1
Exam Questions on Gender 2011-2013
2
January 2011
2 (a) (i) State one psychological effect that Turner’s syndrome might have on an individual.
.................
3
2 (d) Discuss the concepts of nature and nurture in relation to gender development. Refer to
evidence in your answer.
Yo...
4
Question 2ai
[AO1 = 1]
AO1 One mark for stating a correct effect of the syndrome on psychological characteristics.
Likel...
5
AO3 Up to two marks for a brief discussion of the study. This may be one issue discussed
in depth or two different issue...
6
evidence has been used to support the idea of the environment being the main force
in gender role. Money and Erhardt (19...
7
June 2011
2 (a) Explain the difference between sex and gender.
............................................................
8
...........................................................................................................................
9
...........................................................................................................................
10
[AO1 = 2, AO2 = 1]
AO1 One mark for brief knowledge of both terms eg: sex = biological, gender =
psychological.
Two mar...
11
Question 2d
[AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5]
Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band
judgemen...
12
explanation emphasises the unconscious in gender acquisition which is in contrast to
social learning theory.
Credit use...
13
(2 marks)
2 (d) Choose one study in which cultural variations in gender-related behaviour were
investigated.
Explain on...
14
psychological.
Two marks for an elaborated answer eg: Sex: biological status as male or female.
Gender: psychological/s...
15
Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band
judgement about whether the response is...
16
Mark bands
9 – 10 marks Very good answers
There is accurate, well organised and detailed description of psychodynamic
e...
17
January 2013
2 (a) Briefly explain what social learning theorists mean by modelling in relation to gender
development. ...
18
Question 2 ‘Is John a boy or is John a girl?’
The results of the study are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Number of childre...
19
..........................................................................................................................
20
..........................................................................................................................
21
Section B Gender Development
Question 2a
[AO1 = 1, AO2 = 1]
AO1 One mark for a brief explanation of modelling in gender...
22
Likely answers: children may not understand the questions being asked; children may
have limited communication skills; ...
23
Likely points, points, which must be evaluative or analytical rather than just stated differences:
Psychoanalytic expla...
24
June 2013
2 As part of a study into gender schema, an opportunity sample of 50 boys
aged 6 years from a primary school ...
25
2 (c) In a follow-up study, the researchers had parental consent to interview the boys in the
sample. The researchers w...
26
..........................................................................................................................
27
Question 2a
[AO3 = 1, AO2 = 3]
AO3 One mark for a description of the results which might be embedded in the application...
28
• it would enable the researcher to explore further the reason(s) given by the child for his answer
– depth and detail
...
29
development thereby rejecting nature/biology. However, in a follow-up study Diamond (1997),
Brenda had never felt happy...
30
Mark bands
9 – 10 marks Very good answers
There is accurate, well organised and detailed description of psychodynamic
e...
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  1. 1. 1 Exam Questions on Gender 2011-2013
  2. 2. 2 January 2011 2 (a) (i) State one psychological effect that Turner’s syndrome might have on an individual. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) 2 (a) (ii) Explain why psychologists studying gender are interested in people with Turner’s syndrome. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (b) Identification is an important concept in understanding gender development. Explain the difference between the term identification as used in social learning theory and the term identification as used in psychodynamic theory. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................. (3 marks) 2 (c) Briefly discuss one study in which gender schema theory was investigated. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)
  3. 3. 3 2 (d) Discuss the concepts of nature and nurture in relation to gender development. Refer to evidence in your answer. You may use this space to plan your answer: ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................(10 marks)
  4. 4. 4 Question 2ai [AO1 = 1] AO1 One mark for stating a correct effect of the syndrome on psychological characteristics. Likely answers: better verbal ability; low in mathematical ability; low in spatial ability, poorer social adjustment, etc. Note: Do not credit physiological effects of the syndrome. Question 2aii [AO2 = 3] AO2 Up to three marks for an explanation. Possible answer: Psychologists may compare people with typical sex chromosome patterns (AO2, 1) to people with atypical sex chromosome patterns (AO2, 1). Inferences may then be made as to whether or not differences in gender may be biological/chromosomal/to inform the nature/nurture debate (AO2, 1). Question 2b [AO2 = 3] AO2 Up to three marks for the difference/differences between the two uses of the term. Difference: Psychodynamic theorist’s state children identify with their same-sex parents (AO2, 1). Social learning theorists state that children may have a number of models with whom they identify (AO2, 1). Credit any further elaboration of the difference between the terms eg age at which child identifies; vicarious reinforcement; attractiveness of the model (AO2, 1). Question 2c [AO1 = 1, AO3 = 2] AO1 One mark for knowledge shown of an appropriate study. Likely studies: Martin and Halverson (1981); Boston and Levy (1991); Cordua et al (1979), Damon (1977), etc. Accept other studies that show how people understand/represent gender eg sex role stereotypes ‘Who is brave?’/Smith and Lloyd/Baby X/Slaby and Frey (1975).
  5. 5. 5 AO3 Up to two marks for a brief discussion of the study. This may be one issue discussed in depth or two different issues. One AO3 mark may be given for analysis of the findings ie a conclusion. Note: Discussion of the study may vary in terms of methodology and/or ethical issues. Both of these areas are appropriate and creditworthy. Question 2d [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5] Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band judgement about whether the response is Very Good (9-10 marks), Good (6-8 marks), Weak to Average (3-5 marks) or Poor (1-2 marks). Examiners should be guided by the band judgement when annotating scripts. AO1 Up to five marks for description of the concepts of nature and nurture in relation to gender development. For example, nature refers to the belief that gender differences are determined by genetics and hormonal factors. Therefore, any gender differences are maturational or innate. Nurture refers to the idea that gender differences are a result of social and cultural factors. Therefore, any gender differences are due to the environment. Credit description of cultural variations in gender. Credit up to two marks for description of relevant evidence. AO2 Up to five marks for discussion in relation to gender development. Candidates may choose to elaborate on concepts described in AO1 eg if gender is due to nature, then anatomy is destiny – we are unable to control and/or change our gender. Candidates may discuss how the concepts relate to our understanding of gender by focusing on key approaches eg biological and psychoanalytic argue that gender is due to nature – a deterministic view. Behaviourist and cognitive approaches argue that gender is a product of the environment. Candidates should refer to evidence in discussion of the concepts. For example, Dabbs (1995) showed how high levels of testosterone caused heightened arousal and aggressive behaviour in men. Mead (1935) – her
  6. 6. 6 evidence has been used to support the idea of the environment being the main force in gender role. Money and Erhardt (1972) concluded that gender is socially rather than biologically constructed. However, later reports eg Diamond, showed how nature was the determining factor in gender. Credit implications of the concepts of nature and/or nurture eg child-rearing; education; occupation etc. Credit use of relevant evidence. Maximum 6 marks if only one concept. Maximum 6 marks if no reference to evidence.
  7. 7. 7 June 2011 2 (a) Explain the difference between sex and gender. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (b) (i) Sally and Ashley are 4 years old. They are looking at a book together. Ashley points to a picture of a girl sawing a piece of wood. Sally says: “Girls don’t saw wood. That would make them a boy. Girls only play with dolls.” With reference to Kohlberg’s stage of gender constancy, explain Sally’s comments. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (b) (ii) Researchers investigating Kohlberg’s three stages of gender development often categorise children as being in a specific stage. Briefly explain one methodological problem that might arise when categorising children as being in a specific stage of gender development. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  8. 8. 8 ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (c) Briefly discuss one study in which gender schema theory was investigated. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (d) Discuss the concepts of nature and nurture in relation to gender development. Refer to evidence in your answer. You may use this space to plan your answer: ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  9. 9. 9 ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (10 marks) Question 2a
  10. 10. 10 [AO1 = 2, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for brief knowledge of both terms eg: sex = biological, gender = psychological. Two marks for an elaborated answer eg: Sex: biological status as male or female. Gender: psychological/social/cultural roles and expectations associated with being male or female. AO2 One mark for a further distinction between the terms. Likely answers: malleable versus fixed; assigned at birth versus acquired; universal versus cultural; one is a social construction whereas the other is a biological fact. Question 2bi [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for reference to Kohlberg’s stage of gender constancy. This may be in the form of a brief description or outline of the stage. The understanding of gender constancy may be in the form of what Sally cannot do. Possible answer: Gender constancy is when a child understands that sex does not change despite a person’s change in appearance/behaviour/context (AO1, 1). AO2 One mark for explanation of the stage in relation to Sally’s comments. Possible answer: Sally does not understand that just by changing context/doing a male job does not change the girl’s sex (AO2, 1). Sally is not in this stage (gender constancy) she is in an earlier stage (gender identity, gender stability). Do not credit repetition of the stem. Question 2bii [AO3 = 2] AO3 One mark for identification of a methodological problem. One further mark for explanation of the problem. Likely answers: errors in categorisation; reliability of categorisation; subjectivity in placing children in stages; overlap between the stages; bias in just one person observing a child’s behaviour; inter-researcher reliability; stages are not mutually exclusive, based on interviews with the children, complexity of questions etc. Question 2c [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to three marks for relevant detail of what the psychologist(s) did ie the sample used, the procedure involved in the study, materials used, how the participants were allocated to conditions in the study, etc. Likely studies: Smith and Lloyd – Baby X; Seavey – Baby X; Furnham and Farragher – TV advertisements; Fagot – mother/infant home observations; Urberg – ‘Who is brave?’ stories; DeLoache – three bears story, Dweck et al – classroom observations of boys and girls, etc.
  11. 11. 11 Question 2d [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5] Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band judgement about whether the response is very good (9 – 10 marks), good (6 – 8 marks), average to weak (3 – 5 marks) or poor (1 – 2 marks). Examiners should be guided by the band judgement when annotating. AO1 Up to five marks for a description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. Candidates are likely to describe Freud’s theory of gender development. Candidates may focus on the role of the parents in the acquisition of gender; identification during the phallic stage of development; Oedipus and Electra complexes. Credit appropriate features of other psychodynamic explanations eg Chodorow; Horney; Erikson. Credit description of relevant evidence/studies eg Goldberg and Lewis (1969); Little Hans, etc (one mark). AO2 Up to five marks for discussion. Explanation rests on unconscious concepts and processes which are untestable eg Oedipus/Electra complex. Theorists have questioned Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex eg Malinowski (1929) – in a study of Trobriand islanders, no evidence was found that young boys had experienced the Oedipus complex. Candidates may refer to the issue of single-parent families ie how children are still able to acquire their gender identity in the absence of the same-sex parent. Candidates may receive credit for reference to alternative explanations of gender development which can be used to evaluate Freud eg Chodorow, who stated that the early mother-child relationship forms the basis of gender identity. Chodorow stated that gender identity begins at birth unlike Freud, who stated that it occurs during the phallic stage (4 – 5 years). Candidates may contrast the timing of gender identity during the phallic stage with the cognitive explanation which views this process as developing over a number of years in childhood. The psychodynamic
  12. 12. 12 explanation emphasises the unconscious in gender acquisition which is in contrast to social learning theory. Credit use of relevant evidence. Total marks for Question 1: 20 January 2012 2 (a) (i) Give one difference between males who have Klinefelter’s syndrome and males with typical sex chromosome patterns. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) 2 (a) (ii) Explain why psychologists study individuals with Klinefelter’s syndrome. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (b) Identify and briefly explain one limitation of the biological approach to gender development. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) Question 2 continues on the next page 2 (c) Joey has stolen a bag of sweets from the local shop. His friend Ross says: “My dad says that stealing is wrong and I agree with him.” With reference to the Oedipus complex, explain why Ross agrees with his father. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  13. 13. 13 (2 marks) 2 (d) Choose one study in which cultural variations in gender-related behaviour were investigated. Explain one methodological problem in relation to this study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (e) Describe and evaluate Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of gender development. Refer to evidence in your answer. You may use this space to plan your answer: ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (10 marks) Question 2a [AO1 = 2, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for brief knowledge of both terms eg: sex = biological, gender =
  14. 14. 14 psychological. Two marks for an elaborated answer eg: Sex: biological status as male or female. Gender: psychological/social/cultural roles and expectations associated with being male or female. AO2 One mark for a further distinction between the terms. Likely answers: malleable versus fixed; assigned at birth versus acquired; universal versus cultural; one is a social construction whereas the other is a biological fact. Question 2bi [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for reference to Kohlberg’s stage of gender constancy. This may be in the form of a brief description or outline of the stage. The understanding of gender constancy may be in the form of what Sally cannot do. Possible answer: Gender constancy is when a child understands that sex does not change despite a person’s change in appearance/behaviour/context (AO1, 1). AO2 One mark for explanation of the stage in relation to Sally’s comments. Possible answer: Sally does not understand that just by changing context/doing a male job does not change the girl’s sex (AO2, 1). Sally is not in this stage (gender constancy) she is in an earlier stage (gender identity, gender stability). Do not credit repetition of the stem. Question 2bii [AO3 = 2] AO3 One mark for identification of a methodological problem. One further mark for explanation of the problem. Likely answers: errors in categorisation; reliability of categorisation; subjectivity in placing children in stages; overlap between the stages; bias in just one person observing a child’s behaviour; inter-researcher reliability; stages are not mutually exclusive, based on interviews with the children, complexity of questions etc. Question 2c [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to three marks for relevant detail of what the psychologist(s) did ie the sample used, the procedure involved in the study, materials used, how the participants were allocated to conditions in the study, etc. Likely studies: Smith and Lloyd – Baby X; Seavey – Baby X; Furnham and Farragher – TV advertisements; Fagot – mother/infant home observations; Urberg – ‘Who is brave?’ stories; DeLoache – three bears story, Dweck et al – classroom observations of boys and girls, etc. Question 2d [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5]
  15. 15. 15 Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band judgement about whether the response is very good (9 – 10 marks), good (6 – 8 marks), average to weak (3 – 5 marks) or poor (1 – 2 marks). Examiners should be guided by the band judgement when annotating. AO1 Up to five marks for a description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. Candidates are likely to describe Freud’s theory of gender development. Candidates may focus on the role of the parents in the acquisition of gender; identification during the phallic stage of development; Oedipus and Electra complexes. Credit appropriate features of other psychodynamic explanations eg Chodorow; Horney; Erikson. Credit description of relevant evidence/studies eg Goldberg and Lewis (1969); Little Hans, etc (one mark). AO2 Up to five marks for discussion. Explanation rests on unconscious concepts and processes which are untestable eg Oedipus/Electra complex. Theorists have questioned Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex eg Malinowski (1929) – in a study of Trobriand islanders, no evidence was found that young boys had experienced the Oedipus complex. Candidates may refer to the issue of single-parent families ie how children are still able to acquire their gender identity in the absence of the same-sex parent. Candidates may receive credit for reference to alternative explanations of gender development which can be used to evaluate Freud eg Chodorow, who stated that the early mother-child relationship forms the basis of gender identity. Chodorow stated that gender identity begins at birth unlike Freud, who stated that it occurs during the phallic stage (4 – 5 years). Candidates may contrast the timing of gender identity during the phallic stage with the cognitive explanation which views this process as developing over a number of years in childhood. The psychodynamic explanation emphasises the unconscious in gender acquisition which is in contrast to social learning theory. Credit use of relevant evidence.
  16. 16. 16 Mark bands 9 – 10 marks Very good answers There is accurate, well organised and detailed description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. The discussion is clear, coherent and detailed. The answer is well focused with little or no misunderstanding. The answer is well structured with effective use of paragraphs, sentences and psychological terminology. There are few errors of spelling and punctuation. 6 – 8 marks Good answer There is reasonably accurate and organised description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development though some detail may be lacking. Discussion is present but it may be limited in either depth or breadth. There may be some misunderstanding, irrelevance or limited focus. The answer has some structure with appropriate use of paragraphs, sentences and psychological terminology. There are some errors of spelling and punctuation. 3 – 5 marks Average to weak answer There is some knowledge of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development and/or basic/limited discussion. The answer may lack focus. There may be substantial inaccuracy and/or irrelevance. Some basic ideas are expressed adequately though the answer may lack structure. Psychological terminology may be missing or used inappropriately. There may be some intrusive errors of grammar, spelling or punctuation. 1 – 2 marks Poor answer There is extremely limited knowledge/evaluation of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. There must be some relevant information. Basic ideas are poorly expressed. There is little evidence of structure. There may be many errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. 0 marks No relevant content Total AO1 marks for Question 1: 8 Total AO2 marks for Question 1: 7 Total AO3 marks for Question 1: 5 Total marks for Question 1: 20
  17. 17. 17 January 2013 2 (a) Briefly explain what social learning theorists mean by modelling in relation to gender development. Refer to the article above in your answer. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (b) Using a gender-related example, explain one reason why some adult behaviours or actions seen by children are not copied. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) A researcher investigated gender development. The researcher asked children aged five years the following question: Question 1 ‘Are you a boy or a girl?’ The same children were then shown a picture of a young man who was wearing a dress. The researcher said to each child, ‘This is John. John is wearing a dress.’ The children were then asked a second question. Is your child watching you? Research by social learning theorists into gender development has shown that children learn many of their gender-related behaviours from others. There are many examples of children copying the behaviour of adults, such as a young girl trying on her mother’s make-up. Of course, there are many reasons why some adult behaviours or actions seen by children are not copied.
  18. 18. 18 Question 2 ‘Is John a boy or is John a girl?’ The results of the study are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Number of children giving correct and incorrect answers to Question 1 and Question 2 Question 1 ‘Are you a boy or a girl?’ Question 2 ‘Is John a boy or is John a girl? Number of children giving a correct answer 20 3 Number of children giving an incorrect answer 0 17 2 (c) Use your knowledge of Kohlberg’s theory of gender development to explain the results in Table 1. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (d) Explain one methodological problem that might occur when asking young children questions about gender development. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  19. 19. 19 ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 2 (e) Describe and evaluate Freud’s psychoanalytic explanation of gender development. As part of your evaluation you should refer to biological explanations of gender development. You may use this space to plan your answer: ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  20. 20. 20 ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ . ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ . ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ . ............................................................................................................................................ 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........................................................................................................................................... (10 marks)
  21. 21. 21 Section B Gender Development Question 2a [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for a brief explanation of modelling in gender development. Likely answers: modelling is a process whereby a child/individual imitates the (gender-related) behaviour of a chosen person – a role model. AO2 One mark for application to the article. The article suggests that the young girl models the behaviour of her mother by imitating ‘putting on make-up’. Alternative answer: [When people produce behaviours they are modelling them – providing an opportunity for others to learn how to do something.] Modelling is when an adult exhibits (gender related ) behaviour for a child to imitate/copy, (AO1). In the article, the mother is modelling ‘putting on make-up’ and the young girl imitates this behaviour by trying to do the same, (AO2). Question 2b [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 1] AO1 One mark for the reason suggested. Likely reasons: copying is not perceived to be appropriate; lack of identification or similarity between model and other; presence of punishment or criticism for the behaviour; lack of ‘attractiveness’ of the model; lack of: attention to the behaviour or model/motivation to produce the behaviour/retention of the behaviour/competence to produce the behaviour. AO2 One mark for a gender-related example of a behaviour that is not imitated that matches the reason given. Possible answers: an example of presence of criticism would be the young girl does not copy her father washing the car because she has been told, ‘that’s a man’s job.’ Question 2c [AO2 = 3] AO2 One mark for recognition that all the children have acquired gender identity/can label themselves (and others) as male or female accurately. One mark for recognition that few have acquired gender constancy/ understood that each person’s gender is fixed across time and situations, despite superficial changes like clothing. One mark for valid interpretation of the results in the table for both questions eg expressed as ‘higher/fewer, more than.’ This mark might be embedded in the answers given above, ie the stage descriptions. Question 2d [AO3 = 3] AO3 One mark for identification of a methodological problem that could be relevant to asking young children questions.
  22. 22. 22 Likely answers: children may not understand the questions being asked; children may have limited communication skills; subjectivity involved in categorising the responses; practical issue of gaining consent. Can accept conferring. One mark for an explanation of why/how this is a problem. Accept reliability/validity. One mark for explanation of the impact of the problem identified on the results/investigation. Possible answer: Children may have limited communication skills (1). This means that they may not be able to express their actual knowledge very clearly and/or the researcher may not be able to understand exactly what the child means (1). So the results of the study – the data obtained – may not reflect accurately the knowledge of the child – it is not measuring what it intends to measure so is not valid (1). Question 2e [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5] Examiners must read the whole response prior to marking in order to make a band judgement about whether the response is very good (9 – 10 marks), good (6 – 8 marks), average to weak (3 – 5 marks) or poor (1 – 2 marks). Examiners should be guided by the band judgement when annotating. AO1 Up to 5 marks for knowledge in detail of features and assumptions of psychoanalytic theory that are relevant to gender development. Features might include: description of the stage theory of gender development – focus must be on the phallic stage; the Oedipus and Electra complexes; the role of the unconscious; the role of parents; identification process involving internalisation of same- sex parent’s behaviours. Credit description of relevant evidence/studies eg Little Hans – 1 mark. AO2 Up to 5 marks for evaluation of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of gender development. Up to 3 of these marks are for the following: Likely points, which must be evaluative rather than just statements: the explanation derives from concepts that are largely untestable – the unconscious conflicts in the phallic stage, unconscious use of defence mechanisms as in the case of Little Hans’ phobia; the requirement of a same-sex parent for the process of identification – Malinowski 1929 Trobriand Islander study. Credit comparison of psychoanalytic explanations of gender with alternatives other than the biological explanation. Up to 2 marks are reserved for evaluation of the psychoanalytic explanation of gender which is based on comparison with the biological explanation of gender.
  23. 23. 23 Likely points, points, which must be evaluative or analytical rather than just stated differences: Psychoanalytic explanations focus on the role of society, especially childhood experiences and familial relationships whereas biological explanations study chromosomal abnormalities such as Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. Biological factors impact on gender development rather than untestable/ unconscious forces. Biological explanations use scientific methods, studying sex hormones experimentally, (Van Goozen 1995, Tricker 1996, Dabbs 1995), which means the theories are testable, unlike Freudian explanations. Some biological research is conducted using non- human participants, psychoanalytic explanations do not do this. Credit use of evidence. Maximum 8 marks if evaluation does not make reference to the biological explanation for gender.
  24. 24. 24 June 2013 2 As part of a study into gender schema, an opportunity sample of 50 boys aged 6 years from a primary school watched a film. In the film, a man was seen watching TV, mowing the lawn and doing the ironing. One week later, all the boys were asked to recall what they had seen in the film. The results are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Number of boys who recalled each activity shown in the film Activity shown in the film Number of boys who recalled seeing the activity Man watching TV 47 Man mowing the lawn 49 Man doing the ironing 23 2 (a) Use your knowledge of gender schema theory to explain the results shown in Table 1. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks) 2 (b) The sampling method used in the study was opportunity sampling. What is meant by opportunity sampling? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark)
  25. 25. 25 2 (c) In a follow-up study, the researchers had parental consent to interview the boys in the sample. The researchers wanted to find out which occupations the boys thought were suitable for men and which they thought were suitable for women. Explain why it would be appropriate to use unstructured interviews in this study. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) Outline the difference in understanding of gender between the gender stability stage and the gender constancy stage. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks) 2 (e) Discuss biological and social learning explanations of gender development. Refer to evidence in your answer. You may use this space to plan your answer ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................
  26. 26. 26 ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................... (10 marks)
  27. 27. 27 Question 2a [AO3 = 1, AO2 = 3] AO3 One mark for a description of the results which might be embedded in the application of knowledge of gender schema theory below. The recall of the activities of watching TV and mowing the lawn was almost perfect/extremely high, but recall for ironing was only 23/50 or just less than half. AO2 Up to 3 marks for use of knowledge of gender schema theory to explain the results of the study. Likely points: • explaining what a gender schema is – mental representation about gender-related behaviours OR one mark for reference to formation of stereotypes – expectations about what certain genders do • relating results to the above – recall of information that fits the schema and stereotype • reference to not fully processing or ‘forgetting’ the ironing behaviour which does not fit the schema or stereotype. Question 2b [AO3 = 1] AO3 One AO3 One mark for a clear definition of opportunity sampling. Likely answer: a sampling method in which people who are available to the researcher are used in the study. Accept alternative wording, such as convenient. Do not accept just ‘willing participants.’ Question 2c [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to 3 marks for an explanation of why unstructured interviews would be appropriate in this study. Full marks can be credited for one fully elaborated issue. Credit the following likely points: • an unstructured interview would allow the interviewer to respond to the answer given by a child with a specific follow-on question • the interviewer may gain new insight/lines of enquiry not explored so far
  28. 28. 28 • it would enable the researcher to explore further the reason(s) given by the child for his answer – depth and detail • it may overcome interpretation/communication issues by allowing the child to be clear about what they are trying to say. Credit other valid points. Credit reference to increased validity if there is explanation of how this is achieved. Maximum of 2 marks if answer not specific to this study. Question 2d [AO1 = 2] AO1 Up to 2 marks for an outline of a difference between understanding of gender in the gender stability stage and that in the constancy stage. In the stability stage, although the child understands his/her own gender remains fixed in spite of outward changes such as hair length/clothing, he/she believes that the gender of others might change if outward appearance changes – in the constancy stage they know that everyone’s gender is fixed in all situations. Question 2e [AO1 = 5, AO2 = 5] AO1 Up to 5 marks for accurate description of the explanations of gender development provided by biological theory and social learning theory (SLT). Max of four marks for any one of these explanations. Biological: Students may focus on some of the following: how genetic factors cause gender- appropriate behaviour – gender and sex are interrelated; hormones, eg the influence of androgens and testosterone Dabbs et al (1995), Tricker et al (1996) or oestrogen and progesterone Van Goozen et al (1995), Hampson and Kimura (1988); atypical sex chromosomes, eg XXY – Klinefelter’s syndrome; XO – Turner’s syndrome – in terms of the effect these syndromes have on gender development. Students may choose to focus on non-human research, eg Gorski et al (1980) found male rats’ sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) to be larger in anatomical structure compared to female rats’ SDN which might account for differences in behaviour, or on case studies such as Imperato- McGinley et al (1978) or Money and Erhardt (1972), Diamond (1997). SLT: the idea that gender behaviour is learned via observation in social contexts; the influence on gender development of cognitive processes – including some of the following, attention, retention and motivation, reproduction; modelling, (Perry and Bussey (1979) and identification; imitation, Masters et al (1979) and reinforcement, Fagot (1978), Dweck et al (1978), Smith and Lloyd (1978)/Baby X studies. Credit description of evidence up to 2 marks. AO2 Up to 5 marks for discussion of the two explanations. Students are required to refer to evidence in their response. This may be in support/conflict for either approach. For example, Money (1975) suggested that nurture was responsible for gender
  29. 29. 29 development thereby rejecting nature/biology. However, in a follow-up study Diamond (1997), Brenda had never felt happy as a girl and resumed her masculine identity (nature), thereby supporting biological explanations. Students may raise methodological issues associated with the extrapolation of findings from animal research to explain human gender development. They may reflect on the value of unusual case study evidence in a universal explanation of gender development; the issue of cause and effect in testosterone research and the possible impact of environmental factors on biological state. Similarly for SLT weaknesses in the evidence as well as strengths might be considered – the artificiality of laboratory-based research; weaknesses in the explanation of age-related changes or differences in gender behaviours, despite the same environment, and discussion of how these issues might be explained as due to cognitive factors mediating the responses/chosen behaviours. Credit comparisons with other approaches only if the comparison makes clear the way in which the value of the biological or SLT approach is evident or how either approach is weakened by such comparison. Credit reference to debates when it is made clear how these impact on strengths or limitations of each explanation. Credit use of evidence.
  30. 30. 30 Mark bands 9 – 10 marks Very good answers There is accurate, well organised and detailed description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. The discussion is clear, coherent and detailed. The answer is well focused with little or no misunderstanding. The answer is well structured with effective use of paragraphs, sentences and psychological terminology. There are few errors of spelling and punctuation. 6 – 8 marks Good answer There is reasonably accurate and organised description of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development though some detail may be lacking. Discussion is present but it may be limited in either depth or breadth. There may be some misunderstanding, irrelevance or limited focus. The answer has some structure with appropriate use of paragraphs, sentences and psychological terminology. There are some errors of spelling and punctuation. 3 – 5 marks Average to weak answer There is some knowledge of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development and/or basic/limited discussion. The answer may lack focus. There may be substantial inaccuracy and/or irrelevance. Some basic ideas are expressed adequately though the answer may lack structure. Psychological terminology may be missing or used inappropriately. There may be some intrusive errors of grammar, spelling or punctuation. 1 – 2 marks Poor answer There is extremely limited knowledge/evaluation of psychodynamic explanation(s) of gender development. There must be some relevant information. Basic ideas are poorly expressed. There is little evidence of structure. There may be many errors in grammar, spelling and punctuation. 0 marks No relevant content Total AO1 marks for Question 1: 8 Total AO2 marks for Question 1: 7 Total AO3 marks for Question 1: 5

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