected participants by advertising for 40 male
participants to take part in a ...
11
The experimenter (Mr Williams) wore a grey lab coat and his role was to give a series of orders /
prods when the partic...
12
Evaluate the Milgram Study based on the following criteria:
Sample
Ecological
Validity
Control
13
Ethical Issues of Milgram’s Study
1. Deception (Describe this issue and explain how it was broken)
Why was deception ne...
14
2. Protection of Participants (Describe this issue and explain how it was broken)
How did Milgram ensure that any harm ...
15
Bickman (1974) – Obedience Study
Bickman studied obedience in New York.
He used three male actors / stooges dressed in ...
16
Why People Obey (refer to research)
Uniform
Close Proximity of
Authority Figure
Gradual
Commitment
High Status of
Locat...
17
Independent
Behaviour
Independent behaviour is a term that psychologists use
to describe behaviour that seems not be in...
18
How do people resist pressures to conform?
For each of the following factors, you should give an example from Asch’s st...
19
How do people resist pressures to obey?
For each of the following factors, you should give an example from Milgram’s or...
20
Locus of Control
Locus of control is how much a person believes that they have control over their own behaviour.
This i...
21
Social change occurs when a whole society adopts a
new belief or behaviour which then becomes widely
accepted as the ‘n...
22
How Social Change Occurs
Research has shown that people who initiate social change are usually of a minority.
As well a...
23
The minority should create a snowball effect:
The minority may have more knowledge or
be experts:
The minority should d...
24
Social Change Exam Questions
For many years, smoking in public places such as trains, pubs and restaurants was
quite ac...
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  1. 1. 1 AS Psychology – Unit Two Social Psychology Social Influence Student workbook Name: …………………………………………………………. Target Grade: ……… Teacher: ………………………………….…………………...
  2. 2. 2 Conformity Definition: Conformity is a type of social influence where a person gives in to group pressure. It is also known as majority influence.
  3. 3. 3 Types of Conformity There are two different types of conformity; depending on whether the person changes their view only in public or in public and in private. Write a 3 mark definition of each type of conformity: Explanations of Conformity Compliance Internalisation
  4. 4. 4 Jenness (1932) – Beans in a Jar Study Jenness was the first person to study conformity. He gave a jar of beans to individuals and got them to estimate the number of beans inside. He then grouped the same participants together and got them to provide a group estimate. Jenness then interviewed the participants individually again, and asked if they would like to change their original estimates, or stay with the group's estimate. Almost all changed their individual guesses to be closer to the group estimate. Conclusion Evaluation
  5. 5. 5 Asch (1951) – Line Judgement Experiment Procedure:  Asch used 50 male American college students as naïve, real participants.  Each participant was placed in a room with seven "stooges". Stooges knew the true aim of the experiment, but were introduced as participants to the "real" participant.  The group sat in a manner so that the real participant was always the last or next to last to respond (i.e., the real participant sat towards the end of a table).  Participants were shown a card with a line on it, followed by a card with three lines on it (lines labeled A, B and C, respectively). Participants were then asked to say aloud, which line (i.e., A, B or C) matched the line on the first card in length. Each line question was called a "trial". The correct answer was always obvious  There were 18 trials in total and the confederates answered incorrectly for 12 of them. These 12 were known as the "critical trials"  After completing the trials, participants were debriefed about the true nature of the experiment, and interviewed about why they conformed.  Asch carried out many variations of his original experiment, changing some aspect of the procedure each time, in order to investigate which factors make people more likely to conform.
  6. 6. 6 Results: Conclusion: A B C
  7. 7. 7 Evaluate the Asch Study based on the following criteria: Sample Ecological Validity Ethical Issue(s) Control of Variables
  8. 8. 8 Why People Conform (refer to research) Normative Influence Informational Influence Group Size
  9. 9. 9 Obedience to authority Definition: Obedience is a type of social influence where a person follows an order from another person who is usually an authority figure.
  10. 10. 10 Milgram (1963) Obedience Study Milgram selected participants by advertising for 40 male participants to take part in a study on ‘punishment and learning’ at Yale University. The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew lots to find out who would be the ‘learner’ and who would be the ‘teacher’. The draw was fixed so that the participant was always the teacher, and the learner was one of Milgram’s confederates (pretending to be a real participant). The learner (Mr Wallace) was taken into a room and had electrodes attached to his arms, and the teacher and experimenter went into a room next door that contained an electric shock generator and a row of switches marked from 15 volts (Slight Shock) to 450 volts (XXX). The participant did not know that all of this was false; they thought that the learner was actually a real participant, and they thought the shock generator was real, and would actually give out shocks. The participant was told to read out pairs of words that the learner had to remember. The learner gave mainly wrong answers (on purpose) and for each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock. There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 (danger – severe shock). The shock increased by 15 volts for each wrong answer. At 180 volts the learner shouted that he could not stand the pain, at 300 volts he begged to be released, and after 315 volts there was silence. The stooge’s voice was played from a tape recording. 15v 450v300v Slight Shock Danger! Severe Shock XXX
  11. 11. 11 The experimenter (Mr Williams) wore a grey lab coat and his role was to give a series of orders / prods when the participant refused to administer a shock. There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter read out the next prod, and so on.  Prod 1: please continue.  Prod 2: the experiment requires you to continue.  Prod 3: It is absolutely essential that you continue.  Prod 4: you have no other choice but to continue. Milgram had predicted before the study that 2% of people would shock to the highest level, but most people would quit very early on. However, it was found that all participants shocked up to 300 volts and 65% of participants shocked all the way up to 450 volts. There were marked effects in the naïve Ps behaviour, with most, showing signs of extreme tension. Milgram did more than one experiment – he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was change the independent variable to see how this affected obedience (DV). For example, when the experimenter left the room and instructed the teacher by telephone (from another room) obedience dropped to 20.5%. When the location moved from Yale to seedy offices in a nearby town obedience was 47.5%. Many of the participants were visibly distressed. Signs of tension included trembling, sweating, stuttering, laughing nervously, biting lips and digging fingernails into palms of hands. Three participants had uncontrollable seizures, and many pleaded to be allowed to stop the experiment. After the study, all participants were debriefed and given interviews and psychological tests to ensure that they left the laboratory in a state of “wellbeing”. They were told not to feel ashamed and that their behaviour was normal. They were united with the confederate (Mr Wallace) and shook hands with them. Participants were later sent a summary of the results and a questionnaire about their participation (in which over 80% said that they were happy to have taken part). Milgram explained the behaviour of his participants by suggesting that the participant felt no responsibility for the consequence of their behaviour. He called this the agentic state.
  12. 12. 12 Evaluate the Milgram Study based on the following criteria: Sample Ecological Validity Control
  13. 13. 13 Ethical Issues of Milgram’s Study 1. Deception (Describe this issue and explain how it was broken) Why was deception necessary? Describe two ways in which deception has been dealt with in social influence research.  Presumptive consent  Debriefing
  14. 14. 14 2. Protection of Participants (Describe this issue and explain how it was broken) How did Milgram ensure that any harm participants experienced was only short term? What evidence does Milgram have that participants did not suffer from long term harm? 3. Right to Withdrawal (Describe this issue and explain how it was broken) Why would Milgram claim the prods were necessary?
  15. 15. 15 Bickman (1974) – Obedience Study Bickman studied obedience in New York. He used three male actors / stooges dressed in normal clothes, as a milkman, or as a security guard. The actors asked passers-by to do things like pick up a paper bag that had been thrown in the street, or to give them a coin for a parking meter. Passers-by were most likely to obey the actor dressed as a security guard and least likely to obey the actor in normal clothes. The study shows the power a uniform has to make people more likely to obey orders. What type of sampling method was used? What problems could this cause? Which research method did Bickman use to study obedience? Outline one strength and one limitation of this method.
  16. 16. 16 Why People Obey (refer to research) Uniform Close Proximity of Authority Figure Gradual Commitment High Status of Location
  17. 17. 17 Independent Behaviour Independent behaviour is a term that psychologists use to describe behaviour that seems not be influenced by other people. This happens when a person resists the pressures to conform or obey.
  18. 18. 18 How do people resist pressures to conform? For each of the following factors, you should give an example from Asch’s study. 1. Giving answers in private 2. Friend in the group (who does not conform) 3. Size of group
  19. 19. 19 How do people resist pressures to obey? For each of the following factors, you should give an example from Milgram’s or Bickman’s study. 1. Authority figure not wearing a uniform 2. Authority figure is distant (i.e. far away) 3. Low status of location
  20. 20. 20 Locus of Control Locus of control is how much a person believes that they have control over their own behaviour. This is usually measured along a scale with internal control at one end and external control at the other. For Example: “I have failed my exam”. Internal locus of control – “I really should have studied more. I know I didn’t put as much effort into revision as I could have”. External locus of control – “I had a rubbish teacher”. What is locus of control? How is locus of control relevant to independent behaviour? Internal control refers to those people who see that they have a great deal of control over their own behaviour and will take responsibility for their own actions. External control refers to those who believe that their behaviour is controlled by other forces such as luck or fate.
  21. 21. 21 Social change occurs when a whole society adopts a new belief or behaviour which then becomes widely accepted as the ‘norm’. Social change
  22. 22. 22 How Social Change Occurs Research has shown that people who initiate social change are usually of a minority. As well as the behavioural The minority should have an internal locus of control: The minority should demonstrate consistency:
  23. 23. 23 The minority should create a snowball effect: The minority may have more knowledge or be experts: The minority should disobey authority such as the government:
  24. 24. 24 Social Change Exam Questions For many years, smoking in public places such as trains, pubs and restaurants was quite acceptable. People could smoke wherever they wanted and non-smokers had to put up with smoky atmospheres. However, in 2007, the Government finally introduced a law banning smoking in public places and those who smoke are limited in where they can smoke. Using your knowledge of the psychology of social change, explain how this social change has occurred. (4 marks) ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Describe how social influence research has contributed to our understanding of social change. (6 marks) ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................

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