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  1. 1. Psychodynamic Approach – Unit 2 Defining the approach Unconscious Conscious Preconscious Neuroses Psychoses Who was Freud? What were Freud’s theories Erogenous zones Fixated Oedipus complex The case study research method Case histories Triangulation Freud’s style of case study Free association Slips of the tongue Psychoanalysis Analysands Dream and symbol analysis Manifest content Latent content Key terminology • id • ego • superego • oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stages • repression • Oedipus complex • defence mechanisms • unconscious, conscious, preconscious • free association • slips of the tongue • psychoanalysis • dream analysis • manifest content • latent content • reliability • generalisability • qualitative data • quantitative data • credibility Strengths and weaknesses of case studies Strengths Weaknesses Reliability Generalisability Strengths and weaknesses of Freud’s case studies Issues surrounding case studies Qualitative data Quantitative data Ethical issues Credibility
  2. 2. Key Issue: The debate about whether dreams have meaning Describing the issue Explaining the issue Unconscious id ego superego Biological explanations Evidence? Analysis of qualitative data Case studies and ethical issues Privacy and confidentiality Freud’s case studies and credibility Criticisms of psychoanalysis Transference Sampling Random Stratified Volunteer Opportunity Correlational designs Self-report data Rating scales Levels of measurement Ordinal data Nominal data Interval/ratio data Positive correlations Negative correlations Inferential statistics Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient Strengths of correlational designs Weaknesses of correlational designs Longitudinal Studies Strengths Weaknesses Cross-sectional studies Strengths Weaknesses
  3. 3. Freud’s theory of personality Id Ego Superego Morality principle Defence mechanisms Unconscious Preconscious Conscious Defence mechanisms Freud’s five stages of psychosexual development Oral stage Oral character Anal stage Anal expulsive Anal retentive Phallic stage Oedipus complex Electra complex Latency period Genital stage Practical Background Aim Hypothesis Variables Procedure Questionnaires Sampling Data gathering Results Rank data Scatter gram Strengths of Freud’s theory Weaknesses of Freud’s theory Contrasting Freud’s explanation of gender with other theories Methodology Nature Nurture Scientific Accounts for changes over time Focuses on early years Focuses on parental contribution
  4. 4. Studies in detail Freud’s case study of Little Hans (1909) Aim Procedure Description of themes Case study analysis Conclusions Evaluation Strengths Weaknesses Studies in detail Dibs: Personality development in play therapy (Axline, 1964) Aim Procedure Description of themes Case study analysis Conclusions Evaluation Strengths Weaknesses Spearman’s Rank Critical value Observed value Significant or not? Reject or accept null?