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  1. 1. Biological Approach – Unit 2 Defining the approach Methodology Twin studies Adoption studies Evaluating the methodology Generalisation Bias Brain scanning techniques MRI PET Key terminology central nervous system (CNS) synapse receptor neuron neurotransmitter genes hormones brain lateralisation PET scans MRI scans concordance rates lesion studies nature nurture generalisability bias independent variable dependent variable gonads SRY androgenital syndrome androgen insensitivity syndrome Laboratory experiments and the use of animals Lesion studies Validity Generalisability Reliability Evaluating the use of animals Credibility Ethical issues Practical issues Central Nervous System and human behaviour Synaptic transmission Nature-nurture debate Genes and human behaviour XX XY Gonads SRY
  2. 2. Hormones and human behaviour H-Y antigen Mullerian system Wolfian system Anti-Mullerian hormone Brain lateralisation Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Bilateral activity Left side Right side Key Issue: Is autism an ‘extreme male brain’ condition? Symptoms Male bran structure is different to female brain structure Male brain function is different from female brain function Male hormones affect development Evaluating biological influences on gender development Use of animal research Pseudo-hermaphrodites Problems with hormones Social Learning theory (SLT) A combination of biology and the environment Studies in detail – Ablation Penis: Normal male infant sex-reassigned as a girl (Money, 1975) (A, P, Analysis, C and evaluation) Another study from De Bellis, Raine et al or Gottesman and Shields (APRC and SW)
  3. 3. Practical – quasi experiment re special ability of males and females Experimental design Participant design Sampling Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Aim IV DV Procedure Results Measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode Mann-Whiney U statistical test Type of data? Participant design Difference or correlation between groups? Critical value Observed value Reject or accept the null? Evaluation Validity Reliability Generalisability Credibility Autism may be genetic Other biological causes

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