Early social influence
Attachment revision
12 May 2014
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
Explanation of attachment
What is an attachment?
A strong emotional and reciprocal tie that develops
over time between an ...
Learning theory: Attachment is a learned process (Nurture)
Model Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
Outline learn...
Evolutionary perspective – Bowlby’s theory
Outline Any inherited behaviour that increases the chances of survival and repr...
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
The Strange Situation
• Ainsworth and Bell (1970)
• Aimed to produce a method for assessing
quality of attachment.
• 100 m...
The Strange Situation 8 steps
1. Mother and child are introduced to the room.
2. Mother and child are left alone and child...
The Strange Situation 8 steps
1. Mother and child introduced
2. left alone
3. stranger enters
4. Mother leaves
5. Mother r...
STAGES
1 + 2
Mom and
infant go
into room
to get
used to it
before the
obs.
begins
STAGE
3
Mom is in
room and
stranger
enters.
STAGE
4
Mom
leaves
and the
stranger
interacts
with the
infant
STAGE
5
Mom
returns
(reunion
behaviour
recorded)
STAGE
6
Mom leaves
and the
infant is left
alone.
Separation
protest is
recorded.
STAGE
7
Instead of
mom, the
stranger
returns.
Stranger
anxiety
behaviour
recorded.
STAGE
8
Mom re-
enters the
room and
stranger
leaves.
Reunion
behaviour
recorded.
‘I don’t care!’
‘I trust
you’
‘I don’t
trust you’
3 Types of Attachment Behaviour
Type B:
Secure
attachment
Type C:
Resist...
Securely Attached (66%)
• Would explore the unfamiliar room
• Subdued when mother left and greeted her
positively when she...
Avoidant-Insecure (22%)
• Did not orientate to there mother while
investigating the room and toys
• Did not seem concerned...
Resistant-Insecure (12%)
• Showed intense distress, particularly when
their mother was absent
• Rejected mother when she r...
There appears to be a
distinct association
between the mother’s
behaviour and the infant’s
attachment type.
Conclusions
Mo...
Issues
 Efficient: could measure a lot of behaviours quite
quickly and easily bring in lots of participants
 Easy to rep...
What causes different types
of attachment?
Evaluation
Multiple care-giver paradox
Nature/ nurture debate
-infant temperame...
Cultural variations
• Culture is not a group of people, but is is
about the beliefs and customs that a group of
people sha...
Ethnocentrism
• Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that
one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally
important, and t...
Cultural variations of strange situations
Takahashi (1990) Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
Aim Tested the strange si...
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
Privation & institutionalism Disruption/ Deprivation
Definition No attachment is formed with the primary
caregiver
Separat...
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
What factors contribute to a good quality day care?
• Schaffer 1999
 Consistency
 Ensuring minimal staff turn over
 Hav...
Effect of day care on social development
• Extensive non-parental care was associated with increased avoidance and
insecur...
Effects of day care on aggression
• EPPE followed 3000 children in the UK from the age of 3
– Day care increased the risk ...
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
Adoption
• It used to be the case that when children were
adopted, biological mothers were encouraged to nurse
the baby fo...
The Effective provision of pre-school
education EPPE project
• EPPE project found high quality day care had a
positive eff...
Hospital admissions
• Research by Joyce Robertson showed that in
situations where children experience physical
separation ...
AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
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  1. 1. Early social influence Attachment revision 12 May 2014
  2. 2. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
  3. 3. Explanation of attachment What is an attachment? A strong emotional and reciprocal tie that develops over time between an infant and their primary caregiver. 4 characteristics: 1. seeking proximity, especially in times of distress 2. Distress on separation 3. Pleasure when reunited 4. General orientation of behaviour towards the primary caregiver
  4. 4. Learning theory: Attachment is a learned process (Nurture) Model Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Outline learning through association Pavlov’s dogs: NS - bell US - food UR - salivation CS - bell CR - salivation Learning through consequence: Skinner Reinforcement – increases likelihood of behaviour by: Positive reinforcement – adding something Negative reinforcement – taking something away Punishment – reduces likelihood of behaviour by: Positive punishment - adding something Negative punishment - taking something away How does it work with attachment? Stimulus of food (US) produces a response of pleasure (UR). The person providing the food (CS) becomes associated with the pleasure. After multiple pairings the CS results in the UR regardless of the US. Dollard and Miller When hungry a baby is uncomfortable and experiences a drive state. When being fed the baby feels comfortable again resulting in drive reduction – which is rewarding. The food is the primary reinforcer, the carer is the secondary reinforcer. AO2 Learning theory predicts that an infant’s attachment will be to the person who gives the greatest pleasure or drive reduction – probably the person who feeds it! Research suggests otherwise! Harlow and Harlow (1962) - Attachment is not based on the supply of food Infant monkeys are placed in a cage with 2 wire mash cylinders each with a face. One cylinder provides the monkey with milk and the other is covered in towelling to provide soft contact to comfort. Infant monkeys spent more time on the towelling monkey and even used it as a secure base from which to explore. Thus, comfort was more important than food. • Later life monkey’s were indifferent or abusive to other monkeys and had difficulties mating and parenting Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found that fewer than ½ of infants had a primary attachment to the person who usually fed, bathed and changed the infant. Reductionist – reduces complex human behaviour to overly simple ideas such as stimulus, response and reinforcement Pavlov’s dogs Skinner’s rats Application Application Over all evaluation MONKEYS!!!! Research on humans! Fancy word!
  5. 5. Evolutionary perspective – Bowlby’s theory Outline Any inherited behaviour that increases the chances of survival and reproduction will be passed on to the next generation. Attachment is important for survival. Infants are physically helpless and need adults to feed, care for and protect them. 3 Important features 1. Infants and caregivers are programmed to become attached 2. Biological process that takes place during a critical period or development or not at all 3. Plays a role in later development as the continuity hypothesis. Research evidence Lorenz (1962) imprinting in non-human animals Geese imprint of the first moving object they see. From an evolutionary perspective a young animal that follows its mother is more likely to survive and reproduce. Key words Social releasers -(smiling, crying) are necessary to trigger a caregiving reaction. Responses are innate in caregivers. Critical period -A set developmental period in which develop takes place. Bowlby proposed if a child does not form an attachment before 2 ½ it will be impossible thereafter. Continuity hypothesis – The relationship with one special attachment figure (monotropy) provides an infant with an internal working model of relationships – which is the foundation upon which adult emotional relationships develop. AO2 Research support for continuity hypothesis: • Hazan and Shaver (1987) found attachment type has a significant positive correlation with type of attachment in adult romantic relationships Critical period/ sensitive period • Research by Rutter et al (1998) on orphans raised in institutions found adotped children were able to form attachment relationships were later able to form attachments. Later they were adopted slower the progress. This research is more consistent with a sensitive period. Individual differences - some cope with poor attachment while others suffer long term consequences? Issue of falsifiability
  6. 6. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
  7. 7. The Strange Situation • Ainsworth and Bell (1970) • Aimed to produce a method for assessing quality of attachment. • 100 middle-class American infants and their mothers. • Controlled observation of mother and child during a set of pre-determined activities. • Observed: – Separation anxiety : unease infant shows when left by caregiver – Infant’s willingness to explore – Stranger anxiety: the infant’s response to the presence of a stranger – Reunion behaviour: the way the caregiver was greeted on return
  8. 8. The Strange Situation 8 steps 1. Mother and child are introduced to the room. 2. Mother and child are left alone and child can investigate the toys. 3. A stranger enters the room and talks with the mother. Stranger gradually approaches the infant with a toy. 4. Mother leaves the child alone with the stranger, and the stranger interacts with the child. 5. Mother returns to greet and comfort the child. 6. The child is left on its own. 7. The stranger returns and tries to engage with the child. 8. Mother returns, greets and picks up the child. The stranger leaves.
  9. 9. The Strange Situation 8 steps 1. Mother and child introduced 2. left alone 3. stranger enters 4. Mother leaves 5. Mother returns 6. child is left on its own 7. stranger returns 8. Mother returns With just these key words can you explain the 8 steps in the procedure?
  10. 10. STAGES 1 + 2 Mom and infant go into room to get used to it before the obs. begins
  11. 11. STAGE 3 Mom is in room and stranger enters.
  12. 12. STAGE 4 Mom leaves and the stranger interacts with the infant
  13. 13. STAGE 5 Mom returns (reunion behaviour recorded)
  14. 14. STAGE 6 Mom leaves and the infant is left alone. Separation protest is recorded.
  15. 15. STAGE 7 Instead of mom, the stranger returns. Stranger anxiety behaviour recorded.
  16. 16. STAGE 8 Mom re- enters the room and stranger leaves. Reunion behaviour recorded.
  17. 17. ‘I don’t care!’ ‘I trust you’ ‘I don’t trust you’ 3 Types of Attachment Behaviour Type B: Secure attachment Type C: Resistant Insecure Type A: Avoidant Insecure 66% 12% 22%
  18. 18. Securely Attached (66%) • Would explore the unfamiliar room • Subdued when mother left and greeted her positively when she returned • Moderate avoidance of the stranger, but friendly when mother present • Mothers were described as sensitive
  19. 19. Avoidant-Insecure (22%) • Did not orientate to there mother while investigating the room and toys • Did not seem concerned by her absence • Showed little interest when mother returned • Avoided the stranger, but not as strongly as they avoided the mother on her return • Mothers sometimes ignored their infants
  20. 20. Resistant-Insecure (12%) • Showed intense distress, particularly when their mother was absent • Rejected mother when she returned • Showed ambivalent behaviour towards the stranger, similar to the pattern of resistance and interest shown with their mother • Mothers appeared to behave ambivalently towards their infants.
  21. 21. There appears to be a distinct association between the mother’s behaviour and the infant’s attachment type. Conclusions Mothers behaviour Infants behaviour Sensitive/ responsive Insensitive/ unresponsive securely attached Insecurely attached The study shows there are significant individual differences between infants It shows that most American children are securely attached
  22. 22. Issues  Efficient: could measure a lot of behaviours quite quickly and easily bring in lots of participants  Easy to replicate: method has been employed in studies the world over – especially in cross- cultural research  Validity: location is different from infant’s normal environment. However, many infants experience new locations quite naturally e.g. with a babysitter, at play group, etc  Generalisations: it would be unreasonable to generalise about all infant behaviour as the findings of this study are restricted to it’s sample type (middle-class Americans)  Ethics: consider distress, infants found most of the situations distressing. What about informed consent? Prior to each study, was the mother informed of the potential distress that their baby might experience?
  23. 23. What causes different types of attachment? Evaluation Multiple care-giver paradox Nature/ nurture debate -infant temperament - Caregiver sensitivity Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis Temperament hypothesis
  24. 24. Cultural variations • Culture is not a group of people, but is is about the beliefs and customs that a group of people shares.
  25. 25. Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. • In what way could the Strange Situation be seen to be ethnocentric? – Participants? – Researchers? – Conclusions?
  26. 26. Cultural variations of strange situations Takahashi (1990) Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) Aim Tested the strange situation with Japanese children. Study to show whether strange situation attachment findings can be generalised to other cultures. Procedure 60 middle class Japanese children aged 1 year of boys and girls with their mothers Meta-analysis of Strange situation results from 32 studies in 8 different countries. Findings • 68% secures attached • No infants avoidant-insecure • 32% resistant insecure • Couldn’t handle infant alone step as infants were too distressed. (1) Sweden (S) 74% (A) 22% (R) 4% (2) Japan 68% 5% 27% (2) Israel 64% 7% 29% (3) W-Germany 57% 35% 8% (1) Great Britain 75% 22% 3% Conclusion There are cross-cultural variations in the way infants respond to separation and being left alone. Japanese children were never left alone before age of 2 Strange situation was very stressful for them Total lack of avoidant behaviour in sample In Some cultures interpersonal distance between parents and children is encouraged and thus infants to not engage in proximity- seeking behaviours would appear to be insecurely attached. May not be appropriate to make comparisons between different countries or cultures as the strange situation may not mean the same thing in different contexts. Evaluation Psychological harm Limited sample of only middle-class Do not know the number of infants involved in each study
  27. 27. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
  28. 28. Privation & institutionalism Disruption/ Deprivation Definition No attachment is formed with the primary caregiver Separation (or taken away) from the primary caregiver Studies Hodges and Tizard (1989) • Studied 65 children placed in an institution less than 4 months old. • By age of 4 some had been • Adopted • Restored to natural home • Remained in institution • Adopted children had close relationships with their parents, whereas this was much less true fo restored children. • AO2 confounding variables –socially desirable children,etc? Curtis (1977) • Case study of Genie • Didn’t recover Koluchova (1976) • Case study of Czech Twins • Both recovered Bowlby (1994) 44 Juvenile thieves • 86% of thieves diagnosed affectionless psychopaths experienced early and prolonged deprivation • Only 4% of the control group (non thieves) experienced frequent separation. • Suggests a link between early separation and later social and emotional maladjustment. • AO2 Correlational • AO2 Can’t isolate IV and DV Robertson (case study) • 3 children under the age of 3 • If substitutory emotional care is used need not lead to deprivation. Is it possible to recover? Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis - NO! Children separated during critical period would be disturbed! • Recovery is possible given the right circumstances (Twins  Genie  ) • Evidence does not support the maternal deprivation hypothesis. • Some evidence to suggest privation leads to RAD. • Not all research supports this idea • Separation does not inevitably lead to (perhaps associated with) harmful effects.
  29. 29. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
  30. 30. What factors contribute to a good quality day care? • Schaffer 1999  Consistency  Ensuring minimal staff turn over  Having a teacher that a child feels responsible to  Consistent routines and physical environments  Amount of verbal interaction between caregiver and child ideally 1-1  Sufficient stimulation such as toys, books and play things  Sensitive emotional care • The NICHD study found only 23% of providers gave highly sensitive care, 50% were moderate and 20% were emotionally detached. • Howes et al (1998) found that if a day care provided teachers with emotional sensitivity training children around 2 years became more secure.
  31. 31. Effect of day care on social development • Extensive non-parental care was associated with increased avoidance and insecurity of attachment. • Children who spend more than 20 hours a week in day care tend to be more insecurely attached than home-cared children. • Egeland and Hiester (1995) found that day care appeared to have a negative effect for secure children, but was a positive influence for insecure children. Effect of day care on peer relations EPPE • Found attending a pre-school institution was associated with greater independence, cooperation, conformity and sociability with other children. • These effects were greatest when equal value was placed on social and educational development. Clark-Stewart • Children in group-based day care were more social and better able to negotiate with peers
  32. 32. Effects of day care on aggression • EPPE followed 3000 children in the UK from the age of 3 – Day care increased the risk of antisocial behaviour for disadvantaged children (except high quality day care reduced the risk) – Disadvantaged children did better in a setting with a mixture of children from different social backgrounds rather than purely disadvantaged children. – Good quality preschool provision is effective at reducing antisocial behaviour and breaking the cycle of disadvantage. • Sammons et al – Slightly increased risk of antisocial behaviour for children who spend more than 20 hours in nurseries. • Melhuish – Warned that when carers constantly changed this could lead towards aggression. Results and conclusions –high quality care improved social, intellectual and behavioural development. The earlier a child started in day care, the better the intellectual development. Children also had better sociability, independence and concentration the longer they had been in day care.
  33. 33. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014
  34. 34. Adoption • It used to be the case that when children were adopted, biological mothers were encouraged to nurse the baby for as long as possible. • How ever during the critical period the baby would become closely attached to the mother and then experience deprivation and failure to form secure attachments in the future. • Most babies are now adopted within the first week • Singer et al shows adoptive and non-adoptive babies and mothers are equally securely attached.
  35. 35. The Effective provision of pre-school education EPPE project • EPPE project found high quality day care had a positive effect on the development of a child. – The government then promised a pre-school place for every 3 year old from 2004. • EPPE found that spending too much time in group based care before the age of two resulted in higher levels of antisocial behaviour later on. – Gordon Brown then announced in 2004 that paid parental leave after childcare would be extended from 6 to 9 months – with the intended eventual increase to 12 months.
  36. 36. Hospital admissions • Research by Joyce Robertson showed that in situations where children experience physical separation from their primary attachment figure the negative effects can be mitigated if substitute emotional care is provided. • This changed government policy and hospitals attitude to parents visiting children in the hospital. • Parents are now routinely allowed to stay with children and are actively involved in planning and implementing a plan for their child’s needs.
  37. 37. AQA Unit 1 attachment specification 2014

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