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Media revision
Specification for 2014 exam
Media influence on pro-social behaviour
Prosocial messages Developmental trends Social learning theory
Greenberg et al (19...
Reliability: A number of
studies show that pro-social
messages in programmes
influence the value and
behaviour of children...
Media influence on antisocial behaviour
Observational learning
Smith & Donnerstein (1998) – analysed
the content of TV pro...
Belson 1978
• Still one of the most rigorous, largest and comprehensive studies on media violence.
• Studied 1565 male par...
BUT – what about a natural experiment
Charlton et al (2000) – TV intro’d in 1995 in St Helena
Little change in antisocial ...
Negative effects of computers and video games
Anderson et al (2007)
Powerful effects of violent video games
Longitudinal s...
Positive effects of computer games on behaviour
Daphne Bavelier:
Reasonable doses of action shooter games have powerful an...
Hovland-Yale
The content of the message
1. 1 sided / verses 2 sided argument
When the audience is fairly intelligent or ho...
Elaboration likelihood
The key to successful persuasion was whether or not an individual is motivated to
elaborate on a pa...
The persuasiveness of TV
Psychology and advertising
Hard and Soft selling
• Hard selling: focuses on the product
• Present...
Advertising and children
• Robinson: positive correlation between age and
trust of advertisement
– As children got older t...
Evaluation of advertising and children
• Cause and effect is not established
• Reductionist: pine found parental influence...
Celebrity gossip
Television news has increasingly come to resemble celebrity gossip.
Intimate details of celebrities has b...
Schiappa et al (2007)
Examined all studies (not just psychological) where the word “parasocial” appeared and selected
empi...
 McCutcheon et al (2002) explained that a compromised self identity in some individuals leads
to a psychological absorpti...
 The tendency to look up to others and imitate them could have had evolutionary
advantages
 Douglas: “paying attention t...
 How can we explain the seemingly useless interest that we have in the lives of
reality show contestants, movie stars and...
Celebrity Stalking
Stalking might be something such as:
- Compiling information about the victim in order to harass them
-...
1. Entertainment - Social
2. Intense - Personal
3. Borderline - Pathological
Giles and Maltby, 2006,
found that there a
th...
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  1. 1. Media revision
  2. 2. Specification for 2014 exam
  3. 3. Media influence on pro-social behaviour Prosocial messages Developmental trends Social learning theory Greenberg et al (1980 Among popular TV of 8-12 year olds there were on average 42.2 acts of antisocial behaviour and 44.2 acts of pro-social behaviour in an hour. Studies since then have been sporadic making reliability and trends impossible to discern. Howard and Roberts (2002) Toddlers age 14 months watching Teletubbies. Parasocial responses included: Joining in with action (singing, dancing, clapping) Smiling at companions Pointing to the screen Wilson Media helps develop capacities for thinking &children learn about nature, causes of emotions, & empathy The skills associated with pro-social reasoning develop with age. Perspective-taking, empathy and level of moral reasoning develop through childhood into adulthood Bandura’s social learning theory: children learn by first observing a behaviour, then later imitating it if the expectation of a reward is greater than the expectation of punishment. If social norms have been internalized by the viewer the expectation of a social reinforcement can motivate the viewer to repeat the actions in their own life Research has shown it is better to learn in person than through a model on TV. Prosocial media does have an effect, but it is comparably short lived and may not be generalised to new settings. Prolonged viewing of prosocial media can result in a substantial and enduring increases in children’s prosocial behaviour (Eiseenberg 1983). Antisocial acts are ‘high impact’ and more memorable Prosocial acts are ‘subtle’ and less memorable Young children lose prosocial impact when the message is broken into fragments by for example advertisements. Children are less able to recognise the emotional state of others (Hoffman 1976) Less sure of how to help (Mares 1996) Experience more difficulty understanding abstract social messages. Less influenced by complex pro-social messages Prosocial influence has a greater effect on young children than on adolescents - This is contrary to expectation! • When younger and older children imitate behaviour their motives are different. • Young children have egocentric motives • Imitate prosocial behaviour to receive a reward or avoid a punishment • Adolescents are more able to understand the underlying principle of abstract prosocial messages & likely to act for altruistic reasons (Roker et al 1998) stats Teletubbies Wilson Skills of prosocial reasoning develop with age Hoffman Mares Motivation Bandura
  4. 4. Reliability: A number of studies show that pro-social messages in programmes influence the value and behaviour of children. Children fail to generalise specific act from media context to new situation Children need opportunities to rehearse behaviours they observe Ethical issues – parental consent Studying effects of pro social has less research than anti social Despite this Hearold (1986) suggests that pro social television has a greater effect on behaviour than anti social Much research is correlational therefore no cause & effect Content analysis may also be flawed as it is a simple tally of pro social acts & does not include content or meaning of acts Real-life prosocial programming Cole et al (2003) Evaluated the impact of a sesame street series of programmes aimed at teaching mutual respect and understanding among Israeli and Palestinian children. 275 four and five year olds were interviewed before and after the series. Before few had strong negative stereotypes After there was an increase in positive attributes to describe the other group and an increase in prosocial resolutions to resolve conflicts. Much of this research looks at positive effects of media which is purposely made to be pro social There are pro social acts in mainstream TV & the effects of this when the purpose is pure entertainment has not been studied
  5. 5. Media influence on antisocial behaviour Observational learning Smith & Donnerstein (1998) – analysed the content of TV programmes in USA Found: 61% of TV programmes contained violence Eron 1992 “There can no longer be any doubt that heavy exposure to televised violence is one of the causes of aggressive behaviour, crime and violence in society” Bandura (1986) – Bobo doll aggression study: Participants were children 3-5 years - watched a video of an adult/ child behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll The acts are repeated 3x in the clip - After exposure to clip children were lead towards the lab containing the Bobo doll. Children were frustrated by seeing other desirable toys they were not allowed to play with. Children were left alone to play, with hidden monitors observing their play. Children who witnessed the videos imitated the aggression. Control groups did not. 88% of pre-school children imitated the aggressive acts shown in the film clip. 1. Underlying principle: In normal circumstances anxiety about violence prohibits its use. • Those who are not used to violence would be more shocked by witnessing a violent act in the real world. • viewers would be less anxious and less sensitive to viewing violence in the real world to due how often it is viewed. • Someone who is desensitized to violence will perceive it as more “normal”. • According to the theory desensitized people are more likely to engage in violence and less likely to intervene. 2. Inconsistent effects Fictional programs receive great condemnation influences acts of violence. Documentaries and news on TV does not receive the same level of condemnation. In fictional drama there is often negative consequences for the perpetrator which is often not the case for those discussed in documentaries 3. Lack of research support Mostly due to ethical concerns Few theories have been developed on imitation Researchers need to be cautious of the amount of violence participants are exposed to. Unacceptable to put people in situations were actual physical violence may be elicited as a result of participation in a study. Studies that are more naturalistic in their approach rarely find imitation an issue. Noble (1975), “in my own studies where children watched media violence in small groups I have rarely found more than 5% imitation after viewing.” Noble (1975) heard one child whisper to their mother. “Look mummy! There’s the doll we have to hit!” Is this what you want me to do? Children may have responded to demand characteristics Artificial setting: • Experiment designed to show behaviours not normally demonstrated • Learning was maximised by repeating the act three time • Aggression or rough-and- tumble play? Boys who are heavy watchers of television violence show lower than average physiological arousal to new scenes of violence. I.e. they are less shocked by violence… Bobo doll AO2 AO2 AO2
  6. 6. Belson 1978 • Still one of the most rigorous, largest and comprehensive studies on media violence. • Studied 1565 male participants age 13-17 living in London • The boys were interviewed on several occasions about their exposure to a variety of violent television programes. • Level and type of violence were rated by members of a BBC viewing panel . • This provided qualitative and quantitative data on the violence viewed through media. • To assess violent behavior Belson assessed how often the participants had been involved in any of 53 categories of violence over the previous 6 months. • Belson compared the behaviour of boys who had higher exposure to televised violence with those who had lower exposure. • Individual differences such as social differences between the groups were controlled by matched pairs • He found that boys who had enjoyed high levels of exposure to television violence when younger committed 49% more acts of serious violence compared to those who had enjoyed little television violence. (Known as a sleeper effect) • Results also show a curvilinear relationship between exposure to violence on TV and violent behaviour. • Exposure to very high levels of TV violence was associated with 50% less violent behaviour compared to moderate or high levels. • Only systematic study it controlled 236 variables effecting both media consumption and aggression. • The boys were asked about their viewing habits when they were younger • Belson argues the data is valid as the boys were asked the same question twice and had the same answer on two different occasions. • However, this only shows that the boys have given a reliable answer -which could be inaccurate on both attempts and therefore not be a valid measure. • More recently though Belson’s methodology has been vindicated (Potts et al. 2008)
  7. 7. BUT – what about a natural experiment Charlton et al (2000) – TV intro’d in 1995 in St Helena Little change in antisocial behaviour – actually lower after its introduction In pro social behaviour also little change Most research assumes children are extremely vulnerable to negative media influences. Young media users are “the inept victims of products, which can trick children into all kinds of ill- advised behaviour” (Gauntlett 1998) Children’s views are seldom heard. Those who have listened to the perspectives of children have arrived at far more optimist conclusions. Children as young as 7 can talk intelligently and cynically about the media (Buckingham 1996) Inconclusive case for media violence effects. • One of the most fiercely contested debates within Psychology. • Most recent meta-analyses do not support concerns that media violence is associated with criminal aggression (Savage and Yancey 2008) • FOR – Huesmann and Moise (1996) • AGAINST – Freedman (2002) Nature of the audience • Hagell and Newburn (1994) Young offenders watched less television and video than their non-offending counterparts. • Did they have less access and no interest in specifically violent programs. Methodological problems with media violence research • Tend not to examine real-world influences that might mitigate the aggressive reaction observed in experiments. • Participants may react differently in a lab setting when they realize that their aggression will not be punished. • Demand characteristics are particularly problematic. • The more naturalistic the setting (linked with high ecological validity) the less likely any imitation effects are observed. • This suggests that findings from controlled lab experiments may not be generalizable to viewers every day lives.
  8. 8. Negative effects of computers and video games Anderson et al (2007) Powerful effects of violent video games Longitudinal study using survey at 2 points in a school year. Sample size 430 Cursory measurement of media violence Name 3 favourite TV shows Name 3 favourite Video/computer games Name 3 favourite movies. How frequently do you watch/ or play the above How violent do you consider yourself to be? Effect size was high The effect of gaming accounted for 8.8% of variance in aggression. This percentage is supposedly higher than substance abuse, abusive parents and poverty Evidence suggests that exposure to violent media may alter the activity of brain structures that regulate aggressive behaviour Boes et al (2008) aggressive behaviour is associated with decreased ACC volume particularly with boys. Weber et al (2006) exposure to violent video games, ACC activity and aggression Virtual violence led to decreased activity in the ACC. Matthews et al (2005) Individuals with disruptive behaviour disorder and individuals who self reported high exposure to violent media showed reduced ACC function when compared with clinically “normal” individuals Gentile et al (2004 )Survey in US schools - 607 students Mean age 14 Hypothesis: Those who were most at risk of aggression would be the most influenced by violent computer games. Survey asked questions about favourite games, time playing, parental restrictions, history of fights or arguing with teachers. The responses were correlated against a violent video game exposure score a) How often they played (1-rarely to 7 often) b) Rate how violent the game was (1-little to 7 extreme) a x b = score for Amount of play did not correlate significantly with arguments with teachers or physical fights. Exposure to violent video games had a very weak significant correlation to: (+0.10) arguments with teachers (+0.07) with having physical fights Anderson Anterior Cingulate Cortex Gentile et al
  9. 9. Positive effects of computer games on behaviour Daphne Bavelier: Reasonable doses of action shooter games have powerful and positive effects Lab studies measuring impact of computer games on the brain 1. Improved eyesight: People who don’t play much action game have normal sight. Action gamers have better eyesight. They can read small font. They can also resolve more colours of grey. i.e driving in fog. Training studies show after 10 hours of action gaming over 2 weeks retested and perform better completing mental rotation tasks – long lasting effects. 2. Improved attention: Used stroop test measure attention conflict between word and colour. Better attention can resolve the conflict more quickly. Ability to track objects around is improved for action gamers. Action gamers have nearly double the ability to track objects. 3. Functioning of the brain improves • Parietal– controls the orientation of attention; • frontal lobe – maintain attention; • anterior cingulate – control or regulate attention and resolve conflict. • All 3 are more efficient in people who play action games. Counter-intuitive findings 4. Multitasking – far better for action gamers. Research by Anguera and Gazzaley from the University of California have shown that when old age participants play 3d driving game negative effects of aging on the brain are reduced. Furthermore the game has been shown to promote sustained attention and working memory. The game involves driving a car down a road and pressing a button when a sign comes up. AO2 Not all media is created equal. Different video games have a different effect on the brain. Lab is needed to measure impact of technology on brain. When consumed in reasonable dosages it is good for you,but should not be abused. What are the active ingredients in games that lead to positive effects for further educational research. Daphne Bavelier Anguera and Gazzaley AO2 Can video games be cathartic? (Allowing people to release their aggressive feelings through video games) Most views reject this notion Meta analysis by Sherry (2007) concludes that this theory is well supported. Not been adequately tested (e.g. samples normally use participants who are anger aroused) which may have low population validity. Evidence of harmful effects is weak. • The validity of scientific knowledge – For material to be judged worthy of publication, normally significant findings are required. • What is the problem with publication bias? • Means non-significant findings are lost – Furgusson (2007) suggests when a meta analysis of research on video games is completed on data (without publication bias) the negative effect of video games becomes non-significant and near zero.
  10. 10. Hovland-Yale The content of the message 1. 1 sided / verses 2 sided argument When the audience is fairly intelligent or hostile it is More effective to present both sides of the argument When the audience is less intelligent or already favours the product - One sided argument is more effective 2. Repition The message must be repeated several times if it is to have an impact on the consumer to increase our familiarity and liking. Arkes et al (1991) Mere repetition of a statement can make it appear more true! 3. Using fear High fear least effective at change (Janis and Feshback) Low- moderate fear more effective. Most successful when they include an effective way of coping with the danger (Witte et al) The audience 1. Self esteem Hovland originally believed there was a negative correlation between self esteem and persuasibility Low SE -> More easily persuaded High SE -> less easily persuaded McGuire suggested it was a curvilinear relationship People with low self esteem less attentive and less influenced bits factual content. Those with high self esteem are more self assured about their beliefs and more difficult to persuade. 2. Age Visser and Krosnick (1998) believe that there is a curvilinear relationship between age and persuasion. High susceptibility during early and late adulthood. Lower susceptibility during middle adulthood 3. Gender Sistrunk and McDavid (1971) argued women are more persuaded by men when the subject matter is more “male”. Men are more easily influenced if the subject is “female” Therefore gender differences are the result of methodological issues. The source: The person presenting the message Hovland et al - experts were usually more persuasive than non-experts. Attractive sources (use of celebrity) enhance consumer demand for a particular product Bochner and Insko (1966) - Credible (expert) sources better influence resistant audiences. Resistant audiences attempted to discredit and resist Non expert sources. In a study a highly credible witness (supposedly a Nobel prize-winning sleep researcher) was able to convince an audience that one hour of sleep per night was optimum AO2 Individual differences Rhodes and Wood (1992) conducted a meta- analysis of studies on social influence and found people lower in intelligence were more prone to persuasion. Keep the message simple, clear and straightforward. People of high intelligence are less likely to yield to persuasive messages as they are more confident in their own beliefs The content The audience The source AO2 individual differences Personality
  11. 11. Elaboration likelihood The key to successful persuasion was whether or not an individual is motivated to elaborate on a particular message. Petty and Cacioppo (1986) 2 routes of persuasion: Need for cognition Haugtvedt et al (1992) high NC are more influenced by central route. Low NC are more influenced by peripheral route Vidrene et al (2007) Real life application - Sample 227 college students were required to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 smoking risk pamphlets. 1 fact based (central route) & 1 emotion based (peripheral route) • High NC found fact based pamphlet more effective • Low NC found emotion based pamphlet more effective The message Audience factors Processing approach Persuasion outcome Central route High motivation and ability to think about message Deep processing focusing on the quality of the arguments presented. Lasting change that resists fading Peripheral route Low motivation and ability to think about the message Superficial or surface processing such as attractiveness of speaker or # of arguments Temporary change more susceptible to fading. Need for Cognition
  12. 12. The persuasiveness of TV Psychology and advertising Hard and Soft selling • Hard selling: focuses on the product • Presented with factual information • Soft selling: Focuses on the audience • Suggests a lifestyle which the view may aspire to • Snyder and De bono 1985: • High Self monitoring =soft sell • Low self monitoring = hard sell Product endorsement • Based on a parasocial relationship • Walker 1992: • participants rated same product differently when endorsed by different celebrities (Madonna and Christie Brinkley) • Giles: “Where’s lucky?” • Lack of explicit information made the posters more memorable because they needed a higher cognitive effort, paid off in recall and recognition (central) A02 • Does Celebrity endorsement work? • Hume: 5000 tv ads, did not enhance persuasive communication of ad • Impact of advertising • Comstock 1999: 80% viewers leave room when ad come on • Bushman 1998: both violent and humorous programmes are associated with low levels of recall for ad
  13. 13. Advertising and children • Robinson: positive correlation between age and trust of advertisement – As children got older they were better able to discriminate between advertisements and programmes • Evaluation of Robinson: – Open ended questions – Small sample size – Ethnocentric – Individual differences
  14. 14. Evaluation of advertising and children • Cause and effect is not established • Reductionist: pine found parental influence • Implications for real world Pester power • Pine: positive correlation between amount of advertisements watched by children and number of goods on xmas list • Stronger if the children watched tv alone • =parents may be a mediating factor • Compared with Sweden (no advertisements aimed at below 12 years) = significantly fewer gift requests
  15. 15. Celebrity gossip Television news has increasingly come to resemble celebrity gossip. Intimate details of celebrities has become common knowledge Cashmore (2006) observed that media coverage of celebrities has for many replaced legitimate news. Parasocial relationships  Parasocial interaction was first investigated by McQuail et al (1972) who revealed that soap opera audiences sympathised with the plight of characters.  It was concluded that parasocial relationships developed from the audiences need for companionship and personal identity purposes.
  16. 16. Schiappa et al (2007) Examined all studies (not just psychological) where the word “parasocial” appeared and selected empirical studies where the data could allow meta analysis. • Overall, parasocial relationships were best predicted by: 1. Perception of television characters as attractive 2. Perception of homophily (similarity) with television characters 3. Perception of TV characters as real 4. Affinity for watching television 5. Internal locus of control 6. Being female 7. Being shy/ lonely • Support: Cole and Leets 1999 Those with an insecure resistant attachment style turn to tv characters as a means of satisfying their ‘unrealistic and often unmet’ relational demands Characters who are attractive (1) and similar in some way (2) to the viewer were most likely to be the object of a parasocial relationship.  It is thought that those who can be needy and clingy in relationships may be more likely to develop PSRs.  This type of attachment style is known as insecure-resistant (anxious ambivalent) Are parasocial relationships dysfunctional? Rubin et al (1985) cast doubt on the fact that parasocial relationships are dysfunctional. Loneliness is not a significant factor in parasocial relationships. Most important factors were homophily and reality in order to rely upon that figure for compansionship. Consistent research shows the people who are socially active and socially motivated are more likely to engage in such relationships (Sood and Rogers 2000) Are parasocial relationships real? (NO) Relationships with media celebrities are imagined by the viewer (often on a subconscious level) (YES) They are just as real as other relationships in the sense that they: Can lead to attitude and behavioural changes. What do you think?
  17. 17.  McCutcheon et al (2002) explained that a compromised self identity in some individuals leads to a psychological absorption with a celebrity in an attempt to establish an identity. • In other words “I don’t feel very good about myself, maybe if I look like and act more like her (Miley Cyrus) I’ll be more happy with my identity.  Better explains the association between mass media and eating disorders. – how?  Maltby et al (2005) carried out a study to investigate the relationship between the AAD model and body image within the context of parasocial relationships. • They found that when celebrity worship was related to poorer body image it tended to be among female adolescents between the ages of 14-16 years. • The relationship tends to disappear at the onset of adulthood (17-20 years) AO2: When do parasocial relationships result in negative self image? AAD suggests that parasocial relationships with celebrities perceived as having a good body shape leads to a poor body image in female adolescent viewers. Research suggests this is only true for those who have an “intense-personal” relationship with their celebrity. Intense personal relationship is when there is no discussion of the celebrity fascination with friends and it is kept as a personal interaction with the celebrity
  18. 18.  The tendency to look up to others and imitate them could have had evolutionary advantages  Douglas: “paying attention to successful individuals is the cleverest thing our big- brained species does”  Learning by trial and error is expensive in evolutionary terms, e.g. eating a new food which may be poisonous  Observational learning is much less risky. But this works much better if only successful individuals are imitated Miller 2000 The mating mind claims that sexual selection was important in human mental evolution. E.g. art, humour and creativity. • Natural selection would favour minds with survival enhancing skills • Sexual selection favour minds prone to inventing attractive, imaginative fantasies • This explains why most people prefer fiction to non-fiction and myth to scientific evidence. • Celebrities represent this world of fantasy. Attraction to creative individuals • Human beings possess a love of novelty (neophilia). • Mate choice in the EEA favoured creative displays. • Musicians, artists and actors show these talents in abundance and therefore we are drawn to them. • Sexual selection favours minds prone to creativity and fantasy.
  19. 19.  How can we explain the seemingly useless interest that we have in the lives of reality show contestants, movie stars and celebrities?  Celebrities are a recent occurrence • In the EEA any person we knew intimate details of would be an important member of the in-group. • De Backer et al (2007 carried out a survey of 838 participants and indepth interviews with 103 individuals to test which of the two competing evolutionary explanations best accounted for our fascination with celebrity gossip 2 competing evolutionary theories: 1. Attraction to creative individuals 2. Evolutionary explanations of celebrity gossip De Backer findings The learning hypothesis: Explains interest in celebrity gossip as a by-product of an evolved response to acquire useful relevant informal for survival. Age is a strong predictor of interest in celebrities The parasocial hypothesis: Celebrity gossip is a diversion of this mechanism leading individuals to misperceive celebrities as people who are part of their social network . Media exposure is a strong predictor of interest in celebrities. Practical research difficulties – Psychology strives to be scientific, if it can’t be studied in a laboratory, the topic tends to be ignored. There is little research in this area and thus it does not (as yet) form part of mainstream academic psychology. Researchers such as Giles (at Winchester University) and Maltby (at Leicester University) are doing their best to address this.
  20. 20. Celebrity Stalking Stalking might be something such as: - Compiling information about the victim in order to harass them - Repeated unsolicited messaging Fisher and Cullen (2000) Over 4000 participants 13% reported being stalked And 25% of these received emails. Finn (2004) Advantages such as anonymity and the opportunities for disinhibited behaviour can promote greater risk- taking and antisocial behaviour Eytan and Borras (2005) Texting is attractive to stalkers as there is no direct contact so any stalker apprehension is reduced Evaluation of cyber-stalking o Tolerance to cyber stalking Sheridan and Grant ‘Offline’ stalking may be more reinforcing than online due to stalkers being able to observe the impact of their activities. Research suggests that cyber stalkers may develop a tolerance to internet based harassment so they need to increase the extremity of their activities to feel the same level of arousal. o Perceptions of stalking Research suggests that cyber stalking may not be taken as seriously as offline stalking. Alexy (2005) Presented students with a vignette based on a real life case study of cyber stalking. The case presented resulted in prosecution but only 30% of participants considered this to be stalking.
  21. 21. 1. Entertainment - Social 2. Intense - Personal 3. Borderline - Pathological Giles and Maltby, 2006, found that there a three types of celebrity worship from an analysis conducted on 1723 UK participants. Fans are attracted to a favourite celebrity because of their perceived ability to entertain and become popular amongst their peers (social desirability) Fans are attracted to a favourite celebrity because they feel an intense and comforting relationship, though they can often understand that it is unrequited. Fans are attracted to a favourite celebrity because said celebrity has completely taken over their mind-set and compulsions. They literally cannot get them out of their head. Entertainment Social Intense Personal Borderline Pathological Maltby et al, 2001: Tested the assumption that celebrity worship is accompanied by poorer psychological wellbeing. Method: Opportunity sample of 126 male and 181 female young adults from workplaces and community groups in South Yorkshire. Administered the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS) Measured entertainment-social, intense-personal and borderline- pathological Also administered the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) Measures symptoms of poor psychological health, somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and severe depression. Ethical issues: Confidentiality could have been breached Integrity and Competence - if someone had a mental health issue, are they competent enough to deal with it? The sample would be biased - people would be paranoid about their results Informed consent is therefore an issue, but to solve it would cause deception They were told the purpose of the study was to "examine a number of psychological factors that may be related to an individuals' interest in famous people." Findings: Positive correlation of scores between the Entertainment-Social subscale of CAS and Dysfunction, Anxiety and Depression. Positive and significant correlation with intense-personal / borderline- pathological CAS and Anxiety and Depression scores. Conclusion: Significant relationship between high levels of celebrity worship and poorer psychological wellbeing is the result of failed attempts to escape, cope or enhance daily life. This is also true for the initial stages of Entertainment-Social worship. Maltby et al, 2004: Sampled 372 people aged 18-47  Less than 2% pathological  Over 5% intense personal  15% entertainment social EVALUATION POINTS Giles: May be the result of fan’s confusion between celebrities’ fictional roles and their real lives McCutcheon et al: Evidence of a hierarchy of celebrity worship with over-identification with the celebrity (and obsession with details of the celebrity’s life) at the top of the hierarchy. Maltby: Negative correlation between celebrity worship and psychological wellbeing. If the individual is participating in a social network of fans sharing information and experiences with friends may promote productive and social relationships which serve as buffer against everyday stressors. Parasocial Bereavement! When people only discover how much they worshipped a celebrity after their death.

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