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  1. 1. 1 AS Psychology – Unit One Developmental Psychology Attachment Student Workbook Name: …………………………………………………………. MEG:……… Mock Exam Results
  2. 2. 2 Oct Nov Dec Jan Teacher:………………………………….…………………
  3. 3. 3 Learning Theory of Attachment The learning theory of attachment suggests that attachment is a set of learned behaviours developed through the process of nurture. Foodis the key to learning attachment. The child simply associates food and mother together. The carer becomes the conditioned stimulus and happiness becomes the conditioned response…attachment has formed. This type of learning is called classicalconditioning. Attachment can also be learned by operant conditioning. The presence of the caregiver is reinforcing for the infant. The infant gains pleasure / reward as they are being fed. The behaviour of the infant is reinforcing for the caregiver (the caregiver gains pleasure from smiles etc. – reward). The reinforcement process is therefore reciprocal (two way) and strengthens the emotional bond / attachment between the two. Evaluation: Does research evidence support the learning theory of attachment? Pavlov’s Dogs (1897) Harlow’s Monkey Love Experiment(1959)
  4. 4. 4 Attachment by Classical Conditioning 1. Before conditioning Food Happybaby 2. During conditioning Carer Food Mother Food Happy baby 3. After conditioning Label eachstage withtheappropriate stimulus or response. The boxbelow tells youhowmany ofeach youshould use.
  5. 5. 5 Mother Happybaby Unconditionedstimulus x 2 Unconditionedresponse x2 Neutral stimulus x 1 Conditioned stimulus x1 Conditioned response x1
  6. 6. 6 Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby’s theory suggests that children come into the world biologically pre- programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive. The determinant of attachment is not food, but care and responsiveness of the parent to the infant’s emotional need to feel secure. The parent provides an emotional safe base. Outine the following key features of Bowlby’s theory of attachment: Innate Critical Period Monotropy Social Releasers
  7. 7. 7 Evaluation: Does research evidence support Bowlby’s theory of attachment? Explain how Harlow’s (1959) monkey love experiment supports Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment. Explain ethical problems. Explain how Lorenz’s research study supports Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment. Why must be careful about extrapolating findings from animal studies to humans?
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  9. 9. 9 The Strange Situation (Ainsworth, 1978) The Strange Situation is a procedure forassessing the security of attachment between the infant and mother. It was created by Mary Ainsworth. In the procedure of the strange situation the child is observed playing for 20 minutes while caregivers and strangers enter and leave the room, recreating the flow of the familiar and unfamiliar presence in most children's lives. Four aspects of the child's behavior are observed: (1)The amount of exploration (e.g. playing with new toys). (2)The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver (separation anxiety). (3)The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger). (4)The child's reunion behavior with its caregiver. On the basis of their behaviors, the children were categorized into three groups. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the caregiver.  Who were the participants? The child experiences the following situations: 1. Parent and infant are introduced to the experimental room. 2. Parent and infant are alone. Parent does not participate while infant explores. 3. Stranger enters, converses with parent, then approaches infant. Parent leaves inconspicuously. 4. First separation episode: Stranger's behavior is geared to that of infant. 5. First reunion episode: Parent greets and comforts infant, then leaves again. 6. Second separation episode: Infant is alone. 7. Continuation of second separation episode: Stranger enters and gears behavior to that of infant. 8. Second reunion episode: Parent enters, greets infant, and picks up infant; stranger leaves inconspicuously.
  10. 10. 10 The Strange Situation - Procedure The Strange Situation procedure involved the child experiencing eight ‘episodes’ of approximately 3 minutes each. Complete the storyboard by identifying what happens during each stage and what behaviour is being observed. Stage 5Stage 4Stage 3Stages 1 + 2
  11. 11. 11 The Strange Situation - Procedure The Strange Situation procedure involved the child experiencing eight ‘episodes’ of approximately 3 minutes each. Complete the storyboard by identifying what happens during each stage and what behaviour is being observed. Stage 6 Stage 7 Stage 8
  12. 12. 12 The Strange Situation – Results + Conclusion Ainsworth identified three different types of attachment. Complete the table with a description of how each attachment type responded to each episode of the procedure: TYPE OF ATTACHMENT Separation Anxiety Mother leaves Stranger Anxiety Stranger enters Reunion Behaviour Mother returns Conclusion (Parenting Style) Secure 70% Insecure avoidant 15% Insecure resistant 15%
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  14. 14. 14 Strengths Limitations Replication / Standardised Procedure / Reliability Sampling Bias / Population Validity Ethical Issues – Protection from Harm General Validity / Ecological Validity
  15. 15. 15 Cultural Variations in Attachments Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg AIMS: To investigate if attachment types (secure and insecure) are universal (the same) across cultures, or culturally specific (vary considerably from place to place, due to traditions, the social environment, or beliefs about children).  Individualistic Cultures (I) are more concerned with themselves. Countries that support independence, e.g. USA, Germany.  Collectivist Cultures (We) are more concerned with the group or community than themselves. Their decisions tend to be based on what is good for their family or community rather then what is good for them. Countries that are more culturally close, e.g. Japan. What is meant by the term culture?
  16. 16. 16 Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg – Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Findings Choose one colour to highlight the individualistic cultures and one for collectivist cultures. Culture / Country No. of Studies Secure % Avoidant % Resistant % What is a meta analysis? Findthese countriesonthe map (see previous page)
  17. 17. 17 Findings Limitations Describe the findings of the study (e.g. highest + lowest secure scores / differences between individualistic vs. collectivist cultures / why China did not fit this pattern). Biased Sample(s) – China / Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Sample Sizes
  18. 18. 18 Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. Limitations Strengths = the study can explain cultural differences in child rearing. Ethnocentric / Culture Bias / German children are reared showed a high percentage of avoidant attachments. This is because German parents seek ‘independent, non-clingy infants, who do not make demands on parents, but obey their commands.’ Japanese children show similar patterns of attachment to the Israeli children but for different reasons. Japanese children are very rarely left by their mother. So the distress they show when she leaves is probably more due to shock than it is to insecure attachment. The distress they show when left alone with the stranger is also more likely to be due to absence of the mother.
  19. 19. 19 Effects of Disruption of Attachment Distress = PDD Model Attachment may be distrupted by separation from a caregiver. Why might young children be separated from their caregivers? List as many reasons as you can think of: The effects of short term disruption of the attachment bond Robertsonand Bowlby believe that short term separation from an attachment figure leads to distress. They found 3 progressive stages for distress: How will I react if my caregiver leaves me for a few days? Protest Despair Detachment
  20. 20. 20 Robertson and Robertson Study of John Procedure: James and Joyce Robertson conducted eight observational studies of children who were between about seventeen months and three years old, between 1948 and 1952, using a cine camera. John (aged seventeen months) was put into a fairly typical residential nursery for nine days while his mother had a second child in hospital. His father was at work all day, and there were no relatives nearby to look after him. Nurses were not assigned to the care of individual children and even when John managed to obtain their attention they soon had to put him down to tend to one of the others. John’s protests and anger were ignored. He entered a period of despair which lasted for several days. He started to cry pitifully, for long periods of time. Now the nurses gave John all the attention they could, but it was nowhere near enough. He began to refuse food, and he wouldn’t sleep. With each day that passed John’s condition worsened. His cries of distress became huge sobs of despair. As the separation neared its end, John’s behaviour changed again. He stopped trying to be near to the nurses. Instead he would play with whatever toys he could, particularly a large cuddly toy. He began to ignore his father on his nightly visits. John slowly became emotionally detached. When his mother finally came he didn’t seem to want to know her. He wouldn’t go to her, wouldn’t look at her, and resisted her attempts to comfort him. The Robertson’s suggest that children who are separated from their mothers for several days will pass through the same sequence of behaviour as John. The child will protest, and then despair, and then, if not attended to, the child will become emotionally detached. However, the Robertsons are not saying that babies or children must always be near their mothers. What children do need is fairly continuous, high-quality care.
  21. 21. 21 Strengths Limitations Natural Observation Implications of research on hospital visiting policy Natural Experiment Longitudinal Research / Attrition
  22. 22. 22 Privation = Failure to form attachments Harlow (1965) - Social Isolation in Monkeys Procedure: Harlow again studied Rhesus monkeys using a lab experiment. He took babies and isolated them from birth. They had no contact with each other or anybody else. He kept some this way for three months, some for six, some for nine and some for the first year of their lives. He then put them back with other monkeys to see what effect their failure to form attachment had on behaviour. Findings: Effects of the Failure to Form Attachments The monkeys engaged in bizarre behaviour suchas clutching their own bodies and rockingcompulsively. They were then placed back in the company of other monkeys. To start with the babies were scare of the other monkeys, and then became very aggressive towards them. They were also unable to communicate or socialise withother monkeys. The other monkeys bulliedthem. They indulged in self-mutilation, tearinghair out, scratching, and biting their own arms and legs. Harlow concludedthat privation is permanentlydamaging (to monkeys). The extent of the abnormal behaviour reflectedthe length of the isolation. Those kept in isolationfor 3 months were the least affected, but those inisolationfor ayear never recoveredthe effects of privation. Evaluation Ethical Issues Extrapolation of results
  23. 23. 23 Privation & Institutional Care Hodges and Tizard - 1989 Procedure: Studied the social and emotional development of 65 children who had been in residential care from only a few months old. The care provided was of good quality, but carers were discouraged from forming attachments with the children (i.e. privation occurred). The study was also a natural experiment. The independent variable (what happened to the children at age 4) occurred naturally. Children either remained in the care home, were adopted or could have been restored to their biological parents. The children were assessed for social and emotional competence at four, eight and sixteen years old. The assessment comprised interviewing the children, their parents and teachers and also obtaining data from questionnaires. This is known as a longitudinal study (lasted 12 years from ages 4 – 16 yrs). Findings: Effects of the Failure to Form Attachments ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Adopted Biological Parents 4 Years No Attachment No Attachment 8 Years Normal Attachment Poor Attachment 16 Years Normal Attachment Only50% ‘deeply’ attached
  24. 24. 24 Strengths Limitations Natural Experiment / Validity / Demand Characterises Implications of research on adoption / fostering Natural Experiment / Control / Replication Longitudinal Research / Attrition = smaller sample size
  25. 25. 25 Day Care and Social Development What is day care? Day care: Is a form of non-residential care for infants and children offeredby someone other than close family and taking place outside the home Identify examples of day care. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… How could day care effect a child’s social development? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Outline examples of good quality day care – E.g. Low adultto childratio,well-trained staff and a stable attachmentfigure. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  26. 26. 26 Day Care and Social Development Shea (1981)videotaped 3 and 4 year olds in the playground of their nursery for a 10 week period. Shea’s method was a naturalistic observation. This was an independent group design with the two groups consisting of full time attendees (5 days a week) and part-time attendees (2 days a week). The time spent in day care was the naturally occurring independent variable. Levels of sociability and aggression were the dependent variables. Results - He found that children from the full time group were more sociable in that they went looking for people to talk to, and made more contact with others. They also had lower levels of aggression. Shea concluded from this that day care is a positive experience and it lowers aggression and increases social skills. Belsky (2002)conducted a longitudinal study researching the development of 1083 children across the USA. Children in extended hours of care (30 hours per week) were almost three times more likely to show aggressive behaviour than children attending less than 10 hours per week. Aggression included fighting, talking too much, arguments, cruelty, and demanding a lot of attention. Evaluation
  27. 27. 27 How research into attachment has influenced child care practices • How do you answer a question like this? You explain historically what the problems were then match a study up to it that fits and then say how it has changed now wit h time. Hospitalisation of Parent / Child Historical problems: As late as the 1960s, there would be strict rules applied to parental visiting times and limits placed on our long parents could spend with their children. This could lead to young children going through the PDD model of behaviour (protest, despair, detachment). Study: Robertson and Robertson study of John in residential nursery. Change / influence – Following the findings of Robertson and Robertson’s study that children require continuing emotional care and as much contact as possible with natural parents, visiting hours were extended. Today hospitals sometimes allow around the clock visiting hours. Institutional Care Historical problems: Carers told not to make attachments with children. Carers changed over time. Study: Hodges and Tizad. Change / influence – There are now key workers for each child who are encouraged to form attachments. This helps children's future social and emotional development. Institutions try and keep siblings together when possible. Many institutional care homes have now been shut down as well.
  28. 28. 28 How research into attachment has influenced child care practices Adoption Historical problems: The adoption process used to take a long time and could last up to 3 ½ years. This is past the critical period and so makes it more difficult for the adopted parents to form an attachment later on. Also, foster carers were told not bond with the children and only gave them physical care. Theory: Bowlby’s Theory / MaternalDeprivation Hypothesis. Change / influence – Today, thanks to research into attachment behaviour, adoption usually occurs in the first few weeks of life. Foster carers are now encouraged to try and bond with the children and give them emotional, not just physical Day Care Provision Historical problems: Each nursery was different as there were no national standards for best practice. Study: No Specific Study – Just say ‘Research shows…’ Change / influence – Children need fairly continuous, high-quality care. High quality of care involves having a low staff turnover which provides opportunities for children to form attachments with the care givers. Child/staff ratios should be kept low. The NICHD recommend no higher than 3 children to each carer. Similarly children should be kept in small groups so fewer strangers need to be dealt with.
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