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Education Revision Topics
• Class Differences in Achievement
• Ethnic Differences in Achievement
• Gender Differences in A...
Class differences in achievement
External Factors
MATERIAL FACTORS
CULTURAL FACTORS
CULTURAL CAPITAL
Housing Diet and Heal...
Class differences in achievement
Internal Factors
LABELLING THEORY
SELF-FULFILLING
PROPHECY
PUPIL SUBCULTURES
MARKETISATIO...
Ethnic differences in achievement
External
Factors
MATERIAL
DEPRIVATION
& CLASS
CULTURAL
DEPRIVATION
Housing Diet and Heal...
Ethnic differences in achievement
Internal
Factors
LABELLING &
TEACHER
RACISM
PUPIL
RESPONSES
& SUBCULTURES
SELECTION
& SE...
Gender differences in achievement
External
Factors
The Impact
of Feminism
Changes in the
Family
Girls’ Changing
Ambitions
...
Gender differences in achievement
Internal
Factors
WHY DO BOYS
UNDERACHIEVE?
WHY DO GIRLS
DO BETTER?
Equal
Opportunities
P...
Subject Choice & Gender Identity
Differences
Between
Girls & Boys
Subject
Choice
Gender
Identity
Early
Socialisation
Gende...
Roles/Functions of Education
Functionalists
Durkheim Parsons
SOCIAL
SOLIDARITY
MERITOCRACY
Davis & Moore
ROLE
ALLOCATION
S...
Roles/Functions of Education
New Right
Chubb & Moe
CONSUMER
CHOICE
FRAMEWORK
OF COMPETITION
TRANSMISSION
OF SHARED
CULTURE...
Roles/Functions of Education
Marxists
Althusser
Bowles
& Gintis
Ideological
State Apparatus
MYTH of
MERITOCRACY
Willis
ROL...
Perspectives on Education
Feminists
Liberal Radical
Positive changes
so far – moving towards
meritocracy
Education system ...
Perspectives on Education
Interactionists
MICRO
Interactions
between
pupils & teachers
Teachers affect
Self-esteem
Teacher...
Education Policy and Inequality
The
Main
Phases
The Tripartite
System
The
Comprehensive
System
Marketisation &
Parentocrac...
Education Policy and Inequality
New
Labour
Policies
Reducing
Inequality
Promoting
Diversity &
Choice
Postmodernism
& New L...
Material Deprivation Studies
• Howard (2001)
– People from poorer homes have lower
intake of vitamins & energy which affec...
Evaluation of Material
Deprivation
• Cultural Factors
– Intellectual Development
– Language
– Attitudes & Values
• Interna...
Cultural Deprivation Studies
• Douglas (1964)
– w/c parents less likely to stimulate intellectual development
by reading a...
Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation
• Keddie (1973)
– „Myth of Cultural Deprivation‟ w/c not culturally deprived –
they hav...
Cultural Capital Studies
• Bourdieu (1984)
– 3 types of Capital:
Cultural, Educational, Economic
• Gewirtz (1995)
– Those ...
Evaluation of Cultural Capital
• Sullivan (2001)
– Pupils with greater cultural capital more
likely to succeed at GCSE
– B...
Labelling Studies
• Becker (1971)
– Ideal pupil
• Cicourel and Kitsuse (1963)
– Educational Counsellors
• Ray Rist (1970)
...
Evaluation of Labelling theory
• Too deterministic
– Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels
• Fuller (1984)
– ...
Self Fulfilling Prophecy Studies
• Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968)
– Teacher Expectations – the spurters
• Douglas
– Children ...
Evaluation of Labelling theory
• Too deterministic
– Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels
• Fuller (1984)
– ...
Pupil Subculture Studies
• Lacey (1970)
– Differentiation and Polarisation – pro-
school and anti-school subcultures
• Har...
Evaluation of Pupil Subcultures
• Furlong (1984)
– Students respond differently with
different teachers
BACK
Material Deprivation & Class
Studies
• Flaherty (2004)
– Pakistani and Bangladeshi‟s more likely to
suffer from poverty an...
Cultural Deprivation Studies
• Bereiter & Engelmann
– Language of low-income black American families
inadequate for educat...
Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation
• Swann Report (1985)
– Language not a major factor in under-achievement.
• Driver (197...
Labelling & Teacher Racism Studies
• Gillborn and Youdell (2000)
– Teacher‟s racialised expectations of black
pupils
• Wri...
Pupil responses & subcultures
• Fuller (1984)
– Rejection of negative labels
• Mac an Ghaill (1992)
– Labelling does not a...
Evaluation of labelling and pupil responses
• Mirza
– Strategies devised to avoid teacher racism
may limit opportunities
•...
The ethnocentric curriculum studies
• Troyna and Williams (1986)
– British curriculum gives priority to white culture
• Ba...
Institutional Racism Studies
• Troyna and Williams
– Schools and colleges routinely discriminate
against ethnic minorities...
Selection and Segregation Studies
• Gillborn (1997)
– Marketisation has given schools more scope
for selection putting min...
Impact of Feminism Studies
• McRobbie (1994)
– Comparison of girls magazines from 70‟s
and 90‟s
BACK
Changes in the Family
• Increase divorce rate
• Increase in co-habitation
• Decrease in first marriages
• Increase in lone...
Changes in Women‟s employment
• 1970 Equal Pay Act
• More women in employment
• Pay gap has decreased
• Women now breaking...
Girls‟ changing ambitions studies
• Sharpe (1994)
– Comparison of interviews on girls ambitions
from 70‟s and 90‟s
• Franc...
Early socialisation studies
• Norman (1988)
– Boys and girls treated differently according to sex
• Byrne (1979)
– Teacher...
Gendered subject images studies
• Kelly (1988)
– Science seen as boys subject
• Colley (1998)
– Computer studies seen as m...
Peer Pressure studies
• Paetcher (1998)
– Girls who choose sport have to go against
stereotype
• Dewar (1990)
– Male stude...
Boys and Literacy studies
• DCSF (2007)
– Gender gap is down to boys‟ poorer literacy
& language skills
BACK
Feminisation of education studies
• Sewell
– Boys fall behind as education has become
feminised
BACK
Shortage of male primary school
teachers studies
• DfES (2007)
– Men make up only 16% of primary school teachers
• Yougov ...
„Laddish‟ subcultures studies
• Epstein (1998)
– W/C boys likely to be bullied and subject to
homophobic abuse if they are...
Equal opportunities policies
studies
• Boaler (1998)
– Impact of equal opp‟s policies main reason
for change in girls‟ ach...
Positive role models in schools
studies
• DfES (2007)
– Increase in numbers of female teachers
and head teachers
BACK
GCSE and Coursework studies
• Gorard (2005)
– Gender gap was constant until introduction
of coursework
• Mitsos and Browne...
Teacher attention studies
• Spender (1983)
– Teachers spend more time interacting with boys
• French & French (1993)
– Boy...
Challenging stereotypes in the
curriculum studies
• Weiner (1995)
– Since 80‟s teachers have challenged gender
stereotypes...
Selection and League Tables
studies
• Jackson (1998)
– Girls a better prospect for high achieving
schools
• Slee (1998)
– ...
Recent Educational Policies
• Rise in Tuition Fees
• Scrapping of E.M.A.
• English Baccalaureate
• Check the news for any ...
Item A
• Always read and highlight key parts
• Is there to trigger your memory and
give you a hook into your essays
• You ...
Question 01
• 2 Marks available
• Define a key term:
– E.g. “What is meant by….”
• Should be one good sentence – NO
MORE!!...
Question 02
• 6 marks available
• Suggest or Identify 3 things
– No explanation needed
– Simple bullet points fine
• Don‟t...
Question 03
• 12 marks available
• Mini essay – intro and conclusion needed
• You need to show some evaluation
– i.e. an a...
Question 04
• 20 marks available
• A good essay will have:
– Intro
– Main Body – including analysis & evaluation
– Conclus...
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  1. 1. Education Revision Topics • Class Differences in Achievement • Ethnic Differences in Achievement • Gender Differences in Achievement • Roles/Functions of Education • Perspectives on Education • Education Policy and Inequality • Education Exam Questions EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS SUBJECT CHOICE FUNCTIONALISTS MARXISTSNEW RIGHT INTERACTIONISTSFEMINISTS MAIN PHASES NEW LABOUR Q - 01 Q - 02 Q - 03 Q - 04ITEM A Click on the links to access your chosen revision topic RECENT POLICIES
  2. 2. Class differences in achievement External Factors MATERIAL FACTORS CULTURAL FACTORS CULTURAL CAPITAL Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual Development Language Attitudes and Values To Contents
  3. 3. Class differences in achievement Internal Factors LABELLING THEORY SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY PUPIL SUBCULTURES MARKETISATION AND SELECTION POLICIES Primary Schools Secondary Schools High & Low Status Knowledge Teacher Expectations Streaming and S.F.P Differentiation & Polarisation Abolishing Streaming A-C Economy & Educational Triage Competition and Selection Other Pupil Responses To Contents
  4. 4. Ethnic differences in achievement External Factors MATERIAL DEPRIVATION & CLASS CULTURAL DEPRIVATION Housing Diet and Health Financial Support & Cost of Education Intellectual and Linguistic Skills Family structure and Parental Suport Attitudes and Values RACISM IN WIDER SOCIETY Causes Poverty To Contents
  5. 5. Ethnic differences in achievement Internal Factors LABELLING & TEACHER RACISM PUPIL RESPONSES & SUBCULTURES SELECTION & SEGREGATION INSTITUTIONAL RACISM THE ETHNOCENTRIC CURRICULUM To Contents
  6. 6. Gender differences in achievement External Factors The Impact of Feminism Changes in the Family Girls’ Changing Ambitions Changes in Women’s Employment To Contents
  7. 7. Gender differences in achievement Internal Factors WHY DO BOYS UNDERACHIEVE? WHY DO GIRLS DO BETTER? Equal Opportunities Policies Positive role models In schools Selection and League Tables GCSE & coursework Teacher attention & Classroom interaction Challenging Stereotypes in the Curriculum Boys & Literacy Globalisation & The Decline of traditional Men’s jobs Feminisation Of Education Shortage of Male Primary School Teachers ‘Laddish’ subcultures To Contents
  8. 8. Subject Choice & Gender Identity Differences Between Girls & Boys Subject Choice Gender Identity Early Socialisation Gendered Subject Images Peer Pressure Gendered Career Opportunities Verbal Abuse Male Peer Groups The Male Gaze Teachers & Discipline Double Standards To Contents
  9. 9. Roles/Functions of Education Functionalists Durkheim Parsons SOCIAL SOLIDARITY MERITOCRACY Davis & Moore ROLE ALLOCATION SPECIALIST SKILLS To Contents
  10. 10. Roles/Functions of Education New Right Chubb & Moe CONSUMER CHOICE FRAMEWORK OF COMPETITION TRANSMISSION OF SHARED CULTURE To Contents
  11. 11. Roles/Functions of Education Marxists Althusser Bowles & Gintis Ideological State Apparatus MYTH of MERITOCRACY Willis ROLE ALLOCATION Reproduction of Inequality Legitimation of Inequality HIDDEN CURRICULUM CORRESPONDANCE PRINCIPLE To Contents
  12. 12. Perspectives on Education Feminists Liberal Radical Positive changes so far – moving towards meritocracy Education system still Patriarchal To Contents
  13. 13. Perspectives on Education Interactionists MICRO Interactions between pupils & teachers Teachers affect Self-esteem Teachers play Crucial role in Students’ success To Contents
  14. 14. Education Policy and Inequality The Main Phases The Tripartite System The Comprehensive System Marketisation & Parentocracy Reproduction of Inequality Exam League Tables Funding Formula Myth of Parentocracy To Contents
  15. 15. Education Policy and Inequality New Labour Policies Reducing Inequality Promoting Diversity & Choice Postmodernism & New Labour Policies Policies Relating To Gender & Ethnicity •GIST •WISE •Assimilation •Multi-cultural Ed. •Social Inclusion •EAZ •Aim Higher •EMA •School til 18 •Specialist Schools •Academies To Contents To more recent policies
  16. 16. Material Deprivation Studies • Howard (2001) – People from poorer homes have lower intake of vitamins & energy which affects concentration • Ridge (2002) – Children in poverty take on jobs which impacts on education
  17. 17. Evaluation of Material Deprivation • Cultural Factors – Intellectual Development – Language – Attitudes & Values • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACK
  18. 18. Cultural Deprivation Studies • Douglas (1964) – w/c parents less likely to stimulate intellectual development by reading at home etc. • Bernstein (1975) – Speech codes • Hyman (1967) – W/c beliefs are „self-imposed barrier to success‟ • Sugarman (1970) – Working class subculture: Fatalism/collectivism/immediate gratification/present-time orientation
  19. 19. Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Keddie (1973) – „Myth of Cultural Deprivation‟ w/c not culturally deprived – they have their own culture • Material Factors – Housing – Diet & Health – Financial Support & the Cost of Education • Internal (In-school) Factors and Processes – Labelling & S.F.P – Pupil subcultures – Setting & Streaming – Marketisation & Selection Policies BACK
  20. 20. Cultural Capital Studies • Bourdieu (1984) – 3 types of Capital: Cultural, Educational, Economic • Gewirtz (1995) – Those with higher cultural capital more likely to benefit from marketisation and increased parental choice.
  21. 21. Evaluation of Cultural Capital • Sullivan (2001) – Pupils with greater cultural capital more likely to succeed at GCSE – BUT… w/c pupils with same level of cultural capital still did worse – SO… Cultural capital cannot be the only factor to blame for differences in educational achievement BACK
  22. 22. Labelling Studies • Becker (1971) – Ideal pupil • Cicourel and Kitsuse (1963) – Educational Counsellors • Ray Rist (1970) – Tigers, Cardinals and Clowns • Gillborn and Youdell (2001) – W/C and black pupils more likely to be perceived as low ability and put in low sets • Keddie (1971) – High and Low Status Knowledge in different sets
  23. 23. Evaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACK
  24. 24. Self Fulfilling Prophecy Studies • Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968) – Teacher Expectations – the spurters • Douglas – Children in low streams IQ declines, but in high streams IQ improves
  25. 25. Evaluation of Labelling theory • Too deterministic – Assumes pupils have no choice but to fulfil labels • Fuller (1984) – Black girls who rejected negative labels and succeeded • Marxists – Labelling theory ignores wider structures of power – inequality of education system to blame for w/c underachievement, not teachers/labels themselves. BACK
  26. 26. Pupil Subculture Studies • Lacey (1970) – Differentiation and Polarisation – pro- school and anti-school subcultures • Hargreaves (1967) – Delinquent subculture – helped guarantee failure • Woods (1979) – Ingratiation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellio n
  27. 27. Evaluation of Pupil Subcultures • Furlong (1984) – Students respond differently with different teachers BACK
  28. 28. Material Deprivation & Class Studies • Flaherty (2004) – Pakistani and Bangladeshi‟s more likely to suffer from poverty and related material deprivation BACK
  29. 29. Cultural Deprivation Studies • Bereiter & Engelmann – Language of low-income black American families inadequate for educational success • Moynihan (1965) – Black lone parent families – no father figure leads to lack of care as mother has to work • Driver and Ballard (1981) – Asian family structures bring educational benefits
  30. 30. Evaluation of Cultural Deprivation • Swann Report (1985) – Language not a major factor in under-achievement. • Driver (1977) – Cultural deprivation theory ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement • Lawrence (1982) – Black pupils fail because of racism not weak culture • Keddie – Cultural deprivation is a victim-blaming theory. BACK
  31. 31. Labelling & Teacher Racism Studies • Gillborn and Youdell (2000) – Teacher‟s racialised expectations of black pupils • Wright (1992) – Ethnocentrism leads to teachers treating asian pupils differently BACK
  32. 32. Pupil responses & subcultures • Fuller (1984) – Rejection of negative labels • Mac an Ghaill (1992) – Labelling does not always produce self-fulfilling prophecy • Mirza (1992) – 3 types of teacher racism: colour-blind, liberal chauvinists, overt-racists • Sewell (1988) – Rebels, conformists, retreatists, innovators
  33. 33. Evaluation of labelling and pupil responses • Mirza – Strategies devised to avoid teacher racism may limit opportunities • Danger of blaming teacher racism, and ignoring wider problems within wider society. BACK
  34. 34. The ethnocentric curriculum studies • Troyna and Williams (1986) – British curriculum gives priority to white culture • Ball (1994) – National curriculum promotes „little Englandism‟ • Coard (2005) – British history lessons undermine self-esteem of ethnic minority pupils BACK
  35. 35. Institutional Racism Studies • Troyna and Williams – Schools and colleges routinely discriminate against ethnic minorities • Hatcher (1996) – School governing bodies give race issues low priority and do not deal with racist behaviour BACK
  36. 36. Selection and Segregation Studies • Gillborn (1997) – Marketisation has given schools more scope for selection putting minorities at a disadvantage • The Commission for Racial Equality (1993) – Racist school admission procedures mean ethnic minorities end up in poorer schools BACK
  37. 37. Impact of Feminism Studies • McRobbie (1994) – Comparison of girls magazines from 70‟s and 90‟s BACK
  38. 38. Changes in the Family • Increase divorce rate • Increase in co-habitation • Decrease in first marriages • Increase in lone-parent families • Smaller families BACK
  39. 39. Changes in Women‟s employment • 1970 Equal Pay Act • More women in employment • Pay gap has decreased • Women now breaking through „glass ceiling‟ BACK
  40. 40. Girls‟ changing ambitions studies • Sharpe (1994) – Comparison of interviews on girls ambitions from 70‟s and 90‟s • Francis (2001) – Girls had high ambitions – few saw future in traditional „female‟ jobs. BACK
  41. 41. Early socialisation studies • Norman (1988) – Boys and girls treated differently according to sex • Byrne (1979) – Teachers encourage different behaviours • Murphy and Elwood (1998) – Different tastes in reading lead to different subject choices • Browne and Ross (1991) – Gender domains BACK
  42. 42. Gendered subject images studies • Kelly (1988) – Science seen as boys subject • Colley (1998) – Computer studies seen as masculine • DfES (2007) – Pupils as single sex schools hold less stereotyped subject images BACK
  43. 43. Peer Pressure studies • Paetcher (1998) – Girls who choose sport have to go against stereotype • Dewar (1990) – Male students call sporty girls butch or lesbian BACK
  44. 44. Boys and Literacy studies • DCSF (2007) – Gender gap is down to boys‟ poorer literacy & language skills BACK
  45. 45. Feminisation of education studies • Sewell – Boys fall behind as education has become feminised BACK
  46. 46. Shortage of male primary school teachers studies • DfES (2007) – Men make up only 16% of primary school teachers • Yougov (2007) – 42% of 8-11 boys say male teachers make them work harder • Francis (2006) – 2/3 of 7-8 year olds say teacher gender makes no difference BACK
  47. 47. „Laddish‟ subcultures studies • Epstein (1998) – W/C boys likely to be bullied and subject to homophobic abuse if they are seen as „swots‟ • Francis (2001) – Boys more worried about being swots than girls BACK
  48. 48. Equal opportunities policies studies • Boaler (1998) – Impact of equal opp‟s policies main reason for change in girls‟ achievement BACK
  49. 49. Positive role models in schools studies • DfES (2007) – Increase in numbers of female teachers and head teachers BACK
  50. 50. GCSE and Coursework studies • Gorard (2005) – Gender gap was constant until introduction of coursework • Mitsos and Browne (1998) – Girls better at coursework than boys as more conscientious BACK
  51. 51. Teacher attention studies • Spender (1983) – Teachers spend more time interacting with boys • French & French (1993) – Boys only received more attention because of reprimands • Francis (2001) – Boys felt picked on and disciplined more harshly • Swann and Graddol (1994) – Way teachers interact with girls more positive as focussed on schoolwork not behaviour • Swann (1998) – Boys dominate whole class discussion – girls better at listening and co-operating BACK
  52. 52. Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum studies • Weiner (1995) – Since 80‟s teachers have challenged gender stereotypes in academic resources BACK
  53. 53. Selection and League Tables studies • Jackson (1998) – Girls a better prospect for high achieving schools • Slee (1998) – Boys seen a „liability‟ students and unattractive to schools because of behaviour problems BACK
  54. 54. Recent Educational Policies • Rise in Tuition Fees • Scrapping of E.M.A. • English Baccalaureate • Check the news for any current changes to the education system – this will be very useful for your exam BACK
  55. 55. Item A • Always read and highlight key parts • Is there to trigger your memory and give you a hook into your essays • You must refer to it • Develop it, but don‟t copy it To Contents
  56. 56. Question 01 • 2 Marks available • Define a key term: – E.g. “What is meant by….” • Should be one good sentence – NO MORE!! To Contents
  57. 57. Question 02 • 6 marks available • Suggest or Identify 3 things – No explanation needed – Simple bullet points fine • Don‟t waste time by writing loads here! To Contents
  58. 58. Question 03 • 12 marks available • Mini essay – intro and conclusion needed • You need to show some evaluation – i.e. an alternative view/argument To Contents
  59. 59. Question 04 • 20 marks available • A good essay will have: – Intro – Main Body – including analysis & evaluation – Conclusion • Stay focused by referring to question throughout • Use the item, but do not rely on it!!! To Contents

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