GCSE Psychology Unit 1: Non-verbal Communication Revision Sheet
between verbal
and non-verbal
GCSE Psychology Unit 1: Non-verbal Communication Revision Sheet
on either side of the cheek whereas this is totally unacce...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Resourcd File


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Resourcd File

  1. 1. GCSE Psychology Unit 1: Non-verbal Communication Revision Sheet Distinction between verbal and non-verbal behaviour Verbal communicationis the passing on of information using words, it can also include written communication. Non-verbal communication (NVC) can be divided into two types: communication during speech (paralinguistics) and communication that does not involve speech at all, such as gestures and facial expression. Interaction of verbal and non-verbal communication is used to regulate the flow of information Repeating – gestures used to strengthen the verbal message Conflicting – for example, saying you are telling the truth while fidgeting and//or avoiding eye contact may send a mixed message to the listener Complementing – using non-verbal communication to reinforce speech, for example, smiling while thanking someone. Substituting – NVC can be used as a substitute for a verbal message, for example nodding the head instead of saying yes. Regulating – NVC can be used to regulate the conversation, for example, touching someone to interrupt or signal that you would like to speak next. Argyle 1975 Conducted research into the functions of eye contact and showed that it provides feedback to others about mood and personality. There was also evidence that people who make frequent eye contact are seen as honest, straightforward friendly and likeable. People who avoid eye contact are judged to be unfriendly, shifty or shy.  Eye contact is important because it can indicate whether a person is interested, paying attention or involved in the conversation.  Even subtle cues like pupil dilation can be used to accurately determine a person‟s mood.  People in different cultures have different ideas of eye contact, for example, Japanese people consider direct eye contact as rude whereas in Britain it is considered good manners to have eye contact during conversation. Facial expression Ekman suggested there are six categories of facial expression: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and disgust. Argyle showed that when people look at each other, there is evidence to suggest that they tend to concentrate on the face  3 – 5 month old babies can distinguish joy, then surprise, fear and sadness.  At 2 years old, children can recognise all six main facial expressions of emotion.  6 year old children can tell if the facial expression and the real emotion do not match for example, they could tell that a person who is smiling is really sad and not happy. Sackheim Wanted to find out if one side of the face is more expressive than the other side and if this showed that one side of the brain is more expressive than the other. Found evidence to suggest that facial expressions expressed on the left side of the face are perceived more strongly than those of the right side. He suggested this was because “emotions are expressed more intensely on the left side of the face”. Conclusion, since the left side of the brain is controlled by the right hemisphere, it seems likely that the right side of the brain controls basic emotions.  Other research has shown that the right hemisphere of the brain is mostly responsible for basic emotions, which indicated that findings are correct.  The study lacks ecological validity because the photos used were posed and not taken when people were showing true emotions and so may not reflect how people would look in everyday life. Body Language Postural echo – adopting the posture of the person opposite to show two people are getting on well together. Open posture (hands and legs uncrossed and shoulders back) – may indicate one of several messages, self-confidence, a relaxed non-defensive state or even an aggressive one. Closed posture (hands/arms crossed or close to the body, or arms folded and legs crossed if sitting down) – a defensive posture and may show a lack of confidence or nervousness. Touch – the unwritten „rules‟ about touching vary from culture to culture. In France, for example, it is usual for men to greet each other with a kiss
  2. 2. GCSE Psychology Unit 1: Non-verbal Communication Revision Sheet on either side of the cheek whereas this is totally unacceptable for British men. There is obvious embarrassment when male politicians from Britain meet male politicians from France and they are embraced by their French counterpart. In all cultures it is more accepted for women to touch other women and for men to touch other men. Research into touch has shown it is very powerful. For example, a man is more likely to be accepted for a dance with strange woman if he touches her lightly. Gestures – A gesture is a form on non-verbal communication using part of the body with or without words, some hand gestures work well without context or words (e.g. thumbs up). Argyle, Alkema and Gilmore compared verbal and non-verbal signals as a way of judging someone on a friendly – hostile dimension. They found that non-verbal cues were five times more effective (when a friendly message was read in a hostile tone, the message was interpreted as hostile and vice versa. Conclusion when messages are in conflict, non-verbal cues have far more effect than verbal cues.  Has support from other studies  findings may only be valid for simple messages Personal Space How much space a person needs when in a social situation can be defined as „an invisible bubble surrounding a person inside which others may not pass;. If people invade our personal space we may feel uncomfortable and try to move away from them in order to regain the space required. The larger amounts of personal space required by people with a high status in a community is evident by their larger homes and gardens etc. Factors affecting personal space include such things as cultural norms, sex differences, status and individual differences. Fsher and Byrne Conducted research in a university library and confederates selected a person who was sitting at a table on their own. They either sat opposite to them, one seat away or next to them. The participants were then questioned about the experience answering questions about how they felt about their personal space being invaded. The findings showed that males did not like their space being invaded by someone approaching from opposite them but they did not mind if the person invaded their space from next to them The opposite was true for females who generally did not mind people invading the space opposite them but disliked being approached by someone sitting next to them.  This research was also backed up by how the participants placed their personal belongings. Males tended to place their belongings in front of them and females were more likely to place them by the side of them. This shows that they were protecting that space with their belongings.  There are ethical issues with this research as the participants did not have the right to withdraw because they were not informed that they were taking part in the research until given the questionnaire. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Research has shown that facial expression is inherited, this means that it happens instinctively and it is more likely to be truthful. Therefore, if someone is saying happy things with a sad facial expression, the chances are that person is feeling sad. It is easy to lie with words, but less easy with facial expression. This has implications for people who need to tell if someone is lying or not (e.g. police). Other research shows that the less information a person receives, the more likely they are to detect a lie. For example, if they only see the body of a person (on video) and cannot see the face, they are better at detecting deception. This is because people find it harder to lie with their body than with their face. If only the body is visible, detection of deception becomes easier.