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  1. 1. Restraint theory: Herman and Mack (1975) • Restrained eating has become synonymous with dieting • Research suggests that as many as 89% of the female population in the UK consciously restrain their food intake at some point in their lives (Klesges et al, 1987) Ao1: • This theory attempted to explain the causes and consequences associated with the cognitive restriction of food intake • Herman and Mack suggest that attempting not to eat actually increases the probability of overeating • Trying not to eat only makes you want to eat more and focus more on food AO2: Wardle and Beales (1988) • Randomly assigned 27 obese individuals to either a diet group (focusing on restrained eating patterns), an exercise group, or a non-treatment group for 7 weeks • Tested at 4 and 6 weeks • At week 4, food intake and appetite were assessed before and after a preload (small snack) • At week 6, food intake was assessed under stressful conditions • Results: women in the diet condition ate more than women in the non-treatment and exercise groups AO3: Practical applications • Restraint Theory suggests that restraint leads to excess, yet the treatment of Obesity commonly recommends restraint as a solution to excessive weight gain • Failed attempts to diet can leave obese individuals depressed • Although obesity may not necessarily be caused by overeating, overeating may be a consequence of obesity if restraint is recommended as a treatment (Ogden, 1994)

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