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Exam questions 2011- 2013
Page | 2
January 2011
1 (c) Derek and David are identical twins. The twins were separated at birth and raised in
very diff...
Page | 3
June 2011
1 (a) Below is a diagram of a motor neuron with structures that are labelled A, B and C.
Write the name...
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Question 1a
[AO1 = 3]
A = Dendrites
B = Cell body (do not accept cell or body cell), soma, cytoplasm, nucleus
C =...
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Jan 2012
1 (a) Using an example, explain what is meant by the fight or flight response.
............................
Page | 6
Question 1a
[AO1 = 3]
AO1 One mark for reference to perceived threatening/stressful situation (could be through
d...
Page | 7
June 2012
1 (a) Psychologists have identified many areas of cortical specialisation in the brain.
These include:
...
Page | 8
June 2012
Question 1a
[AO1 = 3]
AO1 One mark each for the correct area of cortical specialisation.
D = Somatosens...
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January 2013
1 (a) (i) What is meant by genotype?
..................................................................
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Question 1ai
[AO1 = 1]
AO1 Genotype: refers to the genes an individual possesses/an individual’s genetic make- u...
Page | 11
June 2013
1 (b) Briefly outline the process of synaptic transmission.
.............................................
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June 2013
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  1. 1. Page | 1 Exam questions 2011- 2013
  2. 2. Page | 2 January 2011 1 (c) Derek and David are identical twins. The twins were separated at birth and raised in very different families. Derek was given a healthy diet. David was raised in a poor environment where his family could not afford much food. When the twins were re-united at 40 years old, Derek was tall but David was much shorter. Distinguish between the terms genotype and phenotype. Refer to Derek and David in your answer. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (5 marks) Question 1c [AO1 = 2, AO2 = 3] AO1 One mark each for a correct definition of the terms. Possible answer: Genotype refers to a person’s genetic make-up (AO1, 1). Phenotype refers to the expression of genes shown by an individual (AO1, 1). AO2 One mark for a distinction between the two terms eg, carrying of the gene without displaying the characteristic; observable/non-observable; changeable/unchangeable; PKU, etc (AO2, 1). Two further marks for explicit reference to the stem ie genotype and phenotype. Possible answer: Derek and David share the same genotype as they share 100% of their genes / come from the same egg, etc. (AO2, 1). However, their phenotypes ie height are very different probably due to the contrasting environments in which they were raised (AO2, 1). Do not credit repeat of the stem.
  3. 3. Page | 3 June 2011 1 (a) Below is a diagram of a motor neuron with structures that are labelled A, B and C. Write the name of each of these structures in the boxes provided. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 1 (b) Psychologists investigating whether or not intelligence is inherited studied children who were adopted at a very young age. The psychologists looked to see whether the adopted children’s intelligence scores were more similar to the intelligence scores of their biological parents or the scores of their adoptive parents. On the basis of their results, the psychologists concluded that intelligence is largely genetic. Evaluate the use of adoption studies as a way of investigating the genetic basis of behaviour. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................... (3 marks)
  4. 4. Page | 4 Question 1a [AO1 = 3] A = Dendrites B = Cell body (do not accept cell or body cell), soma, cytoplasm, nucleus C = Axon, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, Schwann cells Question 1b [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to three marks for an appropriate evaluation of the use of adoption studies. The evaluation may be in terms of strengths, limitations or a combination of both. Credit may also be given for use of/evaluation of the findings from adoption studies. Do not credit description of adoption studies. Likely points: provides evidence of heritability; problem of comparison of children raised in adopted families being compared with their biological parents – environments are often very different; problem of establishing accurate criteria to take account of differences in environment; similarities between adopted and biological children may not be due to heredity, problem of age of adoption and time spent with biological parent, credit comparison with twin studies, etc. Candidates may receive full marks for providing one point that is explored in depth or more than one point in less detail. Maximum 2 marks for analysis of the rationale/conclusions to be drawn from adoption studies.
  5. 5. Page | 5 Jan 2012 1 (a) Using an example, explain what is meant by the fight or flight response. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks) 1 (b) Discuss one strength or limitation of PET scans as a way of identifying areas of cortical specialisation in the brain. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)
  6. 6. Page | 6 Question 1a [AO1 = 3] AO1 One mark for reference to perceived threatening/stressful situation (could be through definition or example). One mark for reference to physiological change. One mark for example of response/action. Question 1b [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to two marks for identification of a relevant strength or limitation and explanation of the strength or limitation. One mark for relating the strength or limitation to cortical specialisation. Likely points: precision/accuracy/control with the method; invasive procedure; ethical problems of intervention eg injection of radioactive glucose/informed consent; reliability of interpretation etc.
  7. 7. Page | 7 June 2012 1 (a) Psychologists have identified many areas of cortical specialisation in the brain. These include: (3 marks) 1 (b) Briefly evaluate the use of EEGs as a way of identifying cortical specialisation in the brain. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (3 marks)
  8. 8. Page | 8 June 2012 Question 1a [AO1 = 3] AO1 One mark each for the correct area of cortical specialisation. D = Somatosensory centre C = Visual centre B = Auditory centre Question 1b [AO3 = 3] AO3 Up to three marks for a brief evaluation of the use of EEGs. Credit up to 3 separate evaluative points or one point fully elaborated or a combination of these. Likely points: safe way of measuring brain activity; there is no surgery or invasive process; helps to identify activity in various regions of brain; its use as a diagnostic tool eg epilepsy; lacks precision in measuring individual action potential of neurons/electrodes not sensitive enough, etc. Question
  9. 9. Page | 9 January 2013 1 (a) (i) What is meant by genotype? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) 1 (a) (ii) What is meant by phenotype? ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (1 mark) 1 (b) You are walking home at night. It is dark and you hear someone running behind you. Your breathing quickens, your mouth dries and your heart pounds. Then you hear your friend call out, “Hey, wait for me! We can walk back together.” Your breathing slows down and after a couple of minutes you are walking home calmly with your friend. Explain the actions of the autonomic nervous system. Refer to the description above in your answer. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (4 marks)
  10. 10. Page | 10 Question 1ai [AO1 = 1] AO1 Genotype: refers to the genes an individual possesses/an individual’s genetic make- up. Question 1aii [AO1 = 1] AO1 Phenotype: refers to the observable traits or characteristics shown by the individual; these traits/characteristics are due to the combined effect of genes and environment. Question 1b [AO1 = 2, AO2 = 2] AO1 Up to 2 marks for description of the actions of the autonomic nervous system. Likely points: one section of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic nervous system) responds to a perceived threat/ it produces physiological changes that prepare the body for fight or flight (the alarm response) (1), and the other section (parasympathetic nervous system) restores normal physiological functioning when the threat has passed (1). If candidates simply state flight or flight and rest and digest with no further explanation 1 mark only. AO2 Up to 2 marks for application to the description. One mark for application to sympathetic activity – breathing quickens, mouth dries, heart pounds. One mark for application to parasympathetic – breathing slows down/becoming calm. Maximum of 2 marks if ‘sympathetic’ and ‘parasympathetic’ sections are mislabelled in AO1 description.
  11. 11. Page | 11 June 2013 1 (b) Briefly outline the process of synaptic transmission. ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................ (2 marks)
  12. 12. Page | 12 June 2013

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