Why do men commit more
crime than women?
Make a list of reasons
Men as criminals
“Men as males have not been the subject of
the criminological gaze. Yet the most consistent
and dramatic finding of criminology is not that
most criminals are working class- a fact which
has received continuous theoretical attention-
but that most criminals are, and always have
‘Masculinity’- what does this
word make you think of?
Make a list
• masculinity - the trait of behaving in
ways considered typical for men.
• Can you add any other words to the
• Then…how might this be linked to
James Messerschmidt (1993) Men,
masculinities and crime
Apply Messerschmidt’s theories to
the types of men.
How can we evaluate his ideas?
What about the metrosexual?
A term coined in 1994 describing a man (especially one living in an urban,
post-industrial, capitalist culture) who is especially meticulous about his
grooming and appearance, typically spending a significant amount of time
and money on shopping as part of this.
How can you use this to evaluate the idea that masculinity is linked with crime?
• Globalisation has led to the loss of many traditional manual jobs.
• In the past, men were able to express their masculinity by hard
physical labour and providing for their families
• To replace this, a night time leisure industry has been created,
where men can work as security in clubs, bars and pubs.
• This has provided a combination of legal employment, criminal
opportunities and a means of expressing masculinity.
• Winlow used bouncers in Sunderland to demonstrate this idea.
High levels of deprivation. Working as bouncers in pubs and clubs
provided young men with paid work, as well as the opportunity for
illegal business ventures in drugs and alcohol.
• They were also able to demonstrate their masculinity through the
use of violence.
Miami Mega Jail
• Whilst you are watching the clip, think about:
• Ethnicity and crime- what do you notice?
• Masculinity- what do you notice?
• Control of offenders
• Innocent until proven guilty?