Laura Gratton
Gender
Plans
Previous years questions:
Jan 2010 One psychological and one biological explanation
June 2010 B...
Laura Gratton
‘Discuss the role of genes and hormones in gender development’
(8 + 16 marks)
A01: Genes XX XY
A01: Hormones...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate evolutionary explanations of gender roles’
(8 + 16 marks)
A01: Intro – evolutionary a...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate the biosocial approach to gender development’
(8 + 16 marks)
A01: Intro: interaction ...
Laura Gratton
‘Discuss explanations of gender dysphoria’
(8 + 16 marks)
Intro: Define gender dysphoria
A01: Psychosocial: ...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory of gender development’
(8 + 16 marks)
A01: ...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate gender schema theory’
(8 + 16 marks)
A01: Gender Schema Theory: we acquire informatio...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate social influences on gender role’
(8 + 16 marks)
Intro: social factors lead children ...
Laura Gratton
‘Describe and evaluate cultural influences on gender role’
(8 + 16 marks)
Intro: We study culture to see the...
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  1. 1. Laura Gratton Gender Plans Previous years questions: Jan 2010 One psychological and one biological explanation June 2010 Biosocial & social Jan 2011 Kohlberg (cognitive) June 2011 Psychological androgyny & cross culture Jan 2012 Social June 2012 Gender schema theory (cognitive) Jan 2013 Biosocial June 2013 Kohlberg (cognitive)
  2. 2. Laura Gratton ‘Discuss the role of genes and hormones in gender development’ (8 + 16 marks) A01: Genes XX XY A01: Hormones testosterone oestrogen A01: Sex differences A02: Batista family (&A03) A03: David Reimer (evaluate, or use Reiner & Gearheart, 2004 to support) A02: Animal studies – Young – same pattern found in non-human species A02: Research methods used (animals, socially sensitive, lab) IDA: Real world application – Olympics XX/XY IDA: Deterministic
  3. 3. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate evolutionary explanations of gender roles’ (8 + 16 marks) A01: Intro – evolutionary approach: ensure survival of genes A01: Mate choice: men look for signs of fertility/women make themselves more attractive eg makeup; women look for resources/men have flashy cars A01: Division of labour: hunter gatherer and domestic goddess – if women hunted this would limit reproductive success A02: Speculation A02: Waynforth & Dunbar: 44% men sought physical attractiveness with 50% women offering physical attractiveness A01: Cognitive: women empathise, men systemise – evolutionary advantage A02: Implications: autism IDA: Nature/nurture IDA: Deterministic A02: Research methods used: historical records, experiments, observations, questionnaires, cross culture IDA: Heterosexual bias
  4. 4. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate the biosocial approach to gender development’ (8 + 16 marks) A01: Intro: interaction between bio and social influences A01: Biosocial theory (Money & Ehrhardt): biology determines sex of rearing  labelled A02: David Reimer A03: Evaluate David Reimer case study A02: Condry & Condry: David & Dara – her = fearful of jackinthebox, he = angry A03: Sampling bias: intersex population A01: Social role theory ( Eagly & Wood): evolution causes physical differences but allocated sex role causes differences in behaviour A02: Re-examination of Buss by Eagly & Wood (1999): social roles influence mate choice A02: Alternative approach: Luxen – evolutionary theory is better IDA: Real world application: feminism / ethical! IDA: Social constructionist: less deterministic than other theories of gender development – metrosexual male, ladettes
  5. 5. Laura Gratton ‘Discuss explanations of gender dysphoria’ (8 + 16 marks) Intro: Define gender dysphoria A01: Psychosocial: Mental illness Linked to childhood trauma/maladaptive upbringing Coates (1991) case study A02:  Cole (1997) no difference between people with gender dysphoria and the ‘normal’ population A01: Psychosocial: Mother-son relationship Stoller (1975) – clinical interviews – (A03 - observer/researcher bias?) A02:  Zucker (1996) MtF – 64% separation anxiety A01: Biological: brain-sex theory Differences between male/female brains – BSTc: MtF same as females; FtM same as males A02:  Chung (2002) differences in BSTc volume do not develop until adulthood – perhaps an effect rather than a cause A02:  Hulshoff Pol (2006) hormone therapy A02:  Rametti (2011) FtM A01: Biological – environmental effects Insecticide contains oestrogens – males may be prenatally exposed A02:  Vreugdenhil (2002) dioxins = feminised play IDA: Real world application: intersex should be able to determine own sex – less emphasis on sex IDA: Ethics – socially sensitive research: social consequences of the research
  6. 6. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory of gender development’ (8 + 16 marks) A01: Gender constancy theory: gender labelling, gender stability, gender constancy A02:  Gender labelling: Thompson (1975) 2 year olds 76%, 3 year olds 90% A02:  Gender stability: Slaby & Frey (1975) A02:  Gender consistency: Slaby & Frey (1975) A02:  Age adjustments required A02:  Gender differences – boys exhibit gender constancy before girls A02:  Gender knowledge, not constancy – Bem A03: Bem criticisms of methodology; plus Slaby & Frey ‘pretend questions’ A02:  Comparison to Gender Schema Theory IDA:  Ignores the role of biology; and the social approach
  7. 7. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate gender schema theory’ (8 + 16 marks) A01: Gender Schema Theory: we acquire information about our own gender – happens before gender constancy A01: Schemas: ingroup and outgroup A02:  Martin & Little (1990) <4 year olds strong gender stereotypes A02:  Memory – gender consistent, ingroup schema A02:  Martin & Halverson: distorted memory for inconsistent gender images IDA:  Real world application A02:  Resilient gender stereotypes / sexist children – peer reinforcement – HOWEVER, Hoffman suggests children’s stereotypes are not fixed IDA:  Compare to Psychodynamic theory A02:  Critical differences between the two cognitive theories Compromise – Stagnor & Ruble
  8. 8. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate social influences on gender role’ (8 + 16 marks) Intro: social factors lead children to learn about gender appropriate/inappropriate behaviours which then dictate gender role behaviour A01: Parents: reinforce gender-appropriate behaviour Smith & Lloyd (1978) A02: Gender: Langlois & Down (1980) A01: Peers: models of gender-appropriate behaviours, as well as direct tuition Perry & Bussey (1979) film clips A02: Evaluation of peer influence (& Lamb study): more of a reinforcer rather than important during early gender development A01: Media A02: Williams (1985) Notel, Unitel & Multitel (&A03!) A02: Insignificant media effects: Signorelli & Bacue (1999) A02: Difficult to study – lack of control groups IDA: Real world application
  9. 9. Laura Gratton ‘Describe and evaluate cultural influences on gender role’ (8 + 16 marks) Intro: We study culture to see the relative influence of biology and socialisation. Cultural similarities = biology; Differences in the roles taken on by men and women = socialisation A01: Similarities (division of labour): Munroe & Munroe (1975) A01: Variations between cultures: Berry (2002) A02: Mead (1935) studied three tribes found they all differed substantially (& A03 – valid? Social desirability bias/demand characteristics) IDA: Determinism A02: Williams & Best (1990) cultural similarities (& A03! – forced choice task, stereotypes not behaviour, sample) IDA: Nature/nurture IDA: Culture bias: imposed etic A02: Differences are not just due to culture: evolution, historical changes, social factors IDA: Determinism – cultural relativism

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