Name ………………………………………
Revision activity
booklet for Paper 2
Topic 6 – Social Inequality
Social inequality
What is social inequality and stratification? Green Amber Red
What so sociologists mean by the term soci...
What inequalities do people face in youth and in old age?
How are wealth, income and poverty distributed in
the UK?
Is wea...
Social Inequality glossary list
Absolute poverty
Achieved status
Ageism
Ascribed status
Asylum seeker
Culture of poverty
C...
Glass ceiling
Income
Institutional racism
Life chances
Means testing
Middle class
Patriarchy
Poverty trap
Racial discrimin...
Scapegoat
Selective benefits
Sex discrimination
Sexism
Social exclusion
Social mobility
Social security
Socio-economic cla...
Universal benefits
Voluntary sector
Wealth
Welfare reform
Welfare state
Welfare to work
Working class
What is stratification?
Stratification describes the way in which different groups of people are placed
within society. Th...
During your revision, you need to be aware that life chances are determined by
factors such as;
o Social class
o Gender
o ...
such changes was to tackle the dependency culture – an idea
influenced by the New Right
Since 1997 the Labour government h...
children.
You need to distinguish between the two main types of welfare benefits; universal
and selective.
UNIVERSAL SELEC...
Thatcher and John Major. Since Labour gained power in 1997, the influence of the
New Right has declined.
You also need to ...
 Loss of status and income (if the person was previously in employment).
 A decline in self-esteem.
 A decline in perso...
 Research has also found that men and women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi
heritage have much worse chances of getting prof...
Social inequality studies
Roberts – The children of unskilled workers are 50% more likely to die in
infancy than those of ...
Crompton – Found that by 2008, social mobility is in serious decline and there is
little movement between the classes now....
How to answer 4 mark questions
The pattern of these questions is:
Explain what sociologists mean by………..
EG “Explain what ...
Crime and Deviance 4 mark questions.
Explain what sociologists mean by institutional racism. (4 marks)
___________________...
How to answer 5 Mark questions
DON’T FORGET: underline / highlight the key words in the question and then use them in
your...
Describe one way in which governments have attempted to end gender
discrimination in the workplace and explain why this po...
Describe one way in which the status of the elderly may be lower than that of
other age groups in society and explain how ...
PEELing apart your essay
For your question, identify at least three points – there must be at least ONE in each
column.
So...
POINT
theory or
concept
EXPLAIN
what do
sociologists
think about
this?
EXAMPLE
evidence
from stats
or a
relevant
example
f...
Discuss how far sociologists would agree that modern Britain is a meritocratic
society.
Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologi...
Discuss how far sociologists would agree that gender discrimination in the
workplace remains an issue in Britain today.
So...
Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a person’s ethnicity is the most
important factor affecting his or her life ...
Key terms associated with social inequality
R I N E S P O C I E T Y T H E R E I S S P A
N E G U N O X E Q U A C L D I S T ...
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  1. 1. Name ……………………………………… Revision activity booklet for Paper 2 Topic 6 – Social Inequality
  2. 2. Social inequality What is social inequality and stratification? Green Amber Red What so sociologists mean by the term social inequality? How is society stratified by social class? How is society stratified by gender? How is society stratified by age? How is society stratified by gender? How does stratification affect people’s life chances? How do sociologists measure stratification based on social class? Explain Karl Marx’s views on stratification? Explain Max Weber’s views on social class? How do functionalists explain social class? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Registrar Generals’ scale? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the NS-SEC scale? How do inequalities based on gender, ethnicity and age affect people? What is gender? What inequalities are based on gender? What is ethnicity? What inequalities are based on ethnicity? What is life course?
  3. 3. What inequalities do people face in youth and in old age? How are wealth, income and poverty distributed in the UK? Is wealth distributed fairly through the UK population? What is social mobility? What is poverty? How do we measure poverty? Which social groups are most likely to experience poverty? What are the sociological explanations of poverty? What is the culture of poverty? What is the cycle of poverty? What is welfare dependency? What is the Marxist explanation of poverty? How do unemployment and the inadequacies of the welfare state explain poverty? Contemporary examples How much social mobility is there in Britain? Are other divisions in society more important the social class? Has Britain got too high a level of welfare dependency? Can you give 3 recent examples from the news that relate to anything above?
  4. 4. Social Inequality glossary list Absolute poverty Achieved status Ageism Ascribed status Asylum seeker Culture of poverty Cycle of deprivation Dependency culture Environmental poverty Ethnic diversity Ethnic group Ethnic minority
  5. 5. Glass ceiling Income Institutional racism Life chances Means testing Middle class Patriarchy Poverty trap Racial discrimination Racial equality Racial prejudice Racism Relative poverty
  6. 6. Scapegoat Selective benefits Sex discrimination Sexism Social exclusion Social mobility Social security Socio-economic class Social stratification Stereotype Subjective poverty Underclass Unemployment
  7. 7. Universal benefits Voluntary sector Wealth Welfare reform Welfare state Welfare to work Working class
  8. 8. What is stratification? Stratification describes the way in which different groups of people are placed within society. The status of people is often determined by how society is stratified - the basis of which can include; o Wealth and income - This is the most common basis of stratification o Social class o Ethnicity o Gender o Political status o Religion (e.g. the caste system in India) The stratification of society is also based upon either an open, or closed, system. OPEN CLOSED Status is achieved through merit, and effort. This is sometimes known as a meritocracy. The UK is a relatively open society, although disadvantaged groups within society face a glass ceiling. Status is ascribed, rather than achieved. Ascribed status can be based upon several factors, such as family background (e.g. the feudal system consists of landowners and serfs). Political factors may also play a role (e.g. societies organised on the basis of communism), as can ethnicity (e.g. the former apartheid regime in South Africa) and religion. Structure of inequality The power of the elite within society is based upon;  Income  Wealth  A network of social connections – sometimes known as the ‘old boys network’ In contrast the least powerful within society have few opportunities to escape from poverty. There are different explanations for this. For example the New Right sociologist Charles Murray argued that the poorest members of society had become too reliant upon welfare benefits. This had led to a gradual loss in the ability of the poor to adopt values that would take them out of poverty; such as self-reliance and personal initiative. Most people within society are neither rich nor poor. They form part of the middle-class –which is the most numerical social class within society.
  9. 9. During your revision, you need to be aware that life chances are determined by factors such as; o Social class o Gender o Schooling o Ethnicity, etc. You also need to explain why such differences in life chances exist. For example ethnic minorities often face a glass ceiling at work due to discrimination upon racial grounds; which can be either overt (or obvious), or covert (in other words, hidden). Women also face the same problem. You should also be aware of the existence of an “underclass”. Members of the underclass form norms and values that often differ to the rest of society. They are caught in a poverty trap (or cycle) from which they find very difficult to escape from. This is despite changes to the welfare and benefits system designed to get welfare claimants into work. Social change and stratification You should be aware of recent changes to the class structure of British society. There are several points to consider;  Society has become more open in recent years as people have found it easier to move from one social class to another. This most common trajectory is the movement of people from the working-class to the middle-class. Some sociologists describe this movement as embourgeoisement.  The life chances available to women have improved since the 1970s. One explanation for this is the impact of feminism.  The life chances available to people from ethnic minorities have also improved in recent years, in part due to legislation designed to prevent discrimination. Changing attitudes within society should also be considered  A small minority of people still gain a position within society via ascribed status (e.g. the royal family) You also need to identify changes to the distribution of wealth and income within society since the 1970s. For example due to changes to the tax and benefits system, the rich have gained in wealth and income. Britain now has a relatively low level of income tax for those on a high level of income. You also need to explain why such changes have occurred to the distribution of wealth and income. For example during the 1980s the number of people in poverty doubled. This was partly due to changes to the welfare state which included; o Reducing the value of welfare benefits o Encouraging people to take more responsibility for their own (and their families) needs, rather than relying upon the state. The aim of
  10. 10. such changes was to tackle the dependency culture – an idea influenced by the New Right Since 1997 the Labour government has attempted to reduce the level of poverty by; o Increasing the level of public expenditure on the welfare state o The welfare to work programme o An ideological commitment to helping those less advantaged within society Whilst the gap between rich and poor has continued to grow, there has been a decline in the rate of child poverty since Labour came to power. The government’s target is to end child poverty by the year 2020. Welfare State You need to understand changes within the welfare state since the 1970s. There are three main eras you need to be aware of; Era Changes made Influenced by Golden age of the welfare state (1945 – 1979) The scope and scale of the welfare state expanded under governments of both main parties The Beveridge report which aimed to combat the 5 evils facing society (want, ignorance, disease, squalor and idleness) Conservative government (1979 – 1997) The level of benefits was reduced, and the availability of many welfare payments was restricted. The level of taxation was also lowered in an attempt to reduce the role of the state. The New Right argued that the welfare state created a dependency culture in which welfare claimants had little incentive to return to work. The New Right had a major impact upon the Conservative governments of the 80s and 90s Labour government since 1997 Taxation has been raised in order to fund an increase in the level of public expenditure. Benefits have also been targeted towards those who are less able to provide for themselves; such as pensioners and An ideology called the Third Way. The most prominent sociologist associated with the Third Way is Anthony Giddens.
  11. 11. children. You need to distinguish between the two main types of welfare benefits; universal and selective. UNIVERSAL SELECTIVE Universal benefits are provided to all regardless of a claimant’s financial status. One example is child benefit, which is paid out to all families with children regardless of income and wealth. Selective benefits are provided on the basis of a claimant’s income and circumstance. An example of a selective benefit is the Child Tax Credit. Welfare benefits and services are usually provided by the state, but an increasing range of services are also provided by the third sector, and private firms. The STATE The THIRD SECTOR The PRIVATE SECTOR The government provides both selective and universal benefits via the welfare state The third sector consists of charities and not-for-profit organisations; such as the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Private hospitals are sometimes used to treat NHS patients. The government also works with the private sector in schemes funded by the Private Finance Initiative. There is a debate amongst sociologists over the desirability of welfare provision. Those who defend the welfare state in terms of providing basic wants and needs, and for ensuring some degree of equality within society, tend to be on the left of the political spectrum. In contrast, the main criticisms of the welfare state in recent years tend to derive from the New Right, who argue that the welfare state; o Is inefficient. o Undermines personal initiative. o Creates a culture of dependency. o Leads to high levels of taxation, which damages the economy. The New Right has itself been criticised for blaming the poor for their own problems. However, the arguments put forward by the New Right were highly influential during the 1980s and 1990s under the Conservative governments of Mrs.
  12. 12. Thatcher and John Major. Since Labour gained power in 1997, the influence of the New Right has declined. You also need to be aware that since 1997 the government has provided a substantial increase in resources for the welfare state. They have also attempted to; o Encourage people to gain employment and move off welfare. o End child poverty by the year 2020. o Create a more just society where opportunities are held by the many, not the few. The Labour party, and the Liberal Democrats; are more supportive of the welfare state. In contrast, the Conservatives are more critical of the welfare state. However in 2006 the Tories signed up to the government’s target of ending child poverty (by 2020) Poverty Whilst it is difficult to measure poverty, there are two widely accepted methods; o Absolute poverty – This is when a person cannot provide for his/her basic needs such as food and shelter. Homeless people suffer from absolute poverty. o Relative poverty - The government’s official statistics define the poverty level as those earning below 60% of average earnings. There are other measurements of poverty; such as subjective poverty and environmental poverty, but they are less widely used. You will need to refresh your knowledge of the poverty cycle. This occurs when those living below the poverty level find it difficult to escape from their circumstances. There are several reasons for this; o Welfare claimants either lose benefits, or experience a decline in the level of benefits received; when they return to work. They may therefore be worse off if they gain a job. o Welfare claimants adopt a ‘culture of poverty’ which consists of a set of norms and values that differ to those of mainstream society. This makes it very difficult for them to re-enter the labour market. o New Right theorists argue that welfare payments undermine personal initiative, thus trapping many people into poverty. As such, the poor become more and more dependent upon the welfare state – and therefore find it very difficult to escape. The impact of poverty can be hugely significant. This can include a;
  13. 13.  Loss of status and income (if the person was previously in employment).  A decline in self-esteem.  A decline in personal health.  A feeling of social exclusion. There are also implications for society. For example, a wide gap between rich and poor within society can result in social conflict. Inequality based on Gender  Feminist approaches explore gender inequalities in society. Over the last 40 years, reforms in areas such as education and employment have addressed aspects of gender inequality. The government have introduced anti- discrimination laws such as the Equal Pay Act (1970) to reduce gender inequalities.  Today women are increasingly likely to achieve high level educational qualifications, high status jobs and good salaries. Despite this, feminist approaches argue that gender remains the most significant social division in contemporary society.  Some Feminist sociologists see society as patriarchal. This is where men have a lot of power within families, politics and the workplace. Men also generally receive a bigger share of the rewards such as wealth and status. Inequality based on ethnicity  Over the last 40 years, reforms and policies have addressed inequality based on ethnicity in areas such as education, employment and criminal justice. For example, ethnicity in areas such as education and criminal justice.  Many employers have equal opportunity policies to support equality and diversity.  The 1976 Race Relations Act outlawed discrimination based on ethnicity.  The equality and Human Rights Commission has powers to enforce the equality laws and to shape public policy on equality issues.  As a result of such changes, sociologists believe that ethnic inequality is less significant now, although others argue that there has been little change in the fields of employment, education and criminal justice.  Unemployment rates in England and Wales are higher among people of Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Black Caribbean heritage than among White British or White Irish people.
  14. 14.  Research has also found that men and women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi heritage have much worse chances of getting professional and managerial jobs than their white peers of the same age and educational level. Inequality based on Age  Sociologists argue that age is socially constructed. This means that society decides how age will be interpreted. This can be seen in historical and cross- cultural differences in expectations surrounding age.  Child Labour is now illegal in Britain, it was the norm among working-class families in the 19th Century and exists in some parts of the world today.  The status of older people can also vary between cultures. In some cultures, getting old is seen as something to be avoided. In other cultures, older people are seen as having a high status in society as their experience is valued and appreciated.  The term ageism describes a situation where someone is treated differently because of their age. In Britain, there are now two regulations against age discrimination in employment and training.
  15. 15. Social inequality studies Roberts – The children of unskilled workers are 50% more likely to die in infancy than those of professionals. They are also 6 times less likely to go to university. Shaw - Inequalities in health care exist in Britain. There are fewer doctors in areas where people had the highest need for medical care. Poverty and poor health are closely linked. Holmes – As part of the socialisation process, boys and girls are channelled into doing different kind of things i.e. boys are seen as tough and talk about cars, girls are seen as more delicate and talk about clothes or cooking. Li – Women has worse pay levels than men of similar ages and educational levels and had worse chances of getting managerial jobs. Li – All ethnic minority groups had a much worse chance of accessing employment than their white peers. Social Trends – in 2001, the wealthiest 1% owned 33% of the wealth, up from 29% in 1991. The most wealthy 50% owned 97% of all the wealth in 2001, up again from 93% in 1991. Goldthorpe – Found in 1972-74 there was social mobility and working class kids could end up in middle class jobs, they were less likely to do so than middle class kids.
  16. 16. Crompton – Found that by 2008, social mobility is in serious decline and there is little movement between the classes now. Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey (PSE) – 26% of British population were living in poverty, that is unable to afford two or more necessities. Millar – Two groups with the highest risk and the longest durations of poverty comprise females: lone mothers and older women living alone. Murray – Welfare benefits encourage crime, single parenthood and unemployment and takes away the incentive to work from people. Burchardt – Social exclusion means being unable to participate in key activities in society: consumption, production, political engagement and social interaction.
  17. 17. How to answer 4 mark questions The pattern of these questions is: Explain what sociologists mean by……….. EG “Explain what sociologists mean by labelling.” Sometimes the question may add when studying…… EG “Explain what sociologists mean by conformity when studying education.” The marks are allocated as follows: 1 mark for basic statements about the question with little or no reference to the topic that the question’s set on. 2-3 marks for a partial or under-developed sociological explanation, possibly via an example, in which some general reference will be made to the topic that the question is set on. 4 marks for a clear explanation focused on the topic that the question is set on that uses examples from specifically relevant areas of sociology How to start your answer: In the context of (insert name of topic), (keyword) means……… Example: Family section: Explain what sociologists mean by patriarchy. (4 marks) DEFINITIONIN CONTEXT In the context of the family, patriarchy means EXAMPLE For example…. EXPLAIN THE PROCESS This happens because…
  18. 18. Crime and Deviance 4 mark questions. Explain what sociologists mean by institutional racism. (4 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Explain what sociologists mean by social exclusion. (4 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Explain what sociologists mean by the poverty trap. (4 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Explain what sociologists mean by the glass ceiling. (4 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
  19. 19. How to answer 5 Mark questions DON’T FORGET: underline / highlight the key words in the question and then use them in your answer. EG: Describe one way in which gender roles in the family have changed in the past 50 years and explain why this change has happened. DESCRIBE one way in which gender roles in the family have changed in the past 50 years is NEW PARAGRAPH EXPLAIN this change has happened because Mark scheme: Describe one: 2 marks 1 mark for a partial description. 2 marks for an appropriate and more developed description Explain: 3 marks 1-2 marks for a simple explanation linked to the description. 3 marks for a clear explanation explicitly related to the description AND relevant sociological theory / concepts.
  20. 20. Describe one way in which governments have attempted to end gender discrimination in the workplace and explain why this policy might not have been successful. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one reason why people find themselves in poverty and explain why it might be difficult for them to get out of this situation. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one way in which some minority ethnic groups have fewer life chances than others and explain why this appears to continue over time. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one reason why some sociologists use relative definitions of poverty and explain why some politicians might prefer to use absolute definitions. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
  21. 21. Describe one way in which the status of the elderly may be lower than that of other age groups in society and explain how this may lead to discrimination against them. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one consequence of child poverty and explain why the problem of child poverty continues to exist. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one way in which governments have attempted to increase upward social mobility and explain why this may not have been successful. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Describe one possible cause of social exclusion and explain why people often find it hard to escape from this situation. (5 marks) ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
  22. 22. PEELing apart your essay For your question, identify at least three points – there must be at least ONE in each column. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Introductions Use the question at the beginning of your introduction for example;  How far Sociologists would agree that marriage in Britain today is important is debateable because Or  How far sociologists would agree that the type of school a child attends has a significant effect on his or her life chances is debatable because Use the introduction to break down what the question is asking you;  Define any key terms it mentions – EG “life chances”  Is there a theory it is talking about – EG Marxism / Functionalism / New Right  If statistics are involved, what is the key trend or pattern in this area? – EG Rising / Falling / Steady / High / low Now PEEL the question apart You need to do the following for EACH of your 4 points Use the words from the question as a starter to your first sentence Pointless picture of a banana (teacher joke)
  23. 23. POINT theory or concept EXPLAIN what do sociologists think about this? EXAMPLE evidence from stats or a relevant example from real life LINK to the question and next paragraph Conclusion starters Your conclusion should address the essay question directly (weigh up all the evidence/theories) and answer the ‘How far.’ part. E.g  To a large/a small / some extent sociologists agree because...  To sum up it would appear that many/some sociologists agree/disagree…  In conclusion it would seem that most/few sociologists agree/disagree…  Mention any statistics that support your conclusion
  24. 24. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that modern Britain is a meritocratic society. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that inequality based on ethnicity is a more significant cause of social division than social class in modern Britain. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Mark Knowledge and understanding “How far” (Evaluation) Sociological terms Spelling / punctuation 1-3 Basic statements with little sociology no response very limited range poor 4-6 Some understanding of relevant sociology no response limited range used appropriately. some accuracy. 7-9 More developed understanding of relevant sociology recognises ‘how far’. A good range used effectively. reasonable accuracy. 10-12 Clear understanding understanding of relevant sociology Explicitly and in detail addresses ‘how far’ a wide range used very effectively. considerable accuracy Use the mark scheme to assess how well you’re doing…
  25. 25. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that gender discrimination in the workplace remains an issue in Britain today. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that Britain is now a classless society. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that unemployment is the most significant cause of poverty in Britain today. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that ethnic inequality is the most important cause of social division in modern Britain. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree
  26. 26. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a person’s ethnicity is the most important factor affecting his or her life chances. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that children born into poverty will grow up to be poor throughout their lives. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that improving access to high-quality education is the most effective way to increase upward social mobility. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the growth of an underclass has led to an increasing number of social problems in Britain today. Sociologists WOULD agree Sociologists WOULD NOT agree
  27. 27. Key terms associated with social inequality R I N E S P O C I E T Y T H E R E I S S P A N E G U N O X E Q U A C L D I S T N R T O R U A D B U W R T I O H N O F R E O E S R V O U R C N E E A S R I E S U L T I L I D A E N G I N P E R M E L O P L E B T A E I E T R N M G U N E G Q D U A L T O A T O N E P I T E A E N O T H S E R Q U Q V I R U T S R F Y Y O I R B W U V G B R I I V Q S A P T I I T S K V D I P W E B E R R E C P T O I I V C R C Q H S P T S T J J P D L H S V M W F A A A A F B O P Q O T H E E A S E E H D I E T T P P G R O W J X C D P S T R R S L N E N I I Z I T X Q C C M F R S F A T O L E Q X E O O N T P L P C X O I U A F Y V U Q S S C B N N D A O N O F E V S M L C E M U Y T I L I B O M L F C I L A J S E E C Y A W W J C U B V D V I X M C T V E W B P I L W E F Q A S L B R Q S X Y I I N C O M E I H A F X F O I I Q Z Q M C O F V A Q X P T F L K V I S F O Z R P X I N T J V Y W J Y E T G K R R R R N O C C U G D T M H R I O Y H I Y L N U L M E H I H T Y M T P S K R J H G I W T H F D L R A V J R Y AGE BENEFITS CAPITALISM CHILDSUPPORT CLASS CYCLEOFDEPRIVATION DEPRIVATION DURKHIEM EXCLUSION GENDER __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ____ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ INCOME INEQUALITY MARX MERITOCRACY MOBILITY POVERTY POVERTYTRAP POWER RELATIVEDEPRIVATION STRATIFICATION WEALTH WEBER WELFARESTATE

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