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Resourcd File


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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Social Approach – Unit 1 Defining the approach Methodology Survey Hypothesis Alternative hypothesis Null hypothesis Open questions Closed questions Likert-type scale Qualitative data Quantitative data Interview Questionnaire Interviews Structured Unstructured Pilot study Representativeness Generalising Sampling Random Stratified Opportunity Volunteer Ethical issues Fully-informed consent Debriefing Avoiding deception Right to withdraw Competence Protection from psychological and physical harm Key terminology • agentic state • autonomous state • moral strain • in-group, out-group • social categorisation • social identification • social comparison • survey • self-report data • hypothesis • null hypothesis • alternative hypothesis • open question • closed question • qualitative data • quantitative data • interview • questionnaire • unstructured interview • structured interview • Likert-type scale • pilot study • sampling • representativeness Evaluation of survey methods Reliability Validity Subjectivity Behavioural study of obedience to malevolent authority (Milgram, 1963) (APRC)
  2. 2. • generalising Key Issue: Obedience to authority in a prison setting: Abu Ghraib Describe the issue What event was taking place at the time? What happened at Abu Ghraib? What was the outcome of this? Explaining the issue The power of the situation Agentic state Agency theory Variations on Milgram’s baseline (APRC, S&W) Evaluation of Milgram’s study (S&W) Validity Experimental validity Ecological validity Population validity Reliability Ethics Administrative obedience: Carrying out orders to use psychological -administrative violence (Meeus and Raajimakers, 1985) (APRC) Evaluation of Meeus and Raajimakers and comparison with Milgram Validity Agency theory Autonomous state Agentic state Evaluation of agency theory Prejudice and discrimination Prejudice Discrimination Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1970) Definition Social categorisation In-groups Out-groups Social identification Social comparison Evaluation of SIT Football hooliganism Other evidence Useful applications Problems with the theory
  3. 3. Studies in detail – Experimental study in Nurse-Physician relationships (Hofling et al., 1966) (APRC, S&W) Another study Inter-group conflict and co-operation: The Robber’s Cave experiment (Sherif et al., 1961) (APRC, S&W) In-groups Out-groups Tajfel Sherif Any evidence of the autonomous state? Practical –using a questionnaire to carry out a survey Planning Target population Sampling Operationalising variables Variables Hypothesis Qualitative data Quantitative data Pilot study Mean Median Mode Evaluation of practical Operationalisation of variables Types of questions Research method used Sample Subjective interpretation of qualitative data Conclusion