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Resourcd File


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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Initiation Maintenance Relapse Learning- Smoking Operant conditioning – child starts to smoke to gain peer approval. First experience of smoking is unpleasant – why do children continue? OC can’t explain. SLT – children begin smoking by imitating role models. Exercise influence if they are of same age, sex, race and of higher status. They see these people enjoying it and EXPECT that they will find it rewarding too (vicarious reinforcement) Children are twice as likely to initiate in smoking if their parents are smokers. If parental attitude is firmly against smoking, child is 7 times less likely to start. Classical conditioning - People associate smoking with rewards. Young people want access to social networks and smoking can remove a punisher, e.g. stress, loneliness. Peer pressure important – children can be coerced into smoking by peers who bully, tease or reject them for not smoking. Michell and West 1996 – young people have a ‘readiness’ for smoking and it is only on these people that peer pressure has an effect.. Operant conditioning - People who smoke are often friends with and social groups with people that also smoke. The positive reinforcement produced from feeling sociable and having a sense of belonging makes it hard to give up. Classical conditioning – Physiological associations connected to routines of smoking may be hard to resist – forms an important part of the day for smokers. For example, smoking after a meal or smoking when drinking alcohol. Cue-reactivity paradigm – people link smoking paraphernalia with the addictive habit. So, when they see items such as a lighter it generates a craving. This is the same if they see another smoker. In fact, there are cues all around people which will make them want to relapse. The mechanism that underlies cue-reactivity theory is classical conditioning. Experience of craving is paired with the items associated with the behaviour. They generate conditioned responses even with the absence of smoking. (Carter and Tiffany 1999) The pressure to smoke is around every day. Learning- Gambling SLT - In gambling, people may observe other people winning and expect to win themselves (vicarious reinforcement). This is the drive to start gambling. Operant conditioning - Excitement is associated with the whole gambling process – reinforces positive feelings. This is further reinforced by the occasional win and is particularly crucial in early successes. People learn through association and observation that behaviours can be rewarding and exciting and this drives them to initiate in the behaviour themselves. Operant conditioning plays a part in the maintenance of gambling behaviour. They experience the biological ‘buzz’ when winning money and this is exciting for them. In order to continue experiencing this feeling, they keep gambling. The rewards are easy to come by and are reliable. There are easy opportunities to gamble Gambling provides a partial reinforcement (reinforcement that produces very persistent learned behaviours) - you don’t win all the time. But you will win eventually, it is the infrequency of winning that maintains gambling. To be extinguished gambling must be consistently associated with Cue-reactivity paradigm – material associated with gambling is everywhere, e.g. betting slips, betting shops, adverts. People are surrounded by reminders of their addictive behaviour and the temptations to give in are strong. Reminders are sufficient enough to generate feelings associated with gambling, making people want to restart. There are reminders about addictive behaviours in our every day life. These reminders can generate cravings and feelings similar to the outcome of the actual behaviour. This can tempt people to relapse and start the behaviour again.
  2. 2. negative or neutral feelings. Griffiths Biological- Smoking Lerman explained there was a gene called SLC6A3- 9. People with this gene are born more likely to become addicted to smoking. It is linked to dopamine regulation in the brain. Shields 1962 – looked at 42 twin pairs that had been reared apart. Only 9 pairs were discordant for smoking. However this could reflect the social context of the time – most people smoked in 1962 and may not reflect the influence of genes. Thorgeirsson et al suggested that particular genetic variants make people more addicted to nicotine once they start smoking. They found that a particular pattern of gene variation at two points of chromosome 15 was more common among people who developed lung cancer (and were dependent on nicotine). In their sample, the genetic variant also had an effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The SLC6A3-9 gene increases dopamine in the brain, leading to positive feelings. They want to keep smoking On a study on rats and snails they found that nicotine amplifies the reward system. This makes other behaviours more enjoyable and rewarding. If this is the case for humans, people could keep smoking to make tasks seem less boring, or neutral tasks more fun. Remember we cannot generalise the results to humans - extrapolation. Safe- guarding of animals, wouldn’t be allowed now. Used electric shocks. Shacter 1977 – withdrawal symptoms are unpleasant. People keep smoking, maintaining nicotine to avoid withdrawal. Thorgeirsson et al study also showed that the genetic variant was less common among smokers who smoked less than 10 cigarettes per day than it was among non-smokers, supporting the notion that the variant does not influence smoking initiation, but rather confers risk of nicotine dependence among those who start. When people quit smoking they are faced with horrible withdrawal symptoms. They may restart their smoking as a way of eliminating these symtpoms Lerman – smokers that were deprived of nicotine had an increase in acitivity of other parts of the brain. After one night with no nicotine there was increased blood flow in parts of the brain linked with attention, memory and reward. These parts are active during times of craving. Some people are more prone to this and therefore more likely to relapse. Biological- Gambling Comings et al – people born with the gene D2A1 are more likely to become problem gamblers than those who are not. Positive reward theory. After placing a bet, a period of ANTICIPATION follows. The excitement leads to an ADRENALINE rush. This pleasurable adrenaline rush can be ADDICTIVE. Initiation is linked to the reward of the adrenaline rush. Dopamine seems to be a key neurotransmitter involved with addictive behaviour. It regulates mood and emotion and is important in reward processes. The mesolimbic dopamine system appears to be the most important for motivational processes Normally, cells in the MDS release small amounts of dopamine into the synaptic cleft – leads to stable mood states Nicotine affects the nervous system by increasing Ciarrochi et al 1987 – gamblers often have other problems co-inciding, for example alcohol and shopping. When quitting gambling, they switch their attention to these other behaviours. When these behaviours become too much of a problem, they switch back to gambling to keep that positive feeling experienced when engaging in the behaviour. People can relapse in order to avoid withdrawal
  3. 3. these dopamine levels. As dopamine levels are increased in the brain, more positive feelings are felt by the individual. They therefore want to maintain their behaviour. symptoms. Some people are more prone to relapse. Cognitive- Smoking Likely to have started smoking due to her maladaptive schemas. Thinking differs from non- addicts such as the expectations about the positive versus negative effects of smoking. Has positive expectancies regarding smoking such as feeling calm and keeping her slim. (expectancy theory) Brandon et al. Addiction has continue due to adapted schema and expectancies towards smoking; they have now become unconscious involving automatic processing (i.e. do not have to think about it anymore) and has therefore lost control of her behaviour. Brandon et al. Cognitive processing model – people may have quit but the cues that are around every day trigger automatic responses. They may have stresses going on in their life and it may be easy to give into the craving as resisting the temptations will require considerable mental effort. Coping – negative feelings of withdrawal are removed by having a cigarette. Smokers feel unwell and self-conscious during withdrawal. Cognitive- Gambling Self medication- Gelkopf et al proposes that individuals intentionally use different forms of behaviour such as gambling to treat psychological problems. The activity is chosen at random but it is the way the addict believes they can treat the issue they perceive they have. For example- some activities may be chosen to deal with anxiety. Gambling might not actually make things better, but if the individual believes it will then it is selected. Cognitive distortions –Oei and Gordon The Gambler’s Fallacy is a mistaken belief about sequences of random events. Observing, for example, a long run of “black” on the roulette wheel leads to an expectation that “red” is now more likely to occur on the next trial. (Griffiths) Exaggerated self confidence People believe they have the skill and that the next big win is just around the corner. Withdrawal symptoms can be mild. The consequences of relapse are much better – they return to the possibility of winning lots of money. It reduces boredom. Life seems dull without gambling. Relapse allows the individual to eliminate the horrible effects of withdrawal. The temptations to give in are often too strong due to triggers of everyday life. Recall bias- gamblers only seem to remember the wins and fail to remember the loses. (Blanco) Just world hypothesis- gamblers believe that in a just world a big win will help them and therefore are more likely to gamble again as the win is ‘deserved’.