Social psychology
Social Influence
AS
Learning Objectives
• Distinguish between conformity, compliance,
and internalisation.
• Explain how psychologists have in...
Social psychology
• Social psychologists are interested in the
interaction between people rather than
cognitive processes....
Conformity
• Learning objectives
• Distinguish between conformity, compliance
and internalisation.
• Explain how psycholog...
Conformity
• How do we conform? Can you think of any
examples in your every day life?
• Uniform
• Fashion
• Music tastes
Uniform
Fashion
Music
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtUH2YSFl
VU
Sherif (1936)
• People use other peoples behaviour to decide
what to do.
• Autokinetic effect – an optical illusion
• Part...
Sherif (1936)
• This is an ambiguous task as no correct answer as
light does NOT move
• Dramatic variation in response
• R...
Kelman (1958)
• Kelman argued that there are 3 types of
conformity
• 1 Compliance
• 2 Identification
• 3 Internalisation
•...
Kelman (1958)
• Compliance
• Most superficial type
• Laugh at a joke they don’t find funny
• Their personal views do not c...
Kelman (1958)
• Identification
• Deeper type of conformity
• Change in personal view although may be
temporary
• Joining t...
Kelman (1958)
• Internalisation
• Deepest level of conformity
• Personal views are changed on a permanent
basis
• Student ...
Compliance
• Clark (1989)
• Disagrees as in court an individual influences
the hury as a group
• Zimbardo
Asch (1951)
• Solomon Asch believed that conformity was a
rational process where people work out how
to behave from other ...
Asch (1951)
• Groups of 6 -9 people
• 1 participant in each
group and the
rest confederates.
Asch (1951)
• 25% of participants remained independent and
gave the correct answer on each trial.
• The overall conformity...
Methodological issues
• Asch & Sherif
• Cognitive approach to social psychology
• Highly controlled to ensure social press...
Ethics
• No principal informed consent
• Stress and anxiety – unlikely to have
lasting damage
?
• Sherif
• Asch
• What did they do?
• What did they suggest from their study?
Internalisation
• Asch (1951) participants personal views were not
changed in any way – this is compliance.
• Internalisat...
Clark (1998/9)
• 1954 film
• ‘12 angry men’
• Clark wanted
to test 2
predictions
Clark (1998/9)
• The minority could exert its influence through
the information presented and the persuasive
nature of the...
Clark (1998/9)
• 220 psychology students – 129 women / 91 men
• They were all given a 4 page booklet with a
summary of the...
Clark (1989/9)
• Clark varied the information given to the
participants about the defense and their
counter arguments
• Mi...
12 angry men
• Henry Fonda – produced in court an identical knife
that he had bought from a nearby junk shop
• The man cou...
Methodological Issues
• Simulation of a realistic situation in which
social influence takes place
• Costs of participants ...
Ethical Issues
• The participants were all briefed and fully
understood what the task was therefore they
were not subjecte...
Identification
• Identification is the third type of conformity.
• This happens when the individual takes on the
views of ...
Zimbardo (1971)
• Stanford University in America
• ‘Mock’ prison in the basement over the
summer holidays
• Zimbardo wante...
Zimbardo (1971)
Zimbardo (1971)
• 24 male recruits – volunteers
• Randomly allocated roles as either guard or
prisoner
• Prisoners were ar...
Zimbardo (1971)
• Ordinary, stable individuals can abuse power
and behave in violent and anti-social ways if
placed in a s...
Reicher (2006)
• Replication of Zimbardo’s study in UK
• 15 males aged between 22 and 44 were selected
• Randomly allocate...
The importance of time
• Reichers study was carried out 30 years after
Zimbardos
• Volunteers are much more street wise th...
Considerations
• Time
• Place
• Culture
• Sample size and selection
• Modern technologies
Summary
• Sherif
• kelman
• Asch
• Moscovici
• Clark
• Zimbardo
• Reicher
Homework
• Compare the methods used by Moscovici and
Clark to investigate minority influence.
• Which do you consider to b...
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  • Conformity rate based on the number of trials in which naïve participants gave the same wrong answer as the confederates
  • No relationships have formedLong lasting ties with friends, family may cause greater conformity1950s america – certain culture and context of the era
  • Participants were not informed before of what they would be doing so could not withdrawWould be impossible to measure conformity of they knew beforehand
  • Use white boards to write the main conclusions from sherifs and aschs studies
  • Galileo – earth travels around the sun – very contraversial at the timeMarch 2014 – gay marriage became legalSufferegettes got the vote – Page 190 – Moscovicifrechpsychologit – 6 groups of people with 4 participants and 2 confederates.Where the 2 confederates were consistent the minority influence was higher.
  • Watch film
  • 2 predictions
  • Page 193 in text book24 male recruits – psychological tests to see who is most stable, with no violent tendencies or criminal backgroundPrisoners were deloused, searched and given a number – all were arrested early in the morning from their homes.Guards were given a uniform, stick or truncheon and sun glassesGuards behaviour escalated and they humiliated the prisoners, kept them awake, and force fed one prisoner
  • White board – key points for each study
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. Social psychology Social Influence AS
    2. 2. Learning Objectives • Distinguish between conformity, compliance, and internalisation. • Explain how psychologists have investigated different types of conformity. • The differences in conformity shown in different times and places.
    3. 3. Social psychology • Social psychologists are interested in the interaction between people rather than cognitive processes. • How people form relationships, form sexual relationships, interact with strangers and how they behave in large groups are all studied. • We will consider the study of conformity and of obedience – two ways in which others may influence us.
    4. 4. Conformity • Learning objectives • Distinguish between conformity, compliance and internalisation. • Explain how psychologists have investigated different types of conformity. • The differences in conformity shown in differet times and places.
    5. 5. Conformity • How do we conform? Can you think of any examples in your every day life? • Uniform • Fashion • Music tastes
    6. 6. Uniform
    7. 7. Fashion
    8. 8. Music • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtUH2YSFl VU
    9. 9. Sherif (1936) • People use other peoples behaviour to decide what to do. • Autokinetic effect – an optical illusion • Participants were put in a darkened room, with no visible objects and asked to focus on a single spot of light. • They were asked how far the light had moved and in what direction
    10. 10. Sherif (1936) • This is an ambiguous task as no correct answer as light does NOT move • Dramatic variation in response • Repeated experiment in groups of 3 • Sherif found that individuals changed their individual views and converged or agreed with with others within the group. • Group norm was formed
    11. 11. Kelman (1958) • Kelman argued that there are 3 types of conformity • 1 Compliance • 2 Identification • 3 Internalisation • These types of conformity reflect the amount of conformity by considering research studies that demonstrate them.
    12. 12. Kelman (1958) • Compliance • Most superficial type • Laugh at a joke they don’t find funny • Their personal views do not change • ‘going along’ with the majority
    13. 13. Kelman (1958) • Identification • Deeper type of conformity • Change in personal view although may be temporary • Joining the army and wanting to have similar beliefs and views in order to fit in.
    14. 14. Kelman (1958) • Internalisation • Deepest level of conformity • Personal views are changed on a permanent basis • Student at university meets another who is an animal activist and becomes a vegetarian and takes those beliefs with them.
    15. 15. Compliance • Clark (1989) • Disagrees as in court an individual influences the hury as a group • Zimbardo
    16. 16. Asch (1951) • Solomon Asch believed that conformity was a rational process where people work out how to behave from other peoples actions. • How would people react when being confronted with a majority who were plainly wrong in their judgements. • Will their own views conform to the majority? • What do you think?
    17. 17. Asch (1951) • Groups of 6 -9 people • 1 participant in each group and the rest confederates.
    18. 18. Asch (1951) • 25% of participants remained independent and gave the correct answer on each trial. • The overall conformity rate was 37% • 5% conformed on every trial – most conformist • When questioned participants said they felt self conscious and anxious about their responses and some reported feelings of stress. • They knew inside that they were giving incorrect answers
    19. 19. Methodological issues • Asch & Sherif • Cognitive approach to social psychology • Highly controlled to ensure social pressure can be manipulated. • Asch – lacks validty due to people being around strangers, not a real life experience
    20. 20. Ethics • No principal informed consent • Stress and anxiety – unlikely to have lasting damage
    21. 21. ? • Sherif • Asch • What did they do? • What did they suggest from their study?
    22. 22. Internalisation • Asch (1951) participants personal views were not changed in any way – this is compliance. • Internalisation is when people take on others’ views as their own. • Majority & Minority influence • Minority influence – should be consistent in order to exert an influence • Serge Moscovici (1969) colour slides
    23. 23. Clark (1998/9) • 1954 film • ‘12 angry men’ • Clark wanted to test 2 predictions
    24. 24. Clark (1998/9) • The minority could exert its influence through the information presented and the persuasive nature of the minority’s argument. • The minority could influence the majority through changes in behaviour or ‘ deflections’ – Seeing other people change their view can have a powerful effect on the individulas own beliefs.
    25. 25. Clark (1998/9) • 220 psychology students – 129 women / 91 men • They were all given a 4 page booklet with a summary of the 12 angry men. • The booklet contained evidence of his guilt • He had purchased a knife from a local store • 2 witnesses – 1 man / 1 woman • Claims the man heard him say ‘ I am going to kill you’
    26. 26. Clark (1989/9) • Clark varied the information given to the participants about the defense and their counter arguments • Minority was only successful if counter evidence was provided. • This supports that the information given by the minority is important.
    27. 27. 12 angry men • Henry Fonda – produced in court an identical knife that he had bought from a nearby junk shop • The man could have seen or heard the murder as his old age and disabilities meant it took him too long to get to the window in the apartment • The old woman could not have seen the defendant as she had very bad eyesight and as not wearing her glasses
    28. 28. Methodological Issues • Simulation of a realistic situation in which social influence takes place • Costs of participants making an error in this study are far less than real life jury decision making. • It is questionable how far the results of this role play can be generalised to real life jury service.
    29. 29. Ethical Issues • The participants were all briefed and fully understood what the task was therefore they were not subjected to any stress or discomfort. • Much more ethically acceptable than previous experiments by Sherif and Asch as no deception or stress
    30. 30. Identification • Identification is the third type of conformity. • This happens when the individual takes on the views of a group they join or admire.
    31. 31. Zimbardo (1971) • Stanford University in America • ‘Mock’ prison in the basement over the summer holidays • Zimbardo wanted to see if the brutality found in many prisons at the time was a consequence of the personality of the guards or identification with the social roles in which they were placed.
    32. 32. Zimbardo (1971)
    33. 33. Zimbardo (1971) • 24 male recruits – volunteers • Randomly allocated roles as either guard or prisoner • Prisoners were arrested and allocated a number • Guards were given a uniform, night stick and sunglasses and instructed to keep the prisoners in check but to use no physical violence • Called off after 6 days
    34. 34. Zimbardo (1971) • Ordinary, stable individuals can abuse power and behave in violent and anti-social ways if placed in a situation that facilitates this. • Critics have called the prison ‘a living hell’
    35. 35. Reicher (2006) • Replication of Zimbardo’s study in UK • 15 males aged between 22 and 44 were selected • Randomly allocated to prisoner or guard as doe in Zimbardo’s • Guards were unwilling to impose any authority • Groups attempted to establish a fair and equal social system
    36. 36. The importance of time • Reichers study was carried out 30 years after Zimbardos • Volunteers are much more street wise than in previous study • Social models in the twenty-first century are less clearly defined and seen differently than in 1970s
    37. 37. Considerations • Time • Place • Culture • Sample size and selection • Modern technologies
    38. 38. Summary • Sherif • kelman • Asch • Moscovici • Clark • Zimbardo • Reicher
    39. 39. Homework • Compare the methods used by Moscovici and Clark to investigate minority influence. • Which do you consider to be better and why?

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